Upper Austria is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria. Its capital is Linz. Upper Austria borders on Germany and the Czech Republic, as well as on the other Austrian states of Lower Austria and Salzburg. With an area of 11,982 km2 and 1.437 million inhabitants, Upper Austria is the fourth-largest Austrian state by land area and the third-largest by population. For a long period of the Middle Ages, much of what would become Upper Austria constituted Traungau, a region of the Duchy of Bavaria, while the area around Steyr was part of the Duchy of Styria. In the mid 13th century it became known as the Principality above the Enns River, this name being first recorded in 1264. In 1490, the area was given a measure of independence within the Holy Roman Empire, with the status of a principality. By 1550, there was a Protestant majority. In 1564, Upper Austria, together with Lower Austria and the Bohemian territories, fell under Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. At the start of the 17th century, the counter-reformation was instituted under Emperor Rudolf II and his successor Matthias.
After a military campaign, the area was under the control of Bavaria for some years in the early 17th century. The Innviertel was ceded from the Electorate of Bavaria to Upper Austria in the Treaty of Teschen in 1779. During the Napoleonic Wars, Upper Austria was occupied by the French army on more than one occasion. In 1918, after the collapse of Austria-Hungary, the name Oberösterreich was used to describe the province of the new Austria. After Austria was annexed by Adolf Hitler, the Nazi dictator, born in the Upper Austrian town of Braunau am Inn and raised in Upper Austria, Upper Austria became Reichsgau Oberdonau, although this included the southern part of the Sudetenland, annexed from Czechoslovakia, a small part of Styria. In 1945, Upper Austria was partitioned between the American zone to the south and the Soviet zone to the north. Today, Upper Austria is Austria's leading industrial region; as of 2009, it accounted for a quarter of the country's exports. Upper Austria is traditionally divided into four regions: Hausruckviertel, Innviertel, Mühlviertel, Traunviertel.
Administratively, the state is divided into 15 districts, three Statutarstädte and 442 municipalities. Linz Steyr Wels Braunau am Inn Eferding Freistadt Gmunden Grieskirchen Kirchdorf an der Krems Linz-Land Perg Ried im Innkreis Rohrbach Schärding Steyr-Land Urfahr-Umgebung Vöcklabruck Wels-Land Austro-Bavarian language Linz Gosauseen Upper Austria official website
West Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to by historians as the Bonn Republic, was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc during the Cold War. It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in 1949 after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France, its capital was the city of Bonn. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Eastern blocs. Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin; the Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the 1871–1945 German Empire. It took the line. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not fair. From the West German perspective, the GDR was therefore illegitimate.
Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state. While not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council, West Berlin politically-aligned itself with West Germany and was represented in its federal institutions; the foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the Wirtschaftswunder of the 1950s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third-largest economy. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with NATO rather than neutrality, he not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.
Following the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990, its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land. They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany; the reunion did not result in a brand-new country. The expanded Federal Republic retained West Germany's political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like UN, NATO, OECD and the European Union; the official name of West Germany, adopted in 1949 and unchanged since is Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In East Germany, the terms Westdeutschland or westdeutsche Bundesrepublik were preferred during the 1950s and 1960s.
This changed once under its 1968 constitution, when the idea of a single German nation was abandoned by East Germany, as a result West Germans and West Berliners were considered foreigners. In the early 1970s, starting in the East German Neues Deutschland, the initialism "BRD" for the "Federal Republic of Germany" began to prevail in East German usage. In 1973, official East German sources adopted it as a standard expression and other Eastern Bloc nations soon followed suit. In reaction to this move, in 1965 the West German Federal Minister of All-German Affairs Erich Mende issued the Directives for the appellation of Germany, recommending avoiding the initialism. On 31 May 1974, the heads of West German federal and state governments recommended always using the full name in official publications. From on West German sources avoided the abbreviated form, with the exception of left-leaning organizations which embraced it. In November 1979 the federal government informed the Bundestag that the West German public broadcasters ARD and ZDF had agreed to refuse to use the initialism.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code of West Germany was "DE", which has remained the country code of Germany after reunification. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 are the most used country codes, the "DE" code is notably used as country identifier extending the postal code and as the Internet's country code top-level domain.de. Accordingly the less used ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country code of West Germany was "DEU", which has remained the country code of reunified Germany; the now deleted codes for East Germany, on the other hand, was "DD" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 and "DDR" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-3. The colloquial term "West Germany" or its equivalent was used in many languages. "Westdeutschland" was a widespread colloquial form used in German-speaking countries without political overtones. On 4–11 February 1945 leaders from the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union held the Yalta Conference where future arrangements as regards post-war Europe and strategy against Japan in the Pacific were negotiated.
The conference agreed that post-war Germany would be divided into four occupation zones: a French Zone in the far west.
Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel
Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel was the consort of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and the matriarch of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, which would become the ruling house of the kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, barring unforeseen circumstances, the United Kingdom. Louise Caroline was born at Gottorp in the Duchy of Schleswig to Landgrave Charles of Hesse-Kassel and his wife Princess Louise of Denmark, her elder sister Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel became Queen consort of Frederick VI of Denmark. Friedrich Wilhelm and Louise Caroline married in 1810; the couple had ten children: Princess Luise Marie Friederike of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Princess Friederike Karoline Juliane of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Karl, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Prince Wilhelm of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck.
Princess Luise, Abbess of Itzehoe. Prince Julius of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Prince Johann of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Prince Nikolaus of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Louise Caroline's son, Prince Christian, was named third-in-line to the throne of Christian VIII of Denmark in 1847, he succeeded his childless cousin, Frederick VII of Denmark, on 15 November 1863, the Hereditary Prince Ferdinand having deceased somewhat earlier. Her grandchildren included King Frederick VIII of Denmark, Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom, Empress Marie Feodorovna of All the Russias, King George I of the Hellenes and Crown Princess Thyra of Hanover. At the time of her death, she was the last surviving grandchild of Frederick V of Denmark. 28 September 1789 – 26 January 1810: Her Serene Highness Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel 26 January 1810 – 25 March 1816: Her Serene Highness The Hereditary Princess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck 25 March 1816 – 6 July 1825: Her Serene Highness The Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck 6 July 1825 – 17 February 1831: Her Serene Highness The Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 17 February 1831 – 13 March 1867: Her Serene Highness The Dowager Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Princess of Leiningen
This is a list of the ladies who have held the rank of princess consort as the wife of a Prince of Leiningen
Frederick VIII, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein
Duke Frederick VIII was the German pretender to the throne of Schleswig-Holstein from 1863, although in reality Prussia took overlordship and real administrative power. He was the eldest son of Christian August II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg and Countess Louise Sophie of Danneskiold-Samsøe, he was ethnically the most Danish Prince of the Danish Royal dynasty in his generation. His family belonged to the House of Oldenburg, the royal house that included all the medieval Scandinavian royal dynasties among its distant forebears - which it shared with his rivals and relatives, other claimants to the Danish throne. Both lines claim descent from the medieval Danish House of Estridsen via Christian I of Denmark's ancestress Richeza of Denmark, Lady of Werle, the daughter of Eric V of Denmark, but Frederick descended from Eric V's son Christopher II of Denmark whom no heir or monarch of Denmark had been descended from since Christopher III of Denmark. Frederik's paternal grandfather happened to have both grandfathers who were "Royal" dukes from the Oldenburg dynasty.
Frederick differed from his rivals in his specific ancestry among the contemporary Danish high nobility. His mother was from an ancient Danish family, his paternal grandmother Louise Auguste of Denmark was its royal princess, his paternal grandfather Frederik Christian II, Duke of Augustenborg numbered two ladies of Danish high nobility as his grandmothers, one Danish Countess as paternal great-grandmother. Frederick's family had high hopes that in the then-rising era of nationalism, this ancestry would be viewed with favour when the legal question over whose claim was strongest would be decided; the family groomed Frederick to become a King of Denmark. Frederick, despite his more ethnically Danish ancestry was to become a symbol of German nationalism. Insider circles of Danish Royal government, for various reasons, were not favourable to the Augustenburgs. Instead, the Princess of Hesse and Prince of Glucksburg, closer relatives of the royal family's core, were preferred. Prince Frederick's father became a protagonist in the 1848-51 First Schleswig War, to the hostility of Danish nationalists.
Prince Frederick's inherited claims were strongest to the wholly German-speaking Duchy of Holstein, while his rights as the heir-male of the House of Oldenburg proved too difficult to pursue, Holstein, an Holy Roman Empire fief, had the Salic Law as a leading principle in its fundamental succession law. Schleswig and Denmark, much more Scandinavian in legal history, had legal precedents for elective and female succession. Frederick and his father, however Danish they were, realised this and leant towards German interests. Young Frederick's father found himself in an untenable position after the collapse of Prussian support and defeat of his own government at the end of the First Schleswig War in 1851, he renounced his claims as first in line to inherit the twin duchies in favour of the king of Denmark and his successors on March 31, 1852 in return for a financial compensation. The ducal family was banished. Frederick now became the symbol of the nationalist German independence movement in Schleswig-Holstein.
The renunciation was a hurdle, explained away by the Augustenburg dynasty and the German nationalists as not having any effect on Frederick, who had not renounced anything and on whose behalf no one, including the father, was empowered to make renunciations. Frederick's marriage in 1856 was part of an appeal to German nationalism. In November 1863 Frederick claimed the twin-duchies in succession after the death without a male heir of King Frederick VII of Denmark, the Duke of Schleswig and Holstein; as Holstein was inherited after the salic law among descendants of Helwig of Schauenburg, the independence movement had long nourished hopes that the king's death would lead to their goal. The Kingdom of Denmark was under so-called Semi-Salic Law, but its male line ended with Frederick VII and Danish law contained a Semi-Salic provision which resulted in the election of Christian of Glücksburg as new monarch. German nationalists claimed that Schleswig was inherited according to the unmodified Salic Law, but this claim was refused by Danish nationalists, arguing that this province was subject to Danish law.
Otto von Bismarck used the turbulence to invade the duchies in a Second War of Schleswig. The rule of Denmark in the duchies was terminated, Frederick triumphantly entered Kiel, where he was eagerly welcomed. However, numerous political complications arose which prevented the formal reinstatement of the dynasty. By the terms of the Treaty of Vienna, the duchies were relinquished to Prussia and Austria, to be disposed of by them. Prussia, was not inclined to permit the creation of a new German state, imposed conditions upon Frederick which made it impossible for him to assume the government. After the Peace of Prague, which terminated the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the lands were absorbed into the Kingdom of Prussia. Frederick subsequently served on the staff of the Crown Prince, Frederick William of Prussia, during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71. Frederick and his heirs continued to use their title, which after the next generation passed to the Glucksburg branch, to heirs of an elder brother of Christian IX of Denmark.
On September 11, 1856 Frederick married Princess Adelhe
Amorbach is a town in the Miltenberg district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia in Bavaria, with some 4,000 inhabitants. It is situated in the northeastern part of the Odenwald; the town began as a Benedictine monastery, which bit by bit grew into a settlement until in 1253 it was raised to the status of a town. Over the years, the town changed hands several times, it was part of the Bishopric of Würzburg until 1656, when it became part of the Archbishopric of Mainz. As a result of the 1803 German Mediatisation the Archbishopric of Mainz was secularized, Amorbach became the residence town of the short-lived Principality of Leiningen. Only in 1816 did it become part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1965, Amorbach attained the status of climatic spa; the following settlements have been amalgamated with the town: 1 April 1973: Boxbrunn 1 January 1975: Beuchen 1 January 1976: Neudorf 1 January 1976: Reichartshausen Today Amorbach relies on the tourist business with its state recognition as an climatic spa and its many Baroque buildings.
Amorbach is the family seat of the princely Haus zu Leiningen. In 1992, the town was awarded the Europa Nostra Medal; the Benedictine abbey owned by the princely Haus zu Leiningen with its library, the abbey church with its Stumm organ draw thousands of visitors each year. The late-Baroque hall church St. Gangolf replaced an earlier one, St. Gangolf and St. Sebastian, documented for 1182, it was built in 1751-3 by local Oberamtmann Johann Franz Wolfgang Damian von Ostein and his brother and Archbishop, Johann Friedrich Karl von Ostein. The design was based on plans by Anselm Franz von Ritter zu Groenesteyn, building work was supervised by his apprentice Alexander Jakob Schmidt; the design was inspired by St. Peter's Church at Mainz; the interior reflects the onset of the Neoclassical style. Ceiling frescoes by Johannes Zick show the lives of St. Gangolf and Saint Sebastian as well as King David as the "father" of Solomon's Temple. Oil paintings in the choir by Konrad Huber depict the legendary beginnings of Amorbach.
The marble high altar was made by Georg Schrantz. The cross by J. B. Berg dates from 1808; the side altars were used in the predecessor building. The organ dates from 1720, but was located at Neustadt am Main Abbey until 1806, when it was bought by the Amorbach parish; the church has two pulpits, made from stucco by Antonio Rossi. St. Gangolf is the Catholic parish church of Amorbach; the Sammlung Berger mit Teekannenmuseum is a museum of art and teapots. Besides impressive exhibits of modern art by Arman, Michael Buthe, Christo, Keith Haring, Otto Reichart, Rebecca Horn, Yves Klein, Roy Lichtenstein, Nam June Paik, Niki de Saint-Phalle, H. A. Schult, Daniel Spoerri, Ben Vautier, Dick Higgins and others, the museum shows a teapot collection of 2,467 teapots from throughout the world and 500 miniature teapots; the tithe barn in Amorbach, built in 1488, has for five hundred years played a central role in the town. Built to store tithes in the form of produce for the prince, it was – after extensive remodelling in the 1960s – run as a cinema.
The Kulturkreis Zehntscheuer Amorbach e. V. which outfitted the building in 1991 as a cabaret theatre maintains and renovates the building, which stands in the historical town centre. In 2001, this club bought the tithe barn. Amorbach Abbey Concerts in the former Benedictine abbey church Cabaret programme at the cabaret theatre Zehntscheuer Amorbach Daily at 12:00 and 15:00, the Stumm organ with its 5,116 pipes is played Each year on Mother’s Day, the so-called Gangolfsritt, a procession of horses through the town, takes place. In Amorbach, Bundesstraße 469 meets Bundesstraße 47; the railway station lies on the Seckach−Miltenberg railway line known as the Madonnenlandbahn. Karl-Ernst-Gymnasium Amorbach Theresia-Gerhardinger-Realschule. Johann Amerbach and publisher in printing’s early days. Princess Feodora of Leiningen. Franz Joseph von Stein, Bishop of Würzburg and Archbishop of Munich and Freising. Oskar Martin-Amorbach and professor in Munich and Berlin. Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Norbert Schmitt “Amorbacher Familienbuch 1618-1913, mit Angaben über die Familien von Amorbach, Beuchen.