Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He had served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, prior to that as both a U. S. representative and senator from California. Nixon was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law, he and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40.
He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race, he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.
In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U. S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days at the age of 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith.
Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler, Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. At the age of twelve, a spot was found on Richard's lung, with a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class.
His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. He played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games, he had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon stated. At the start of his junior year beginning in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier High, Nixon suffered his first electoral defeat, for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market.
He drove to the store to wash and display them, befo
Croesus and Fate
"Croesus and Fate" is a short story by Leo Tolstoy, a retelling of a Greek legend, classically told by Herodotus, Plutarch, about the king Croesus. It was first published in 1886 by Tolstoy's publishing company The Intermediary. Tolstoy's version is shorter than that by Herodotus, Tolstoy's characterization of Croesus was designed to parallel the title character in his 1886 novella The Death of Ivan Ilych. Croesus is a rich king in ancient Lydia, quite enamored with his own wealth; when the wise man Solon comes to visit his kingdom, Croesus asks Solon if he had seen greater opulence than his own. Solon replies. Croesus disagrees, he tries to impress Solon with a list of vanquished foes and claimed territories. Solon still disagrees, telling Croesus that the happiest man he had met was a peasant in Athens, he explains that the peasant worked hard, raised a family, was content with what he had. Croesus takes this as Solon leaves. Soon after Solon's departure, tragedy befalls Croesus, his oldest son is killed in a hunting accident, Emperor Cyrus invades.
Cyrus' army is triumphant, Croesus' kingdom is ravaged and Croesus himself is captured and ordered to be executed. As Croesus is about to be burned on a pyre, he cries out Solon's name. Cyrus stops the pyre to hear. Croesus relates Solon's story to Cyrus, Cyrus is moved by the notion that Fate can bring misery to a rich man and happiness to a poor man. Croesus is freed and the emperor and the king become good friends; this is the report passed down by Greek historian Herodotus. What Croesus didn't know was that Cyrus was a kind liberator. So when he saw the pyre on fire, Cyrus ordered it to be doused and told Croesus that he was still king in Lydia and that he could keep all his riches because Cyrus would never want such a burden. Black's Readers Service Company; the Works of Tolstoi. Roslyn, New York. 1928. Medzhibovskaya, Inessa. Tolstoy and the Religious Culture of His Time: A Biography of a Long Conversion, 1845-1887. Lexington Books. Lanham, MD, 2008. Taleb, Nassim N. Fooled by Randomness: The Hidden Role of Chance in Life and in the Markets.
New York: Random House and Penguin. 2001. ISBN 0-8129-7521-9
Leo Tolstoy bibliography
This is a list of works by Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, including his novels, short stories and non-fiction. Childhood Boyhood Youth War and Peace Anna Karenina Resurrection Family Happiness The Cossacks The Death of Ivan Ilyich The Kreutzer Sonata The Devil The Forged Coupon Hadji Murat The Power of Darkness The First Distiller The Light Shines in Darkness The Fruits of Enlightenment The Living Corpse The Cause of it All A Confession – Volume 1 of an untitled four-part work A Criticism of Dogmatic Theology – Volume 2 of an untitled four-part work The Gospel in Brief, or A Short Exposition of the Gospel The Four Gospel Unified and Translated – Volume 3 of an untitled four-part work Church and State What I Believe – Volume 4 of an untitled four-part work What Is to Be Done? On Life The Love of God and of One's Neighbour Supplementary essay for Timofei Bondarev's The Triumph of the Farmer or Industry and Parasitism Why Do Men Intoxicate Themselves? The First Step: on vegetarianism The Kingdom of God Is Within You Non-Activity The Meaning of Refusal of Military Service Reason and Religion Religion and Morality Christianity and Patriotism Non-Resistance: letter to Ernest H. Crospy How to Read the Gospels The Deception of the Church Letter to the Liberals Christian Teaching On Suicide The Slavery of Our Times Thou Shalt Not Kill Reply to the Holy Synod The Only Way On Religious Toleration What Is Religion and What is its Essence?
To the Orthodox Clergy Thoughts of Wise Men The Only Need The Grate Sin A Cycle of Reading Do Not Kill Love Each Other An Appeal to Youth The Law of Love and the Law of Violence The Only Command A Calendar of Wisdom The Works of Guy de Maupassant What Is Art? Art and Not Art Shakespeare and the Drama Meaningless aspirations I can't be silent Articles from Tolstoy's journal on education, "Yasnaya Polyana" A Primer On Popular Instruction A New Primer
"Father Sergius" is a short story written by Leo Tolstoy between 1890 and 1898 and first published in 1911. The story begins with the childhood and exceptional and accomplished youth of Prince Stepan Kasatsky; the young man is destined for great things. He discovers on the eve of his wedding that his fiancée Countess Mary Korotkova has had an affair with his beloved Tsar Nicholas I; the blow to his pride is massive, he retreats to the arms of Russian Orthodoxy and becomes a monk. Many years of humility and doubt follow, he is ordered to become a hermit. Despite his being removed from the world, he is still remembered for having so remarkably transformed his life. One winter night, a group of merry-makers decide to visit him, one of them, a divorced woman named Makovkina, spends the night in his cell, with the intention to seduce him. Father Sergius discovers he is still weak and in order to protect himself, cuts off his own finger. Makovkina is stunned by this act, leaves the next morning, having vowed to change her life.
A year she has joined a convent. Father Sergius' reputation for holiness grows, he becomes known as a healer, pilgrims come from far and wide. Yet Father Sergius is profoundly aware of his inability to attain a true faith, he is still tortured by boredom and lust. He fails a new test, when the young daughter of a merchant beds him; the morning after, he leaves the monastery and seeks out Pashenka, whom he, with a group of other boys, had tormented many years ago. He finds her, now in all the conventional senses a failure in life, yet imbued with a sense of service towards her family, his path is now clearer. He begins to wander, until eight months he is arrested in the company of a blind beggar who makes him feel closer to God, he is sent to Siberia, where he now works as the hired man of a well-to-do peasant, teaching the gentleman's young children and working in the gardens. Father Sergius Father Sergius The Sun Also Shines at Night "Father Sergius", full text in various formats Full text of "Father Sergius" in the original Russian Translation of "Father Sergius" in OnlineLiterature.com "Father Sergius" audiobook at librivox
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
War and Peace
War and Peace is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy. It is regarded as a central work of world literature and one of Tolstoy's finest literary achievements; the novel chronicles the history of the French invasion of Russia and the impact of the Napoleonic era on Tsarist society through the stories of five Russian aristocratic families. Portions of an earlier version, titled The Year 1805, were serialized in The Russian Messenger from 1865 to 1867; the novel was first published in its entirety in 1869. Tolstoy said War and Peace is "not a novel less is it a poem, still less a historical chronicle." Large sections the chapters, are a philosophical discussion rather than narrative. Tolstoy said that the best Russian literature does not conform to standards and hence hesitated to call War and Peace a novel. Instead, he regarded Anna Karenina as his first true novel; the Encyclopædia Britannica states: "It can be argued that no single English novel attains the universality of the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace".
Tolstoy began writing War and Peace in 1863, the year that he married and settled down at his country estate. The first half of the book was written under the name "1805". During the writing of the second half, he read and acknowledged Schopenhauer as one of his main inspirations. Tolstoy wrote in a letter to Afanasy Fet that what he has written in War and Peace is said by Schopenhauer in The World as Will and Representation. However, Tolstoy approaches "it from the other side."The first draft of the novel was completed in 1863. In 1865, the periodical Russkiy Vestnik published the first part of this draft under the title 1805 and published more the following year. Tolstoy was dissatisfied with this version, although he allowed several parts of it to be published with a different ending in 1867, he rewrote the entire novel between 1866 and 1869. Tolstoy's wife, Sophia Tolstaya, copied as many as seven separate complete manuscripts before Tolstoy considered it again ready for publication; the version, published in Russkiy Vestnik had a different ending from the version published under the title War and Peace in 1869.
Russians who had read the serialized version were anxious to buy the complete novel, it sold out immediately. The novel was translated immediately after publication into many other languages, it is unknown why Tolstoy changed the name to Peace. He may have borrowed the title from the 1861 work of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: La Guerre et la Paix; the title may be another reference to Titus, described as being a master of "war and peace" in The Twelve Caesars, written by Suetonius in 119 CE. The completed novel was called Voyna i mir; the 1805 manuscript was re-edited and annotated in Russia in 1893 and since has been translated into English, French, Dutch, Finnish, Albanian and Czech. Tolstoy was instrumental in bringing a new kind of consciousness to the novel, his narrative structure is noted for its "god-like" ability to hover over and within events, but in the way it swiftly and seamlessly portrayed a particular character's point of view. His use of visual detail is cinematic in scope, using the literary equivalents of panning, wide shots and close-ups.
These devices, while not exclusive to Tolstoy, are part of the new style of the novel that arose in the mid-19th century and of which Tolstoy proved himself a master. The standard Russian text of War and Peace is divided into an epilogue in two parts; the first half is concerned with the fictional characters, whereas the latter parts, as well as the second part of the epilogue consist of essays about the nature of war, power and historiography. Tolstoy interspersed these essays into the story in a way. Certain abridged versions remove these essays while others, published during Tolstoy's life moved these essays into an appendix; the novel is set 60 years before Tolstoy's day, but he had spoken with people who lived through the 1812 French invasion of Russia. He read all the standard histories available in Russian and French about the Napoleonic Wars and had read letters, journals and biographies of Napoleon and other key players of that era. There are 160 real persons named or referred to in War and Peace.
He worked from primary source materials, as well as from history books, philosophy texts and other historical novels. Tolstoy used a great deal of his own experience in the Crimean War to bring vivid detail and first-hand accounts of how the Imperial Russian Army was structured. Tolstoy was critical of standard history military history, in War and Peace, he explains at the start of the novel's third volume his own views on how history ought to be written. His aim was to blur the line between fiction and history, to get closer to the truth, as he states in Volume II. Although the book is in Russian, significant portions of dialogue are in French, it has been suggested that the use of French is a deliberate literary device, to portray artifice while Russian emerges as a language of sincerity and seriousness. It could, however simply represent another element of the realistic style in which the book is written, since French was the common language of the Russian aristocracy at the time. In fact, the Russian nobility knew only enough Russian to command their