Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
La Chienne is a 1931 French film by director Jean Renoir. It is the sound film by the director and the twelfth film of his career. The literal English translation of the title is The Bitch. It is often referred to in English as Isnt Life a Bitch, the film was remade by Fritz Lang in the United States as Scarlet Street. La Chienne was released by The Criterion Collection on both Blu-ray and DVD, newly restored in 4K, on June 14,2016, Maurice is a married cashier who meets Lulu, a streetwalker. Their chance meeting results in Maurice falling in love with Lulu and she, however, is in love with her boyfriend-pimp, Dédé. Together, Dédé and Lulu plot ways to get Maurice to give cash to Lulu and producer Pierre Braunberger had encouraged the relationship between Flamant and Marèse in order to get the fullest conviction into their performances. After the film had been completed Flamant, who could drive, took Marèse for a drive, crashed the car. At the funeral Michel Simon fainted and had to be supported as he walked past the grave and he threatened Renoir with a gun, saying that the death of Marèse was all his fault.
Kill me if you like, responded Renoir, but I have made the film. On October 23,2003, La Chienne was released on DVD in France by Opening Distribution, along with Renoirs On purge bébé, Tire-au-flanc, and Catherine, as part of a box set. The film was released together with Renoirs Partie de campagne by M6 Vidéo on both Blu-ray and DVD in France on November 10,2015. La Chienne was released in North America on LaserDisc in 1989 by Image Entertainment as part of the CinemaDisc Collection, the film was released on VHS by Kino International on February 5,2002, which includes Partie de campagne as an extra. On June 14,2016, American video-distribution company The Criterion Collection released La Chienne, newly restored through a 4K digital transfer, on Blu-ray, the new Blu-ray and DVD cover as well as interior poster was illustrated by Blutch. La Chienne at the Internet Movie Database La Chienne at AllMovie La Chienne at Rotten Tomatoes
Liliom (1934 film)
Liliom is a 1934 French fantasy film directed by Fritz Lang based on the Hungarian stage play of the same name by Ferenc Molnár. The film stars Charles Boyer as Liliom, a barker who is fired from his job after defending the chambermaid Julie from the jealousy of Mme. Muscat, the owner who is infatuated with Liliom. He moves in with Julie and they begin an affair, when Liliom discovers hes about to become a father, he finds he needs money and participates in a robbery which goes awry. Rather than allow himself to be arrested, Liliom kills himself, a heavenly commissioner determines that Liliom will not be admitted into Heaven, only Purgatory, until he returns to earth to do one good deed. Liliom was one of the two first French productions by producer Erich Pommer for Fox-Europa and director Fritz Langs only French film, on the films release it was protested by the French Catholic clergy and was generally not well received by French film critics or playwright Ferenc Molnár. Despite the reception, the 1934 Liliom was one of Langs favorites out of all his films, Liliom Zadowski is a barker at Madame Muscats carousel.
A rival barker named Hollinger tries to get Liliom in trouble by telling the jealous Mme, who is having an affair with Liliom, that Liliom flirts with his customers behind her back. Muscat insults Lilioms female customers Julie and Marie, Liliom comes to their defense, Liliom makes a date with Julie and Marie and leaves the carousel. When he meets the girls later, Liliom tells them that he intends to take one of them out. Julie is infatuated with Liliom and they move in together in a run-down trailer, Julie works in a photo studio while Liliom loafs and gets into violent arguments with Julie. Muscat tries to bring Liliom back to the carousel by offering him a substantial raise, Liliom considers it but denies the offer finding that Julie is expecting a child. Lilioms criminal friend Alfred suggests that the two rob the local payroll clerk, and insists that Liliom bring a knife, as Alfred will do, desperate to find money for the child, Liliom agrees. The robbery attempt is foiled and Liliom finds himself cornered by the police, rather than be arrested, Liliom stabs himself with the kitchen knife he brought with him to commit the robbery.
An unconscious Liliom is brought home on a stretcher, near death, he repents and tells Julie that he must face the judgement of God. Lilioms soul rises from his body when he is visited by two uniformed agents who identify themselves as Gods Police and they take Liliom to Heaven where he is taken to an area for suicides. There, Liliom is questioned by a commissioner who looks exactly like a police commissioner that Lilom reported to once while alive. When Liliom refuses to explain to the clerk why he beat Julie, he is first shown a silent film of one of his arguments with her and he realizes that he beat Julie because he hated himself so much for his cruelty and selfishness
Number Two (film)
Number Two, by Jean-Luc Godard and Anne-Marie Miéville, is a 1975 experimental film about a young family in a social housing complex in France. The films distinct style involves presenting two images on screen simultaneously, leading to multiple interpretations of the story and to comments on the film-making and editing process, the film is divided into two parts. For the first third of the movie, Godard discusses what it takes to make a film, numéro deux begins with a long monologue by Jean-Luc Godard, in an editing suite. He says that creating his movies has become like working in a factory for him, I am the boss, but I am the worker. There are other factories, in Los Angeles, called Fox and Metro, in Moscow, during this opening sequence of the film, viewers are presented with television monitors featuring characters who will return in the main section on. In the second part, the two thirds, each character in the story discusses their quotidian experiences through dialogue. The film observes the life of the sexuality and economics in a family in a social housing complex in France.
The wife complains of her constipation to her children, when the husband discovers that she has slept with another man, he takes his revenge her by sodomizing her, which only makes her constipation worse. During this sex, they realize that their daughter has been watching them and they discuss how a woman’s body is described as electricity, charging up and decharging, and sex is work when it becomes something for a child to watch. Godard, and in the story and Pierre, describe these things as not being contradictory, Sandrine says, Le plaisir, c’est pas simple. C’est l’angoisse qui est simple, pas le plaisir, c’est le chômage qui est simple, pas le plaisir. Quand il y a du plaisir à être chômeur, alors c’est le fascisme qui s’installe, the children participate in discussions about sex and body parts, and comment on it. Vanessa states, “Sometimes what my parents do is pretty, sometimes it’s caca. ”Sandrine and Pierre’s family is “observed” by static cameras installed in rooms of an apartment, that were played back and recorded on 35 mm film.
The opening sequence of the film is at full-screen resolution but the scenes in the apartment often take up only a portion of the screen. The sound design emphasises the outside noises over the dialogue, giving the effect of the outside world coming in. Manchester University Press 304 pages ISBN 0-7190-6758-8 Silverman, Harun Farocki, new York, NYU Press 243 pages ISBN 0-8147-8066-0 Number Two at the Internet Movie Database
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records