Pieter Philip van Bosse
Mr. Pieter Philip van Bosse was a Dutch liberal politician. Serving as minister of Finance in six cabinets throughout the middle of the 19th century and he led a cabinet himself as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 4 June 1868 to 4 January 1871. Pieter Philip van Bosse was born in Amsterdam, to an insurance broker, three of his siblings died at a young age, and his father died when he was eleven years old, after which his mother successfully took over the brokerage firm. He attended the Athenaeum Illustre of Amsterdam, and studied Roman, after his graduation, Van Bosse settled in Weesp as a manufacturer before returning to Amsterdam to work as a lawyer. In 1845, he was appointed referendary of the import and export rights department of the Ministry of Finance, on 3 June 1848, Van Bosse was appointed Minister of Finance. At the time, most of the revenue came from excises, and Van Bosses attempts to introduce a limited income tax. Under the premiership of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke, Van Bosse introduced reforms that liberalised the economy, a strong supporter of free trade, he procured the right of transit and discontinued levy on shipping rights on the Rhine and the IJssel.
He reformed the coinage by introducing the standard and a simpler system of nickels, quarters. Moreover, he reformed the system, establishing a government monopoly of postal service. Van Bosses first ministership came to an end in 1853 with the fall of Thorbeckes cabinet, Van Bosse was elected to the House of Representatives for the constituency of Rotterdam on 14 June 1853, and was re-elected in 1856. In his five years in opposition, he insisted on tax reform. Moreover, Van Bosse won a seat in the council of The Hague in 1857. He served another term as minister of Finance from 12 March 1858 to 22 February 1860 and this term was marked by the introduction of inheritance tax. In 1860, Van Bosse returned to the House of Representatives for Zutphen, on 3 June 1868, Van Bosse started another term as minister of Finance in a cabinet formed by Thorbecke as formateur. However, Thorbecke did not proceed to lead the cabinet, and Van Bosse himself headed the cabinet as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, as Prime Minister, Van Bosse executed a policy based on financial solidity.
The cabinet was responsible for the abolition of the death penalty, when several ministers in the cabinet resigned for different reasons in late 1870, Van Bosse was forced to resign as Prime Minister. On 4 January 1871, he was succeeded by Thorbecke, Van Bosse was given the honorary title of Minister of State in 1872. However, to his surprise, Van Bosse was appointed Minister of Colonial Affairs at the age of 68 and he ceased to be minister in 1872, but served another term as minister of Colonial Affairs from 1877
Johan Paul van Limburg Stirum
Johan Paul, Count of Limburg-Stirum was a Dutch diplomat, member of the House of Limburg-Stirum, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, Dutch emissary in Berlin and London. Johan Paul van Limburg Stirum was born on 2 February 1873 in Zwolle in the Netherlands and he made a rapid career as a diplomat of the Netherlands and was, among others, envoy in China and Sweden. Due to his knowledge of Asia, the government Cort van der Linden named him in 1916 Gouverneur General of the Dutch East Indies and he worked for a greater autonomy of the Dutch East Indies and for the economic development of the colony. He worked in terms with minister Idenburg, but had a difficult relationship with minister Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff. After his departure from the Dutch East Indies he was sent to Egypt, in 1925, he was sent to Berlin as Dutch emissary for Germany. He was an opponent of the nazi regime and refused to meet Hitler or any member of the NSDAP. From 1936 to his retirement in 1939 he was Dutch emissary in London and he died on 17 April 1948 in The Hague.
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Surinam (Dutch colony)
Surinam was a Dutch plantation colony in the Guianas, neighboured by the equally Dutch colony of Berbice to the west, and the French colony of Cayenne to the east. After the other Dutch colonies in the Guianas, i. e, as the term Dutch Guiana was used in the 17th and 18th to refer to all Dutch colonies in the Guianas, this use of the term can be confusing. The colonization of Surinam is marked by slavery, plantations relied on slave labour, mostly supplied by the Dutch West India Company from its trading posts in West Africa, to produce their crops. Sugar and indigo were the goods exported from the colony to the Netherlands until the early 18th century. The Amsterdam stock market crash of 1773 dealt a blow to the plantation economy. This abolition was taken over by the William I of the Netherlands, who signed a decree in this regard in June 1814. Many plantations went bankrupt as a consequence of the abolition of slave trade, without supply of slaves, many plantations were merged to increase efficiency.
Slavery was eventually abolished in 1863, although slaves were released after a ten-year transitory period in 1873. This spurred the immigration of indentured labourers from British India, after a treaty to that effect had been signed between the Netherlands and the United Kingdom in 1870. Apart from immigration from British India, Javanese workers from the Dutch East Indies were contracted to work on plantations in Surinam, at the same time, a largely unsuccessful attempt to colonize Surinam with impoverished farmers from the Netherlands was started as well. In the 20th century, the resources of Surinam, which include rubber, gold. In 1916, the U. S. aluminium company Alcoa began mining bauxite in on the banks of the Cottica River, in 1938, the company built an aluminium smelter in Paranam. Partly due to the importance of Surinamese aluminium for the war effort. In 1975, Suriname left the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become the independent country of Suriname, although the organization and administration was of the colony was limited to these three shareholders, all citizens of the Dutch Republic were free to trade with Suriname.
Also, the planters were consulted in a Council of Police, in November 1795, the Society was nationalized by the Batavian Republic. After the Batavian Republic took over in 1795, the Dutch government issued various government regulations for Suriname, in 1865, a new government regulation replaced the previous regulation of 1832, which theoretically gave Suriname some limited self-rule. The colonial elite was given the right to elect a Colonial Council which would co-govern the colony together with the Governor-General appointed by the Dutch crown. Among others, the Colonial Council was allowed to decide over the budget, which was subject to approval by the Dutch crown
The Anti-Revolutionary Party was a Protestant Christian-democratic political party in the Netherlands. The party was founded in 1879 by Abraham Kuyper, a theologian, in 1980 the party merged with the Catholic Peoples Party and the Christian Historical Union to form the Christian Democratic Appeal. The anti-revolutionary parliamentary caucus had existed since the 1840s and it represented orthodox tendencies within the Dutch Reformed Church. Their three values were God, the Netherlands, and the House of Orange, an important issue was public education, which in the view of the anti-revolutionaries should be Protestant-Christian in nature. During the 1860s Groen van Prinsterer became more isolated from his conservative allies and he began to reformulate his Protestant-Christian ideals, and began to plead for souvereiniteit in eigen kring instead of theocracy. This meant that instead of one Protestant-Christian society, Groen van Prinsterer wanted a Protestant society within a pluralistic society, orthodox Protestants would have their own churches, papers, political parties and sports clubs.
This laid the basis for pillarization, which was to dominate Dutch society between 1880 and 1960, in 1864 Groen van Prinsterer began to correspond with a young Dutch Reformed theologian named Abraham Kuyper. Kuyper was heavily influenced by Groen van Prinsterers ideas and began to put the ideal of an orthodox Protestant society within Dutch society into practice. On April 3,1879, Abraham Kuyper founded the ARP and it was the first nationally organized political party in the Netherlands. An 1878 petition for payment for religious schools became one of the catalysts for the foundation of the political movement. In 1877 Kuyper had already written Our Program in which the ideals of the ARP were written down. Around the ARP the separate Protestant society began to grow, many Protestant schools were founded, a Protestant university, in 1886 Kuyper broke free from the liberal Dutch Reformed Church to found the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands in 1892. The ARP had one practical political goal, equalization of payment between public and religious schools, in 1879 thirteen anti-revolutionaries were in the House of Representatives, although not all were members of the ARP.
During the period 1879-1883 their numbers grew slowly, peaking at 19, after the 1884 election they had 21 members parliament. In 1886 they won their first seat in the Senate, in the 1888 election the ARP won 31. 4% of the vote and 27 seats. A confessional cabinet was formed led by the anti-revolutionary Æneas Baron Mackay, it combined anti-revolutionary and Catholic ministers, because the liberals still controlled the Senate, many of the cabinets proposals met resistance there and the cabinet fell before the end of its four-year term. In the 1891 election the ARP lost 2% of its votes, the confessional parties lost their majority. A liberal cabinet, led by Van Tienhoven was formed and it proposed drastic changes to the census, which would result practically in universal male suffrage, proposed by minister Tak
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland. With a population of 520,704 inhabitants and more than one million including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city of the Netherlands. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government, the Supreme Court, and the Council of State, but the city is not the capital of the Netherlands, which constitutionally is Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands plans to live at Huis ten Bosch and works at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and numerous other major Dutch companies. The Hague originated around 1230, when Count Floris IV of Holland purchased land alongside a pond, in 1248, his son and successor William II, King of the Romans, decided to extend the residence to a palace, which would be called the Binnenhof.
He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished by his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal and it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onwards, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative centre, the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Haga in a charter dating from 1242. In the 15th century, the smarter des Graven hage came into use, literally The Counts Wood, with connotations like The Counts Hedge, s-Gravenhage was officially used for the city from the 17th century onwards. Today, this name is used in some official documents like birth. The city itself uses Den Haag in all its communication and their seat was located in The Hague. At the beginning of the Eighty Years War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, in 1575, the States of Holland even considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William of Orange.
From 1588, The Hague became the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic, in order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges normally granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, city rights have no place anymore, only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France, as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, when the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague quickly expanded. The growing city annexed the rural municipality of Loosduinen partly in 1903, the city sustained heavy damage during World War II
Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy
Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy was a Dutch politician of the Anti-Revolutionary Party. He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 3 September 1940 until 25 June 1945. On 5 April 1955, pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy was born on 13 April 1885 in the village of Goënga near Sneek, in the province of Friesland, in the Netherlands. He was an ethnic Frisian, and his name is styled in the traditional Frisian way, first name, incidentally, the name Gerbrandy is a patronymic, his great-great-grandfather Jouke Gerbrens took Gerbrandy as a family name on 30 December 1811. From 1920 to 1930, he was a member of the States of Friesland for the Anti-Revolutionaire Partij, against his partys advice he was Minister of Justice. The royal family and many leading politicians had fled to London in 1940, they formed a government in exile. On his initiative, the Dutch government started to broadcast from Radio Oranje and this station supplied the Dutch population with information from the free world whilst under the occupation of Nazi Germany.
Gerbrandy became a figure to Dutch citizens during the wartime period, as such he was awarded a medal of valour in 1950. In 1945, after the liberation of the south, he formed a new cabinet without socialists and he resigned after the total liberation. In 1950 his book, was published and this book explains most everything that happened from the 1600s to 1948, it includes The Indies under Netherlands Rule, The Rule of Law, The Japanese Occupation, and Chaos. Each section includes detailed observations that he has made, in 1948, he returned in the Dutch Parliament. However, because of his hot temper, he alienated himself from his party members, in 1956, he was member of a commission, which investigated the affair around Greet Hofmans. In 1959, he resigned as a member of Parliament, pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy died on 7 September 1961 in The Hague at the age of 76
Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies
The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies represented Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies between 1610 and Dutch recognition of the independence of Indonesia in 1949. The first Governors-General were appointed by the Dutch East India Company, after the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800, the territorial possessions of the VOC were nationalised under the Dutch Government as the Dutch East Indies, a colony of the Netherlands. Governors-General were now appointed by either the Dutch monarch or the Dutch government, during the Dutch East Indies era most Governors-General were expatriate Dutchmen, while during the earlier VOC era most Governors-General became settlers who stayed and died in the East Indies. Under the period of British control, the equivalent position was the Lieutenant-Governor, between 1942 and 1945, while Hubertus Johannes van Mook was the nominal Governor-General, the area was under Japanese control, and was governed by a two sequence of governors, in Java and Sumatra. After 1948 in negotiations for independence, the equivalent position was named High Commissioner of the Crown in the Dutch East Indies, since the VOC era, the highest Dutch authority in the colonial possessions of the East Indies resided with the Office of the Governor-General.
During the Dutch East Indies era the Governor-General functioned as chief executive, president of colonial government. A Governor-General represented the Dutch Empire and Monarch and was the most influential party in the colony, until 1815 the Governor-General had the absolute right to ban, censor or restrict any publication in the colony. The so-called Exorbitant powers of the Governor-General allowed him to exile anyone regarded as subversive and dangerous to peace and order, until 1848 the Governor-General was directly appointed by the Dutch monarch, and in years via the Crown on advice of the Dutch metropolitan cabinet. During two periods the Governor-General ruled jointly with a board called the Raad van Indie. Overall colonial policy and strategy were the responsibility of the Ministry of Colonies based in The Hague, often headed by a former Governor-General. From 1815 to 1848 the Ministry was under authority of the Dutch King. In 1922 the colony came on equal footing with the Netherlands in the Dutch constitution, during the tenure of Governors-General who were proponents of the Ethical policy a Peoples Council called the Volksraad for the Dutch East Indies was installed in 1918.
The Volksraad, an infant form of council, was limited to an advisory role. The Council comprised 30 indigenous members,25 European and 5 from Chinese and other populations, in 1925 the Volksraad was made a semilegislative body, and the Governor-General was expected to consult the Volksraad on major issues. List of Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies Media related to Governor-Generals of the Dutch East Indies at Wikimedia Commons