Linear B is a syllabic script, used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek. The script predates the Greek alphabet by several centuries; the oldest Mycenaean writing dates to about 1450 BC. It is descended from the older Linear A, an undeciphered earlier script used for writing the Minoan language, as is the Cypriot syllabary, which recorded Greek. Linear B, found in the palace archives at Knossos, Pylos and Mycenae, disappeared with the fall of Mycenaean civilization during the Late Bronze Age collapse; the succeeding period, known as the Greek Dark Ages, provides no evidence of the use of writing. It is the only one of the Bronze Age Aegean scripts to have been deciphered, by English architect and self-taught linguist Michael Ventris. Linear B consists of over 100 ideographic signs; these ideograms or "signifying" signs symbolize commodities. They are never used as word signs in writing a sentence; the application of Linear B appears to have been confined to administrative contexts.
In all the thousands of clay tablets, a small number of different "hands" have been detected: 45 in Pylos and 66 in Knossos. It is possible that the script was used only by a guild of professional scribes who served the central palaces. Once the palaces were destroyed, the script disappeared. Linear B has 200 signs, divided into syllabic signs with phonetic values and ideograms with semantic values; the representations and naming of these signs have been standardized by a series of international colloquia starting with the first in Paris in 1956. After the third meeting in 1961 at the Wingspread Conference Center in Racine, Wisconsin, a standard proposed by Emmett L. Bennett, Jr. became known as the Wingspread Convention, adopted by a new organization, the Comité International Permanent des Études Mycéniennes, affiliated in 1970 by the fifth colloquium with UNESCO. Colloquia continue: the 13th occurred in 2010 in Paris. Many of the signs are identical or similar to those in Linear A; the grid developed during decipherment by Michael Ventris and John Chadwick of phonetic values for syllabic signs is shown below.
Initial consonants are in the leftmost column. The transcription of the syllable is listed next to the sign along with Bennett's identifying number for the sign preceded by an asterisk. In cases where the transcription of the sign remains in doubt, Bennett's number serves to identify the sign; the signs on the tablets and sealings show considerable variation from each other and from the representations below. Discovery of the reasons for the variation and possible semantic differences is a topic of ongoing debate in Mycenaean studies. In addition to the grid, the first edition of Documents in Mycenaean Greek contained a number of other signs termed "homophones" because they appeared at that time to resemble the sounds of other syllables and were transcribed accordingly: pa2 and pa3 were presumed homophonous to pa. Many of these are shown in the "special values" below; the second edition relates: "It may be taken as axiomatic that there are no true homophones." The unconfirmed identifications of *34 and *35 as ai2 and ai3 were removed.
Pa2 became qa. Other values remain unknown because of scarcity of evidence concerning them. Note that *34 and *35 are mirror images of each other but whether this graphic relationship indicates a phonetic one remains unconfirmed. In recent times, CIPEM inherited the former authority of Bennett and the Wingspread Convention in deciding what signs are "confirmed" and how to represent the various sign categories. In editions of Mycenaean texts, the signs whose values have not been confirmed by CIPEM are always transcribed as numbers preceded by an asterisk. CIPEM allocates the numerical identifiers, until such allocation, new signs are transcribed as a bullet-point enclosed in square brackets:; the signs are approximations―each may be used to represent a variety of about 70 distinct combinations of sounds, within rules and conventions. The grid presents a system of monosyllabic signs of the type V/CV. Clarification of the 14 or so special values tested the limits of the grid model, but Chadwick in the end concluded that with the ramifications, the syllabic signs can unexceptionally be considered monosyllabic.
Possible exceptions, Chadwick goes on to explain, include the two diphthongs, and, as in, ai-ku-pi-ti-jo, for Aiguptios and, au-ke-wa, for Augewās. However, a diphthong is by definition two vowels united into a single sound and therefore might be typed as just V. Thus, as in, e-rai-wo, for elaiwon, is of the type CV. Diphthongs are otherwise treated as two monosyllables:, a-ro-u-ra, for arourans, of the types CV and V. Lengths of vowels and accents are not marked, and the more doubtful and may be regarded as beginning with labialized consonants, rather than two consonants though they may alternate with a two-sign form: o-da-twe-ta and o-da-tu-we-ta for Odatwenta. And begin with palatalized consonants rather than two consonants: -ti-ri-ja for -trja (-τρι
Alexis (given name)
Alexis is a given name derived from several saints venerated by the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, including Saint Alexis of Rome. Alexis means "to help, defend", it was used as a name for several members of the ruling house of Russia, including Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich. The name is internationally male, at the same time in the United States it has been a predominantly girls' name since at least the 1940s, when actress Alexis Smith began appearing in films, it has been among the top 50 most popular names for girls in the United States since 1990. In the 2008 book 5-Star Baby Name Advisor, author Bruce Lansky writes that the girls' name has the image of a "sexy and seductive knockout." The increase in popularity of the name is sometimes attributed to the notable character Alexis Colby from the American television series Dynasty. A 1978 film, Ice Castles, featured as the main character a blind figure skater named Alexis "Lexie" Winston.
Aleksi, a Finnish variant, was the third most popular name for boys born in Finland in 2007. Alessia, an Italian feminine variant, was the second most common name for girls born in Italy in 2006. Alesia, a feminine variant, Aleksio, a masculine variant, are popular names for boys and girls in Albania. Aleksi, Aleksis Aleix Aleixo, Alejo Алексей, Алексий, Алёша, Лёша Алекси, Aleksi ალექსი, Aleksi Aleks Aleksije, Aleksej Aleksy Aleš, Alessio Alexej Alexis, Αλέξιος, Αλέξης Alexius Elek Lex Олексій Aleja Alesia Alessia Alexa Alexia, Aléxia Alexina Alexis Lexa Lexia Lexi Lexie Lexis Lexus Lexy Олекса Alexis Alexiou, Greek footballer Alexis Alexopoulos, Greek sprinter Alexis Alexoudis, Greek footballer Alexis Argüello, Nicaraguan boxer and politician Alexis Arquette, American transgender actress and musician, of the Arquette acting family Alexis Simon Belle, French portrait artist Alexis Bledel, American actress Alexis Christoforous, WCBS-TV Wall Street reporter Alexis Denisof, actor Alexis de Tocqueville, French political thinker and historian Alexis Dziena, actress Alexis Galanos, Cypriot politician Alexis Gavrilopoulos, Greek footballer Alexis Georgoulis, Greek actor Alexis Giraud-Teulon, French academic and translator Alexis Jordan, Barbadian swimmer Alexis Jordan, American singer Alexis Kaufman, birth name of American professional wrestler Alexa Bliss Alexis Kochan, Ukrainian-Canadian musician and composer Alexis Korner, musician Alexis Laree, American professional wrestler Alexis Loizidis, Greek footballer Alexis Lykiard, British writer of Greek heritage Alexis Marshall, musician from Providence, Rhode Island.
Best known as the vocalist for Daughters. Alexis Matias, Puerto Rican volleyball player Alexis Méndez, Venezuelan track and road cyclist Alexis Minotis, Greek theater actor and director Alexis Ohanian, American internet entrepreneur and investor Alexis Panselinos, Greek novelist and translator Alexis Papahelas, Greek investigative journalist and newspaper editor Alexis Rios, Puerto Rican baseball player Alexis Rojas, Colombian road cyclist Alexei Romanov, various members of the Romanov family Alexis Ruano Delgado, Spanish footballer Alexis Rykov, Leader of the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1930 Alexis Sánchez, Chilean footballer who plays for Manchester United FC Alexis Skye, model Alexis Smith, actress Alexis Suárez Martín, Spanish footballer Alexis Texas, American porn actress Alexis Tipton, American voice actress Alexis Tsipras, Greek politician Alexis Valido, Spanish volleyball player Alexis Colby, a character played by Joan Collins on the 1980s prime time soap opera Dynasty Alexis Kerib, a character in the anime series SSSS.
Gridman Alexis Meade, a character played by Rebecca Romijn on the American television series Ugly Betty Alexis Castle, a character played by Molly Quinn on the American crime drama television series Castle Alexis Leonides, a Greek writer who features in Geoffrey Trease's novels The Hills of Varna and The Crown of Violet Alexis Rhodes, a main character in the anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, voiced by Priscilla Everett and Emlyn Morinelli McFarland Alexis Thi Dang, a character in the Transformers Unicron Trilogy, voiced by Tabitha St. Germain Alexis Zorbas, the protagonist of Zorba the Greek Alexis Rose, a character played by Annie Murphy on the Canadian sitcom Schitt's Creek Alexis, which includes people known by the mononym Alexis and people with the surname Alexis Lansky, Bruce. 5-Star Baby Name Advisor. Meadowbrook Press. ISBN 978-0-684-05784-2
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece, before the hypothesised Dorian invasion cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece. The language is preserved in inscriptions in Linear B, a script first attested on Crete before the 14th century. Most inscriptions are on clay tablets found in Knossos, in central Crete, as well as in Pylos, in the southwest of the Peloponnese. Other tablets have been found at Mycenae itself and Thebes and at Chania, in Western Crete; the language is named after one of the major centres of Mycenaean Greece. The tablets long remained undeciphered, many languages were suggested for them, until Michael Ventris deciphered the script in 1952; the texts on the tablets are lists and inventories. No prose narrative survives, much less poetry. Still, much may be glimpsed from these records about the people who produced them and about Mycenaean Greece, the period before the so-called Greek Dark Ages.
The Mycenaean language is preserved in Linear B writing, which consists of about 200 syllabic signs and logograms. Since Linear B was derived from Linear A, the script of an undeciphered Minoan language, the sounds of Mycenaean are not represented. In essence, a limited number of syllabic signs must represent a much greater number of produced syllables that would be better represented phonetically by the letters of an alphabet. Orthographic simplifications therefore had to be made: There is no disambiguation for the Greek categories of voice and aspiration except the dentals d, t:, e-ko may be either egō or ekhō. Any m or n, before a consonant, any syllable-final l, m, n, r, s are omitted. Pa-ta is panta. Consonant clusters must be dissolved orthographically, creating apparent vowels:, po-to-ri-ne is ptolin. R and l are not disambiguated:, qa-si-re-u is gʷasileus. Rough breathing is not indicated:, a-ni-ja is hāniai. Length of vowels is not marked; the consonant transcribed z represents *dy, initial *y, *ky, *gy. q- is a labio-velar kʷ or gʷ and in some names ghʷ:, qo-u-ko-ro is gʷoukoloi.
Initial s before a consonant is not written:, ta-to-mo is σταθμός stathmós "station, outpost"). Double consonants are not represented:, ko-no-so is Knōsos. In addition to the spelling rules, signs are not polyphonic, but sometimes are homophonic, which are not "true homophones" but are "overlapping values." Long words may omit final sign. Mycenaean preserves some archaic Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Greek features not present in Ancient Greek. One archaic feature is the set of labiovelar consonants, written ⟨q⟩, which split into /b, p, pʰ/, /d, t, tʰ/, or /g k kʰ/ in Ancient Greek, depending on the context and the dialect. Another set is the semivowels /j w/ and the glottal fricative /h/ between vowels. All were lost in standard Attic Greek, but /w/ was preserved in some Greek dialects and written as digamma ⟨ϝ⟩ or beta ⟨β⟩, it is unclear. It may have been a voiced or voiceless affricate /dz/ or /ts/, marked with asterisks in the table above, it derives from, some initial and was written as ζ in the Greek alphabet.
In Attic, it may have been pronounced in many cases. There were at least five vowels / a e i o u /, which could be both long; as noted above, the syllabic Linear B script used to record Mycenaean is defective and distinguishes only the semivowels ⟨j w⟩. Voiced and aspirate occlusives are all written with the same symbols except that ⟨d⟩ stands for /d/ and ⟨t⟩ for both /t/ and /tʰ/). Both /r/ and /l/ are written ⟨r⟩; the length of vowels and consonants is not notated. In most circumstances, the script is unable to notate a consonant not followed by a vowel. Either an extra vowel is inserted. Thus, determining the actual pronunciation of written words is difficult, using of a combination of the PIE etymology of a word, its form in Greek and variations in spelling is necessary. So, for some words the pronunciation is not known especially when the meaning is unclear from context, or the word has no descendants in the dialects. Nouns decline for 7 cases: nominative, accusative, vocative and locative.
The last two cases had merged with other cases by Classical Greek. In Modern Greek, only nominative, accusative and vocative remain as separate cases with their own morphological markings. Adjectives agree with nouns in case and number. Verbs conjugate for 3 tenses: past, future; the verbal augment is entirely absent from Mycenaean Greek with only one known exception, a-pe-do-ke, but that appears elsewhere without the augment, as, a-pu-do-ke. The augment is some
Etymology is the study of the history of words. By extension, the term "the etymology" means the origin of the particular word and for place names, there is a specific term, toponymy. For Greek—with a long written history—etymologists make use of texts, texts about the language, to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods and when they entered the language. Etymologists apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary. In this way, word roots have been found that can be traced all the way back to the origin of, for instance, the Indo-European language family. Though etymological research grew from the philological tradition, much current etymological research is done on language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian.
The word etymology derives from the Greek word ἐτυμολογία, itself from ἔτυμον, meaning "true sense", the suffix -logia, denoting "the study of". In linguistics, the term etymon refers to a word or morpheme from which a word derives. For example, the Latin word candidus, which means "white", is the etymon of English candid. Etymologists apply a number of methods to study the origins of words, some of which are: Philological research. Changes in the form and meaning of the word can be traced with the aid of older texts, if such are available. Making use of dialectological data; the form or meaning of the word might show variations between dialects, which may yield clues about its earlier history. The comparative method. By a systematic comparison of related languages, etymologists may be able to detect which words derive from their common ancestor language and which were instead borrowed from another language; the study of semantic change. Etymologists must make hypotheses about changes in the meaning of particular words.
Such hypotheses are tested against the general knowledge of semantic shifts. For example, the assumption of a particular change of meaning may be substantiated by showing that the same type of change has occurred in other languages as well. Etymological theory recognizes that words originate through a limited number of basic mechanisms, the most important of which are language change, borrowing. While the origin of newly emerged words is more or less transparent, it tends to become obscured through time due to sound change or semantic change. Due to sound change, it is not obvious that the English word set is related to the word sit, it is less obvious that bless is related to blood. Semantic change may occur. For example, the English word bead meant "prayer", it acquired its modern meaning through the practice of counting the recitation of prayers by using beads. English derives from Old English, a West Germanic variety, although its current vocabulary includes words from many languages; the Old English roots may be seen in the similarity of numbers in English and German seven/sieben, eight/acht, nine/neun, ten/zehn.
Pronouns are cognate: I/mine/me and ich/mein/mich. However, language change has eroded many grammatical elements, such as the noun case system, simplified in modern English, certain elements of vocabulary, some of which are borrowed from French. Although many of the words in the English lexicon come from Romance languages, most of the common words used in English are of Germanic origin; when the Normans conquered England in 1066, they brought their Norman language with them. During the Anglo-Norman period, which united insular and continental territories, the ruling class spoke Anglo-Norman, while the peasants spoke the vernacular English of the time. Anglo-Norman was the conduit for the introduction of French into England, aided by the circulation of Langue d'oïl literature from France; this led to many paired words of English origin. For example, beef is related, through borrowing, to modern French bœuf, veal to veau, pork to porc, poultry to poulet. All these words and English, refer to the meat rather than to the animal.
Words that refer to farm animals, on the other hand, tend to be cognates of words in other Germanic languages. For example, swine/Schwein, cow/Kuh, calf/Kalb, sheep/Schaf; the variant usage has been explained by the proposition that it was the Norman rulers who ate meat and the Anglo-Saxons who farmed the animals. This explanation has been disputed. English has proved accommodating to words from many languages. Scientific terminology, for example, relies on words of Latin and Greek origin, but there are a great many non-scientific examples. Spanish has contributed many words in the southwestern United States. Examples include buckaroo, rodeo and states' names such as Colorado and Florida. Albino, lingo and coconut from Portuguese. Modern French has contributed café, naive and many more. Smorgasbord, slalom
Alexander is a male given name, a less common surname. The most prominent bearer of the name is Alexander the Great, who created one of the largest empires in ancient history; the name Alexander is derived from the Greek "Ἀλέξανδρος", meaning "Defender of the people" or "Defending men" and "Protector of men", a compound of the verb ἀλέξειν aléxein, "to ward off, to avert, to defend" and the noun ἀνήρ anḗr, "man". It is an example of the widespread motif of Greek names expressing "battle-prowess", in this case the ability to withstand or push back an enemy battle line; the earliest attested form of the name is the Mycenaean Greek feminine anthroponym, a-re-ka-sa-da-ra, written in the Linear B syllabic script. The name was one of the titles given to the Greek goddess Hera and as such is taken to mean "one who comes to save warriors". In the Iliad, the character Paris is known as Alexander; the name's popularity was spread throughout the Greek world by the military conquests of King Alexander III known as "Alexander the Great".
Most Alexanders in various countries were directly or indirectly named after him. Alexander has been the name of many rulers, including kings of Macedon, of Scotland, emperors of Russia and popes. Alaksandu king of Wilusa who sealed a treaty with Hittite king Muwatalli II ca. 1280 BC. Alexander, more known as Paris of Troy Alexander of Corinth, 10th king of Corinth Alexander I of Macedon Alexander II of Macedon Alexander III of Macedon known as Alexander the Great Alexander IV of Macedon Alexander V of Macedon Alexander of Pherae despot of Pherae between 369 and 358 BC Alexander I of Epirus king of Epirus about 342 BC Alexander II of Epirus king of Epirus 272 BC Alexander, viceroy of Antigonus Gonatas and ruler of a rump state based on Corinth c. 250 BC Alexander Balas, ruler of the Seleucid kingdom of Syria between 150 and 146 BC Alexander Zabinas, ruler of part of the Seleucid kingdom of Syria based in Antioch between 128 and 123 BC Alexander Jannaeus king of Judea, 103–76 BC Alexander of Judaea, son of Aristobulus II, king of Judaea Alexander Severus, Roman emperor Julius Alexander, lived in the 2nd century, an Emesene nobleman Domitius Alexander, Roman usurper who declared himself emperor in 308 Alexander, Byzantine Emperor Alexander I of Scotland Alexander II of Scotland Alexander Nevsky, Prince of Novgorod and Grand Prince of Vladimir Alexander III of Scotland Alexander I of Georgia Alexander II of Georgia Aleksander, Prince of Podolia Alexandru I Aldea, ruler of the principality of Wallachia Eskender, Emperor of Ethiopia Alexander Jagiellon, King of Poland Alexandru Lăpuşneanu, Voivode of Moldavia Alexander I of Russia, emperor of Russia Alexander II of Russia, emperor of Russia Alexander III of Russia, emperor of Russia Alexander Karađorđević, Prince of Serbia Alexander of Bulgaria, first prince of Bulgaria Alexandru Ioan Cuza, prince of Romania Alexander I Obrenović of Serbia, king of Serbia Alexander, Prince of Lippe, prince of Lippe Alexander I of Yugoslavia, first king of Yugoslavia Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia, head of the Yugoslav Royal Family Zog I known as Skenderbeg III, king of Albanians Alexander of Greece, king of Greece Leka, Crown Prince of Albania, king of Albanians Willem-Alexander, King of the Netherlands, eldest child of Queen Beatrix and Prince Claus Alexander, Judean Prince, one of the sons of Herod the Great from his wife Mariamne Alexander, Judean Prince, son to the above Alexander and Cappadocian Princess Glaphyra Alexander, son of Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman Prince Alexander John of Wales, short-lived son of Edward VII Prince Alexandre of Belgium Prince Alexander of Sweden, son of Prince Carl PhilipSeveral other princes have borne the name Alexander: George V of Hanover Prince Alfred of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince George, Duke of Kent Olav V of Norway Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Prince George of Cambridge Pope Alexander I Alexander of Apamea, 5th-century bishop of Apamea Pope Alexander II Pope Alexander III Pope Alexander IV Pope Alexander V Pope Alexander VI, Roman pope Pope Alexander VII Pope Alexander VIII Alexander of Constantinople, bishop of Constantinople St. Alexander of Alexandria, Coptic Pope, Patriarch of Alexandria between 313 and 328 Pope Alexander II of Alexandria, Coptic Pope Alexander of Lincoln, bishop of Lincoln Alexander of Jerusalem See Saint Alexander, various saints with this name Alexander, the name of a number of artists of ancient Greece and Rome Alexander, 3rd-century BC general, commanded the cavalry under Antigonus III Doson Alexander of Athens, Athenian comic poet Alexander Lyncestes, contemporary of Alexander the Great Alexander Aetolus and member of the Alexandrian Pleiad Alexander, son of Lysimachus, 3rd-century BC Macedonian royal Alexander, Aetolian general conquered Aegira in 220 BC Alexander, son of Polyperchon, the regent of Macedonia Alexander Isius, 2nd-century military commander of the Aetolians Alexander of Acarnania, confidante of Antiochus III the Great Alexander Lychnus, early 1st-century BC poet
Femininity is a set of attributes and roles associated with girls and women. Femininity is constructed, but made up of both socially-defined and biologically-created factors; this makes it distinct from the definition of the biological female sex, as both males and females can exhibit feminine traits. Traits traditionally cited as feminine include gentleness and sensitivity, though traits associated with femininity vary depending on location and context, are influenced by a variety of social and cultural factors. Tara Williams has suggested that modern notions of femininity in English speaking society began during the English medieval period at the time of the bubonic plague in the 1300s. Women in the Early Middle Ages were referred to within their traditional roles of maiden, wife, or widow. After the Black Death in England wiped out half the population, traditional gender roles of wife and mother changed, opportunities opened up for women in society. Prudence Allen has traced; the words femininity and womanhood are first recorded in Chaucer around 1380.
In 1949, French intellectual Simone de Beauvoir wrote that "no biological, psychological or economic fate determines the figure that the human female presents in society" and "one is not born, but rather becomes, a woman," an idea, picked up in 1959 by Canadian-American sociologist Erving Goffman and in 1990 by American philosopher Judith Butler, who theorized that gender is not fixed or inherent but is rather a defined set of practices and traits that have, over time, grown to become labelled as feminine or masculine. Goffman argued that women are socialized to present themselves as "precious and fragile, uninstructed in and ill-suited for anything requiring muscular exertion" and to project "shyness, reserve and a display of frailty and incompetence."Second-wave feminists, influenced by de Beauvoir, believed that although biological differences between females and males were innate, the concepts of femininity and masculinity had been culturally constructed, with traits such as passivity and tenderness assigned to women and aggression and intelligence assigned to men.
Girls, second-wave feminists said, were socialized with toys, games and school into conforming to feminine values and behaviours. In her significant 1963 book The Feminine Mystique, American feminist Betty Friedan wrote that the key to women's subjugation lay in the social construction of femininity as childlike and dependent, called for a "drastic reshaping of the cultural image of femininity." While the defining characteristics of femininity are not universally identical, some patterns exist: gentleness, sensitivity, sweetness, tolerance, nurturance and succorance are traits that have traditionally been cited as feminine. Femininity is sometimes linked with sexual appeal. Sexual passiveness, or sexual receptivity, is sometimes considered feminine while sexual assertiveness and sexual desire is sometimes considered masculine. People who exhibit a combination of both masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynous, feminist philosophers have argued that gender ambiguity may blur gender classification.
Modern conceptualizations of femininity rely not just upon social constructions, but upon the individualized choices made by women. Ann Oakley's sex/gender dichotomy has had a considerable influence on sociologists defining masculine and feminine behavior as regulated and reproduced in our society, as well as the power structures relating to the concepts. An ongoing debate with regards to sex and psychology concerns the extent to which gender identity and gender-specific behavior is due to socialization versus inborn factors. According to Diane F. Halpern, both factors play a role, but the relative importance of each must still be investigated; the nature versus nurture question, for example, is extensively debated and is continually revitalized by new research findings. Some hold that feminine identity is a'given' and a goal to be sought. In 1959, researchers such as John Money and Anke Erhardt proposed the prenatal hormone theory, their research argues that sexual organs bathe the embryo with hormones in the womb, resulting in the birth of an individual with a distinctively male or female brain.
This theory, has been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds and remains controversial. In 2005, scientific research investigating sex and psychology showed that gender expectations and stereotype threat affect behavior, a person's gender identity can develop as early as three years of age. Money argued that gender identity is formed during a child's first three years. Mary Vetterling-Braggin argues that all characteristics associated with femininity arose from early human sexual encounters which were male-forced and female-unwilling, because of male and female anatomical differences. Others, such as Carole Pateman, Ria Kloppenborg, Wouter J. Hanegraaff, argue that the definition of femininity is the result of how females must behave in order to maintain a patriarchal social system. In his 1998 book Masculinity and Femininity: the Taboo Dimension of National Cultures, Dutch psychologist and researcher Geert Hofstede wrote that only behaviors directly connected with procreation can speaking, be described as feminine or masculine, yet every society worldwide recognizes many additional behaviors as more suitable to females than males, vice versa.
He describes these as relativ
Hera is the goddess of women, marriage and childbirth in ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus. She is the daughter of the Titans Rhea. Hera rules over Mount Olympus as queen of the gods. A matronly figure, Hera served as both the patroness and protectress of married women, presiding over weddings and blessing marital unions. One of Hera's defining characteristics is her jealous and vengeful nature against Zeus' numerous lovers and illegitimate offspring, as well as the mortals who cross her. Hera is seen with the animals she considers sacred including the cow and the peacock. Portrayed as majestic and solemn enthroned, crowned with the polos, Hera may hold a pomegranate in her hand, emblem of fertile blood and death and a substitute for the narcotic capsule of the opium poppy. Scholar of Greek mythology Walter Burkert writes in Greek Religion, "Nevertheless, there are memories of an earlier aniconic representation, as a pillar in Argos and as a plank in Samos."Her Roman counterpart is Juno.
The name of Hera has several mutually exclusive etymologies. According to Plutarch, Hera was an anagram of aēr. So begins the section on Hera in Walter Burkert's Greek Religion. In a note, he records other scholars' arguments "for the meaning Mistress as a feminine to Heros, Master." John Chadwick, a decipherer of Linear B, remarks "her name may be connected with hērōs, ἥρως,'hero', but, no help, since it too is etymologically obscure." A. J. van Windekens, offers "young cow, heifer", consonant with Hera's common epithet βοῶπις. R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin, her name is attested in Mycenaean Greek written in the Linear B syllabic script as e-ra, appearing on tablets found in Pylos and Thebes. Hera may have been the first deity to whom the Greeks dedicated an enclosed roofed temple sanctuary, at Samos about 800 BCE, it was replaced by the Heraion of Samos, one of the largest of all Greek temples. There were many temples built on this site so evidence is somewhat confusing and archaeological dates are uncertain.
The temple created by the Rhoecus sculptors and architects was destroyed between 570–560 BCE. This was replaced by the Polycratean temple of 540–530 BCE. In one of these temples we see a forest of 155 columns. There is no evidence of tiles on this temple suggesting either the temple was never finished or that the temple was open to the sky. Earlier sanctuaries, whose dedication to Hera is less certain, were of the Mycenaean type called "house sanctuaries". Samos excavations have revealed votive offerings, many of them late 8th and 7th centuries BCE, which show that Hera at Samos was not a local Greek goddess of the Aegean: the museum there contains figures of gods and suppliants and other votive offerings from Armenia, Iran, Egypt, testimony to the reputation which this sanctuary of Hera enjoyed and to the large influx of pilgrims. Compared to this mighty goddess, who possessed the earliest temple at Olympia and two of the great fifth and sixth century temples of Paestum, the termagant of Homer and the myths is an "almost... comic figure", according to Burkert.
Though greatest and earliest free-standing temple to Hera was the Heraion of Samos, in the Greek mainland Hera was worshipped as "Argive Hera" at her sanctuary that stood between the former Mycenaean city-states of Argos and Mycenae, where the festivals in her honor called Heraia were celebrated. "The three cities I love best," the ox-eyed Queen of Heaven declares in the Iliad, book iv, "are Argos and Mycenae of the broad streets." There were temples to Hera in Olympia, Tiryns and the sacred island of Delos. In Magna Graecia, two Doric temples to Hera were constructed at Paestum, about 550 BCE and about 450 BCE. One of them, long called the Temple of Poseidon was identified in the 1950s as a second temple there of Hera. In Euboea, the festival of the Great Daedala, sacred to Hera, was celebrated on a sixty-year cycle. Hera's importance in the early archaic period is attested by the large building projects undertaken in her honor; the temples of Hera in the two main centers of her cult, the Heraion of Samos and the Heraion of Argos in the Argolis, were the earliest monumental Greek temples constructed, in the 8th century BCE.
According to Walter Burkert, both Hera and Demeter have many characteristic attributes of Pre-Greek Great Goddesses. According to Homeric Hymn III to Delian Apollo, Hera detained Eileithyia to prevent Leto from going into labor with Artemis and Apollo, since the father was Zeus; the other goddesses present at the birthing on Delos sent Iris to bring her. As she stepped upon the island, the divine birth began. In the myth of the birth of Heracles, it is Hera herself who sits at the door, delaying the birth of Heracles until her protégé, had been born first; the Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo makes the monster Typhaon the offspring of archaic Hera in her Minoan form, produced out of herself, like a monstrous version of Hephaestus, whelped in a cave in Cilicia. She gave the creature to Python to raise. In the Temple of Hera, Hera's seated cult figure was older than the warrior figure of Zeus that accompanied it. Homer expressed her relationship with Zeus delicately in the Iliad, in which she declares to Zeus, "I am