French Academy of Sciences
The French Academy of Sciences is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, is one of the earliest Academies of Sciences. Headed by Sébastien Candel, it is one of the five Academies of the Institut de France; the Academy of Sciences traces its origin to Colbert's plan to create a general academy. He chose a small group of scholars who met on 22 December 1666 in the King's library, thereafter held twice-weekly working meetings there; the first 30 years of the Academy's existence were informal, since no statutes had as yet been laid down for the institution. In contrast to its British counterpart, the Academy was founded as an organ of government; the Academy was expected to remain apolitical, to avoid discussion of religious and social issues. On 20 January 1699, Louis XIV gave the Company its first rules.
The Academy was installed in the Louvre in Paris. Following this reform, the Academy began publishing a volume each year with information on all the work done by its members and obituaries for members who had died; this reform codified the method by which members of the Academy could receive pensions for their work. On 8 August 1793, the National Convention abolished all the academies. On 22 August 1795, a National Institute of Sciences and Arts was put in place, bringing together the old academies of the sciences and arts, among them the Académie française and the Académie des sciences. All the old members of the abolished Académie were formally re-elected and retook their ancient seats. Among the exceptions was Dominique, comte de Cassini, who refused to take his seat. Membership in the Academy was not restricted to scientists: in 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte was elected a member of the Academy and three years a president in connection with his Egyptian expedition, which had a scientific component.
In 1816, the again renamed "Royal Academy of Sciences" became autonomous, while forming part of the Institute of France. In the Second Republic, the name returned to Académie des sciences. During this period, the Academy was funded by and accountable to the Ministry of Public Instruction; the Academy came to control French patent laws in the course of the eighteenth century, acting as the liaison of artisans' knowledge to the public domain. As a result, academicians dominated technological activities in France; the Academy proceedings were published under the name Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. The Comptes rendus is now a journal series with seven titles; the publications can be found on site of the French National Library. In 1818 the French Academy of Sciences launched a competition to explain the properties of light; the civil engineer Augustin-Jean Fresnel entered this competition by submitting a new wave theory of light. Siméon Denis Poisson, one of the members of the judging committee, studied Fresnel's theory in detail.
Being a supporter of the particle-theory of light, he looked for a way to disprove it. Poisson thought that he had found a flaw when he demonstrate that Fresnel's theory predicts that an on-axis bright spot would exist in the shadow of a circular obstacle, where there should be complete darkness according to the particle-theory of light; the Poisson spot is not observed in every-day situations, so it was only natural for Poisson to interpret it as an absurd result and that it should disprove Fresnel's theory. However, the head of the committee, Dominique-François-Jean Arago, who incidentally became Prime Minister of France, decided to perform the experiment in more detail, he molded a 2-mm metallic disk to a glass plate with wax. To everyone's surprise he succeeded in observing the predicted spot, which convinced most scientists of the wave-nature of light. For three centuries women were not allowed as members of the Academy; this meant that many women scientists were excluded, including two-time Nobel Prize winner Marie Curie, Nobel winner Irène Joliot-Curie, mathematician Sophie Germain, many other deserving women scientists.
The first woman admitted as a correspondent member was a student of Curie's, Marguerite Perey, in 1962. The first female full member was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat in 1979. Today the Academy is one of five academies comprising the Institut de France, its members are elected for life. There are 150 full members, 300 corresponding members, 120 foreign associates, they are divided into two scientific groups: the Mathematical and Physical sciences and their applications and the Chemical, Biological and Medical sciences and their applications. Each year, the Academy of Sciences distributes about 80 prizes; these include: the Grande Médaille, awarded annually, in rotation, in the relevant disciplines of each division of the Academy, to a French or foreign scholar who has contributed to the development of science in a decisive way. The Lalande Prize, awarded from 1802 through 1970, for outstanding achievement in astronomy the Valz Prize, awarded from 1877 through 1970, to honor advances in astronomy the Richard Lounsbery Award, jointly with the National Academy of Sciences the Prix Jacques Herbrand, for mathematics and physics the Prix Paul Pascal, for chemistry the Louis Bachelier Prize for major contributions to mathematical modeling in finance the Prix Michel Montpetit for computer science and applied mathematics, awarded since 1977 the Leconte Prize, awarded annually since 1886, to recognize important discoveries in
Conservatoire national des arts et métiers
The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers is a doctoral degree-granting higher education establishment and Grande école in engineering, operated by the French government, dedicated to providing education and conducting research for the promotion of science and industry. It has a large museum of inventions accessible to the public, it was founded on 10 October 1794, during the French Revolution. It was first proposed by Abbé Henri Grégoire as a "depository for machines, tools, drawings and books in all the areas of the arts and trades"; the deserted Saint-Martin-des-Champs Priory was selected as the site of collection, which formally opened in 1802. Charged with the collection of inventions, it has since become an educational institution. At the present time, it is known as a continuing education school for adults seeking engineering and business degrees, proposing evening classes in a variety of topics; the collection of inventions is now operated by the Musée des Arts et Métiers. The original Foucault pendulum was exhibited as part of the collection, but was moved to the Panthéon in 1995 during museum renovation.
It was reinstalled in the Musée des Arts et Métiers. On 6 April 2010, the cable suspending the original pendulum bob snapped causing irreparable damage to the pendulum and to the marble flooring of the museum; the novel Foucault's Pendulum by Umberto Eco deals with this establishment, as the Foucault pendulum hung in the museum plays a great role in the storyline. The novel was published in 1989 prior to the pendulum being moved back to the Panthéon during museum reconstruction; the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers is located at 292 rue Saint Martin, in the 3rd arrondissement of Paris, in the historical area of the city named Le Marais. The Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers is a public institution of the French government, in the scientific and professional fields, with the status of "Grand Etablissement". Under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education, it has 3 missions: Training throughout life, it is implemented in more than 150 cities in France and abroad. Cnam's motto is "Omnes docet ubique", which means "He teaches everyone everywhere."
Since July 2010, Cnam has been organized in two distinct "Schools", each one with seven departments: Industrial Sciences and Information Technology, directed by William Dab: Chemicals, Health, Risk. Mechanical and electrotechnical systems engineering; the CNAM supports continuing education. Multidisciplinary programs. All teachings are formatted to comply with the CNAM LMD, thus respecting the European Credit Transfer System. Léon Bourgeois, Nobel Peace Prize, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Sadi Carnot, alumnus of the École Polytechnique and of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, physicist. Paul Doumer, alumnus of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, President of the French Republic. Louis Pasteur, alumnus of the École Normale Supérieure and of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers and biologist. From 1995 to 2009, the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers hosted the weekly seminar of psychoanalyst Jacques-Alain Miller.
Jean Ferrat, alumnus of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, singer-songwriter. Abbé Grégoire, founder of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. Jean-Baptiste Say, alumnus of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, classical economist, professor with the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers and the Collège de France. Alexandre Vandermonde, mathematician. From 1794 on, Vandermonde was member of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, examiner with the École polytechnique, professor with the École Normale Supérieure. Jacques de Vaucanson, famous engineer, gave his personal collection to the CNAM as well as his name to an adjacent street. Léon Vaudoyer, architecte of the CNAM building during the nineteenth century, together with the Institut de France building. Jean Prouvé, French metal worker, self-taught architect and designer, CNAM professor from 1957 to 1970. Alain Wisner Vandermonde: secret society of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Écoles de l'an III scientifiques Michel Nusimovici, Les écoles de l'an III, 2010 Official website Official website Official website CNAM lebanon
École polytechnique is a French public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb southwest of Paris. It is one of the most prestigious and selective French scientific and engineering schools, called grandes écoles in French, it is known for its ingénieur polytechnicien scientific degree program, equivalent to both a bachelor and master of science. Its entrance exam, the X-ENS exam, is renowned for its selectivity with a little over 500 admitted students out of the 53 848 students enrolled in the preparatory programs for the French scientific and engineering schools entrance exams; the school was established in 1794 by the mathematician Gaspard Monge during the French Revolution, was a military academy under Napoleon I in 1804. Although Polytechnique is no longer a military academy, the school is still supervised by the French ministry of defense, though only a small number of its students choose to pursue a military career. Located in the Latin Quarter of central Paris, the school's main buildings were moved in 1976 to Palaiseau on the Saclay Plateau.
Polytechnique has engaged in several partnerships to improve its international renown. It is a founding member of ParisTech, a grouping of leading engineering colleges in the Paris region established in 2007. In 2014 it became a founding member of the confederal University of Paris-Saclay. Among its alumni are three Nobel prize winners, three Presidents of France and many CEOs of French and international companies; as of 2018, it is associated with 4 Fields Medal winners and is currently ranked as the world's third-best small university by Times Higher Education's World University Rankings. Every year, many outstanding Polytechnique students earn admissions to the most prestigious academic institutions and graduate programs in the USA and in the UK demonstrating the recognition of the school and its best performing students internationally. During the 19th century, the specific model of École Polytechnique inspired the foundation of other well-known schools named "Polytechnic," such as Polytechnique Montréal, Athens Polytechnic, MIT, EPFL and Caltech.
The history of the École Polytechnique dates back over 200 years, to the time of the French Revolution. In 1794, the École centrale des travaux publics was founded by Lazare Carnot and Gaspard Monge at the time of the National Convention, it was renamed École polytechnique one year later. In 1805, Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte settled the École on Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, in the Quartier Latin, in central Paris, as a military academy and gave its motto Pour la Patrie, les Sciences et la Gloire. In 1814, students took part in the Battle of Paris against the Sixth Coalition. In 1830, fifty students participated in the July Revolution. In 1848, Polytechnique students were the leaders of the French Revolution of 1848, they were an important part of the post-revolutionary process, with one student becoming part of the post-revolution government. They were given the right to wear a sword as a recognition. During the First World War, students were mobilized and the school building was transformed into a hospital.
More than two hundred students were killed fighting for France during the war. During the Second World War, Polytechnique was moved away to Lyon in the free zone. More than four hundred polytechniciens were killed during the war, as part of Free French and French Resistance operations, or in Nazi camps. In 1970, École Polytechnique became a state-supported civilian institution, under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence. In 1972, women were admitted for the first time. In 1976, École Polytechnique moved from Paris to Palaiseau. In 1994, celebration of the bicentennial was chaired by President François Mitterrand. In 2000, a new cursus was set in place, passing to four years and reforming the polytechnicien curriculum. In 2005, École Polytechnique started awarding master's degrees. In 2007, it became a founding member of UniverSud ParisTech. In December 2014, it became a founding member of University of Paris-Saclay. In 1794, Polytechnique was hosted in the Palais Bourbon. One year it moved to Hôtel de Lassay, an hôtel particulier in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.
Napoleon moved Polytechnique to the Quartier Latin in 1805 when he set the school under a military administration. The Paris' campus is located near the Panthéon, in rue Descartes, 5, it is nicknamed "Carva" by the students. At 15 kilometres from Paris, the campus of the École Polytechnique is a privileged setting, it offers about 164 ha teaching facilities, student housing, food services and hospitality and an exceptional range of sports facilities to the 4,600 people who live on a daily basis campus. The nearest regional train station is Gare de Lozère. A number of buses connect the École Polytechnique with the larger RER and TGV station Massy-Palaiseau; the campus is close to other great scientific institutions in Saclay and Gif. The campus will be at the heart of the Engineering and Innovation sector of the confederal "University of Paris in Saclay". Major works are in progress to connect it to an automatic metro line direct to Paris. Polytechnique is a higher education establishment running under the supervision of the F
Étienne Bézout was a French mathematician, born in Nemours, Seine-et-Marne and died in Avon, France. In 1758 Bézout was elected an adjoint in mechanics of the French Academy of Sciences. Besides numerous minor works, wrote a Théorie générale des équations algébriques, published at Paris in 1779, which in particular contained much new and valuable matter on the theory of elimination and symmetrical functions of the roots of an equation: he used determinants in a paper in the Histoire de l'académie royale, 1764, but did not treat the general theory. Bézout's theorem Bézout's identity Bézout matrix Bézout domain The original version of this article was taken from the public domain Rouse History of Mathematics Grabiner, Judith. "Bezout, Etienne". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 111–114. ISBN 978-0-684-10114-9. O'Connor, John J.. Étienne Bézout at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
École normale supérieure (Paris)
The École normale supérieure is one of the French grandes écoles and a school of PSL University since 2010. It was conceived during the French Revolution and was intended to provide the Republic with a new body of professors, trained in the critical spirit and secular values of the Enlightenment, it has since developed into an institution which has become a platform for a select few of France's students to pursue careers in government and academia. Founded in 1794 and reorganised by Napoleon, ENS has two main sections and a competitive selection process consisting of written and oral examinations. During their studies, ENS students hold the status of paid civil servants; the principal goal of ENS is the training of professors and public administrators. Among its alumni there are 13 Nobel Prize laureates including 8 in Physics, 12 Fields Medalists, more than half the recipients of the CNRS's Gold Medal, several hundred members of the Institut de France, scores of politicians and statesmen; the school has achieved particular recognition in the fields of mathematics and physics as one of France's foremost scientific training grounds, along with notability in the human sciences as the spiritual birthplace of authors such as Julien Gracq, Jean Giraudoux, Assia Djebar, Charles Péguy, philosophers such as Henri Bergson, Jean-Paul Sartre, Louis Althusser, Simone Weil, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Alain Badiou, social scientists such as Émile Durkheim, Raymond Aron, Pierre Bourdieu, "French theorists" such as Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida.
The school's students are referred to as normaliens. The ENS is a grande école and, as such, is not part of the mainstream university system, although it maintains extensive connections with it; the vast majority of the academic staff hosted at ENS belong to external academic institutions such as the CNRS, the EHESS and the University of Paris. This mechanism for constant scientific turnover allows ENS to benefit from a continuous stream of researchers in all fields. ENS full professorships are competitive. Generalistic in its recruitment and organisation, the ENS is the only grande école in France to have departments of research in all the natural and human sciences, its status as one of the foremost centres of French research has led to its model being replicated elsewhere, in France, in Italy, in Romania, in China and in former French colonies such as Morocco, Mali and Cameroon. The current institution finds its roots in the creation of the Ecole normale de l'an III by the post-revolutionary National Convention led by Robespierre in 1794.
The school was created based on a recommendation by Joseph Lakanal and Dominique-Joseph Garat, who were part of the commission on public education. The Ecole normale was intended as the core of a planned centralised national education system; the project was conceived as a way to reestablish trust between the Republic and the country's elites, alienated to some degree by the Reign of Terror. The decree establishing the school, issued on 9 brumaire, states in its first article that "There will be established in Paris an Ecole normale, from all the parts of the Republic, citizens educated in the useful sciences shall be called upon to learn, from the best professors in all the disciplines, the art of teaching." The inaugural course was given on 20 January 1795 and the last on 19 May of the same year at the Museum of Natural History. The goal of these courses was to train a body of teachers for all the secondary schools in the country and thereby to ensure a homogenous education for all; these courses covered all the existing sciences and humanities and were given by scholars such as: scientists Monge, Daubenton and philosophers Bernardin de Saint-Pierre and Volney were some of the teachers.
The school was closed as a result of the arrival of the Consulate but this Ecole normale was to serve as a basis when the school was founded for the second time by Napoleon I in 1808. On 17 March 1808, Napoleon created by decree a pensionnat normal within the imperial University of France charged with "training in the art of teaching the sciences and the humanities"; the establishment was opened in its strict code including a mandatory uniform. By a sister establishment had been created by Napoleon in Pisa under the name of Scuola normale superiore, which continues to exist today and still has close ties to the Paris school. Up to 1818, the students are handpicked by the academy inspectors based on their results in the secondary school. However, the "pensionnat" created by Napoleon came to be perceived under the Restoration as a nexus of liberal thought and was suppressed by then-minister of public instruction Denis-Luc Frayssinous in 1824. An École préparatoire was created on 9 March 1826 at the site of collège Louis-le-Grand.
This date can be taken as the definitive date of creation of the current school. After the July Revolution, the school regained its original name of École normale and in 1845 was renamed École normale supérieure. During the 1830s, under the direction of philosopher Victor Cousin, the school enhanced its status as an institution to prepare the agrégation by expanding the duration of study to three years, was divided into its present-day "
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent