A roadhouse or stopping house is a commercial establishment built on or near a major road or highway that services passing travellers. The word's meaning varies by country; the historical equivalent was known as a coaching inn, providing food and rest to people and horses. The "roadhouse" or "road house" acts as a restaurant, serving meals in the evenings, it has a bar serving beer or hard liquor and features music and sometimes gambling. Most roadhouses are located along highways or roads on the outskirts of towns. Early roadhouses provided lodging for travelers, but with the advent of faster means of transport than walking, horseback riding, or horse-drawn carriages, few now offer rooms to let. Roadhouses have a disreputable image, similar to honky tonks; this type of roadhouse has been portrayed in movies such as The Wild One, Easy Rider, Road House. Roadhouses sprang up when significant numbers of people began to move to the frontier. In Western Canada they were known as stopping houses. From the 1890s in Alaska and the Yukon, beginning with the gold rush, roadhouses were checkpoints where dog drivers, horse-driven sleighs, people on snowshoes, skis, or walking would stop overnight for shelter and a hot meal.
Remains of a Klondike Gold Rush roadhouse can be seen today south of Carmacks, Yukon along the Klondike Highway. One built in 1902 is the Black Rapids Roadhouse. In Australia a roadhouse is a filling station on a major intercity route. A roadhouse sells fuel and provides maintenance and repairs for cars, but it has an attached "restaurant" to sell and serve hot food to travellers. Roadhouses also serve as truck stops, providing space for parking of semi-trailer trucks and buses, as well as catering to travellers in private cars. In remote areas such as the Nullarbor Plain, a roadhouse offers motel-style accommodation and camping facilities. In Britain, wayside lodgings of this type were called coaching inns; as in other countries, they were a place along the road for people travelling on foot or by horse to stay at night, but today they are restaurants or pubs without lodging. However, many coaching inns those in rural counties, have kept their accommodation to become bed & breakfasts or country hotels.
With the advent of popular travel by motor car in the 1920s and 1930s, a new type of roadside pub emerged located on the newly constructed arterial roads and bypasses. They were large establishments offering meals and accommodation to motorists and parties travelling by charabanc; the largest pubs boasted facilities such as tennis swimming pools. Their popularity ended with the outbreak of the Second World War when recreational road travel became impossible, the advent of post-war drink driving legislation prevented their full recovery. Post houses were established along principal highways. Post masters provided fresh horses, sometimes carriages and over-night accommodation for use by Royal officers called Postillones, who were uniformed guides authorised to conduct passengers and messages along specific routes. "Roadhouse Blues," a song by The Doors The Roadhouse from Twin Peaks, a local music bar on the outskirts of the main town. Rest area Charging station Fast food restaurant List of public house topics
North West Company
The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in Montreal from 1779 to 1821. It competed with increasing success against the Hudson's Bay Company in what is present-day Western Canada. With great wealth at stake, tensions between the companies increased to the point where several minor armed skirmishes broke out, the two companies were forced by the British government to merge. After the French landed in Quebec in 1608, coureurs des bois spread out and built a fur trade empire in the St. Lawrence basin; the French competed with the English in New York and the English in Hudson Bay. Unlike the French who travelled into the northern interior and traded with First Nations in their camps and villages, the English made bases at trading posts on Hudson Bay, inviting the indigenous people to trade. After 1731, La Vérendrye pushed trade west beyond Lake Winnipeg. After the British conquest of New France in 1763, management of the fur trading posts was taken over by English-speakers.
These so-called "pedlars" began to merge because competition cost them money and because of the high costs of outfitting canoes to the far west. There are historical references to a North West Company, as early as 1770, involving the Montreal-based traders Benjamin Frobisher, Isaac Todd, Alexander Henry the elder and others, but the standard histories trace the Company to a 16-share organization formed in 1779. For the next four years, it was little more than a loose association of a few Montreal merchants who discussed how they might break the stranglehold the Hudson's Bay Company held on the North American fur trade. In the winter of 1783-84, the North West Company was created on a long-term basis, with its corporate offices on Vaudreuil Street in Montreal, it was led by businessmen Benjamin Frobisher, his brother Joseph, Simon McTavish, along with investor-partners who included Robert Grant, Nicholas Montour, Patrick Small, William Holmes, George McBeath. In 1787 the North West Company merged with a rival organization, Gregory, McLeod and Co. which brought several more able partners in, including John Gregory, Alexander Mackenzie, his cousin Roderick Mackenzie.
The 1787 company consisted of 20 shares, some held by the agents at Montreal, others by wintering partners, who spent the trading season in the fur country and oversaw the trade with the aboriginal peoples there. The wintering partners and the Montreal agents met each July at the company's depot at Grand Portage on Lake Superior moved to Fort William. Under the auspices of the company, Alexander Mackenzie conducted two important expeditions of exploration. In 1789, he descended the Grand River to the Arctic Ocean, in 1793 he went overland from Peace River to the Pacific Ocean. Further explorations were performed by David Thompson, starting in 1797, by Simon Fraser; these men pushed into the wilderness territories of the Rocky Mountains and all the way to the Gulf of Georgia on the Pacific Coast. The death of Benjamin Frobisher opened the door to a takeover of the North West Company by Simon McTavish, who made a deal with Frobisher's surviving brother Joseph; the firm of McTavish and Company, founded in November 1787 controlled eleven of the company’s twenty outstanding shares.
At the time the company consisted of 23 partners, but "its staff of Agents, clerks, interpreters, more known today as voyageurs amounted to 2000 people." In addition to Alexander Mackenzie, this group included Americans Peter Pond and Alexander Henry the elder. Further reorganizations of the partnership occurred in 1795 and 1802, the shares being subdivided each time to provide for more and more wintering partners. Vertical integration of the business was completed in 1792, when Simon McTavish and John Fraser formed a London house to supply trade goods and market the furs, McTavish and Company. While the organization and capitalization of the North West Company came from Anglo-Quebecers, both Simon McTavish and Joseph Frobisher married French Canadians. Numerous French Canadians played key roles in the operations both in the building and shareholding of the various trading posts scattered throughout the country, as well numbering among the voyageurs involved in the actual trading with natives.
In the northwest, the Company expanded its operations as far north as Great Bear Lake, westwards beyond the Rocky Mountains. For several years, they tried to sell furs directly to China, using American ships to avoid the British East India Company's monopoly, but little profit was made there; the company expanded into the United States' Northwest Territory. In 1796, to better position themselves in the global market, where politics played a major role, the North West Company established an agency in New York City. Despite its efforts, the North West Company was at a distinct disadvantage in competing for furs with the Hudson's Bay Company, whose charter gave it a virtual monopoly in Rupert's Land, where the best furs were trapped; the company tried to persuade the British Parliament to change arrangements, at least so the North West Company could obtain transit rights to ship goods to the west needed for trading for furs. It is said that Simon McTavish made a personal petition to Prime Minister William Pitt, but all requests were refused.
A few years with no relief to the Hudson's Bay Company's stranglehold, McTavish and his group decided to gamble. They organized an overland expedition from Montreal to a second expedition by sea. In September 1803, the overland party met the company's ship at Charlton Island
100 Mile House
100 Mile House is a town and district municipality located in the South Cariboo region of central British Columbia, Canada. 100 Mile House was known as Bridge Creek House, named after the creek running through the area. Its origins as a settlement go back to the time when Thomas Miller owned a collection of ramshackle buildings serving the traffic of the gold rush as a resting point for travellers moving between Kamloops and Fort Alexandria, 98 miles north of 100 Mile House farther along the HBC Brigade Trail, it acquired its current name during the Cariboo Gold Rush where a roadhouse was constructed in 1862 at the 100 miles mark up the Old Cariboo Road from Lillooet. In 1930, Lord Martin Cecil left England to come to 100 Mile House and manage the estate owned by his father, the 5th Marquess of Exeter; the estate's train stop on the Pacific Great Eastern railway is to the west of town and called Exeter. The town, which at the time consisted of the roadhouse, a general store, a post office, telegraph office and a power plant, had a population of 12.
The original road house burned down in 1937. 100 Mile House residents go by the demonym BX'ers, in relation to Barnard's Express. 100 Mile House is on Secwepemc unceded territory. The nearest Secwepemc band is the Tsq'escen, for whom a geographic reference point is the Canim Lake Reserve. At present, 100 Mile House is the primary service centre for the South Cariboo and has a population of 2,000; the service area has a population ten times the size of the town. It includes the communities of Lac La Hache, Forest Grove, Lone Butte, Horse Lake, Bridge Lake, 70 Mile House, Canim Lake, 108 Mile Ranch, is the largest residential centre between Kamloops and Williams Lake; the primary industries of 100 Mile House are ranching. Log home building and tourism are an important part of the community. 100 Mile House is a centre for outdoor activities and is becoming known for its richness of bird life. The surrounding area features hundreds of lakes for boating and fishing including 101 Mile Lake, 103 Mile Lake, Lac La Hache, Canim Lake, Horse Lake, Green Lake, Bridge Lake and Sheridan Lake.
The Cariboo ski marathon attracts a international field of cross-country skiers. The surrounding communities have various activities for residents and visiting tourists, including rodeos and an extensive trail system; this area is known for outdoor activities including hiking, cross country skiing, ATV riding. There are government campgrounds at Bridge Lake and Lac La Hache. There are many private campsites around the area that offer cabin and fishing boat rentals and RV hook-ups. North of 100 Mile House is Lac La Hache, 150 Mile House, Williams Lake, McLeese Lake. Located north of 100 Mile House is Quesnel and Prince George. South-East of 100 Mile House is Bridge Lake. South of the town is 70 Mile House, Cache Creek, Spences Bridge, Vancouver. 100 Mile House has a humid continental climate with mild summers combined with cool nights, along with cold, but not cold winters for its latitude. In spite of the moderation that comes from its relative proximity to the Pacific Ocean, extreme winter temperatures can occur, with a record low of −48 °C. 100 Mile House is located in a rain shadow of the coastal mountains, resulting in reduced precipitation, much of it falling as snow.
List of historic ranches in British Columbia "100 Mile House". BC Geographical Names. 100 Mile House - BritishColumbia.com page South Cariboo Visitor Information Centre
The Tsilhqot'in are a North American Tribal government of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group that live in British Columbia, Canada. They are the most southern of the Athabaskan-speaking aboriginal peoples in British Columbia; the Tŝilhqot'in Nation before contact with Europeans was a strong warrior nation with political influence from the Similkameen region in the south, the Pacific coast in the west, the Rocky Mountains in the east. They were part of an extensive trade network centred around control and distribution of obsidian, the material of choice for arrowheads and other stone tools; the Tsilhqot’in first encountered European trading goods in the 1780s and 1790s when British and American ships arrived along the northwest coast seeking sea otter pelts. By 1808, a fur-trading company out of Montreal called the North West Company had established posts in the Carrier territory just north of the Tsilhqot’in, they began trading directly and through Carrier intermediaries. In 1821 what was the Hudson’s Bay Company established a fur trade post at Fort Alexandria on the Fraser River, at the eastern limit of Tsilhqot’in territory.
This became the tribal people's major source for European goods. Contact with Europeans and First Nations intermediaries led to the introduction of Eurasian diseases, which were endemic among the Europeans; as they had long been exposed, some had developed acquired immunity, but the First Nations peoples were devastated by epidemics of these new diseases. Infectious diseases with high fatalities for Tsilhqot'in populations: Whooping cough 1845 Measles 1850 Smallpox 1855 Smallpox 1862–1863 Spanish flu 1919 – this epidemic affected European Canadians as well as First Nations, millions of people died internationallyThe isolated position of the Tsilhqot’in may have protected them from the first of the smallpox epidemics, which spread up from Mexico in the 1770s, they may have been spared the measles of the 1840s. Furniss in The Burden of History states that "there is no direct evidence that these smallpox epidemics reached the central interior of British Columbia or the Secwepemc, Carrier, or Tsilhqot'in".
However, in the epidemic of 1836–38, the disease spread to Ootsa Lake and killed an entire Carrier band. Oral history of the bands has continued to recount the effects of the many deaths in these epidemics. By the 1860s, miners panned along the Fraser and Horesefly rivers and their tributaries. Various business operators and merchants followed. Farmers and ranchers developed land to provision the mining towns that developed around the merchants; this led to competition for resources between the Chilcotin and Europeans, leading to a stream of events known as the Chilcotin War. Governor James Douglas supported a system of reserves and indoctrination to "civilized" practices such as subsistence agriculture up until his retirement in 1864. Joseph Trutch, the chief commissioner of lands and works, abandoned the reserve policy, set Indian policy as their having no rights to the land. By 1866, BC colonial rule required natives to request permission from the Governor to use lands. Newspapers supported the preempting of native lands, seeing settlers ploughing native burial grounds.
Natives who requested redress from a Justice of the Peace were refused leave. In the 1870s, the loss of hunting territories, crashes of the Salmon runs placed more dependence on agricultural produce such as grains and vegetables. Activities migrated to cutting hay, constructing irrigation ditches, practicing animal husbandry. Settlers however assumed water rights, making agriculture more fragile. Natives were huddled in on small acreages, such as with 20 acres for 150 natives. Starvation became a threat. In contrast to the 160 to 640 acres per family set aside in other treaties at the time in the Prairies, the Federal Government opted for 80 acres per native family to be set aside in reserve, while the provincial government was keen on 10 acres per family. Catholic Missionaries were sent to convert First Nations children to Christianity. By 1891, the first group of students were sent to receive a so-called "formal" education; the program continued for the next six decades until a point when Native children were allowed into the public school system.
Ninety years after the start of the Residential School program, the mission school closed circa 1981. Throughout that period, Indian agents were empowered to remove children from homes to attend St. Joseph's Mission school in 150 Mile House; this led some to attempt to hide their children by sneaking out to hunting fields. Children fled the schools, within the first 30 years, three investigations on the physical abuse and malnutrition were conducted. Voting rights in Canadian Federal Elections were denied until 1960, in Provincial Elections until 1949. Tl'esqox Yuneŝit'in Tl’etinqox Tŝi Deldel Xeni Gwet'in ʔEsdilagh Ulkatcho at Anahim Lake Tagwedisdzan There are two other notable Non-Reserve communities in the region: Alexis Creek and Anahim Lake. Despite its small population and isolation, the region has produced an impressive collection of literature mixing naturalism with native and settler cultures; the area is accessed by
Old Cariboo Road
The Old Cariboo Road is a reference to the original wagon road to the Cariboo gold fields in what is now the Canadian province of British Columbia. It should not be confused with the Cariboo Road, built later and used a different route, it was built from Lillooet to Alexandria, beginning in 1859, was a precursor to the later Cariboo Wagon Road, built from Yale via Cache Creek-Ashcroft. Access to the start of the road at Lillooet was made by the Douglas Road or Lakes Route from Port Douglas, at the head of Harrison Lake, it is the mileages from Lillooet on the Old Cariboo Road, properly known as the Lillooet-Alexandria Road, that the "road house" placenames of British Columbia, such as 100 Mile House, are measured. The road was a toll-route and built by private contractor Gustavus Blin-Wright, a prominent British-Swedish entrepreneur in colonial British Columbia who contracted to build roads and provide steamer services in the Kootenay region. Blin-Wright operated the steamer which connected the end of the road at Alexandria with Quesnel.
When the Cariboo Road proper was built, it converged with the existing route of the Old Cariboo Road at Clinton, followed the earlier road to Alexandria, but was extended up the Fraser from there to Quesnel and completed eastward from there to Barkerville. It was along this route that an attempt was made to use Bactrian camels purchased from the U. S. Camel Corps for freight, a tractor-style Thomson Road Steamer known as a "road train", one of the earliest motorized vehicles. From Wallula Gap on the Columbia River, the Old Cariboo Trail was built over the route of the Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail, which began at Fort Okanagan, near the Wallula Gap area on the Columbia River and passed north through Eastern Washington along the Columbia River to the Okanogan River and north into British Columbia. Hudson's Bay Company fur traders brigades followed this route up until 1847, when the Hudson's Bay Company withdrew from the Northwest. Cattle drives were common along this trail to supply the gold miners, who arrived in British Columbia in the late 1850s.
In Washington Territory a wagon road from Wallula to the gold mining regions of British Columbia was known as the "Cariboo Trail" or the "Wallula-Okanogan Road". Connecting to the Oregon Trail at Wallula, it ran north across Quincy Flats past Moses Lake crossed the lower Grand Coulee at present day Coulee City. From there it turned north and crossed the Waterville Plateau to reach the Columbia River near Fort Okanogan. From there it followed the valley of the Okanagan River into Canada, connecting with the Okanagan Trail; the section known in Canada as the Cariboo Trail departed from the northernmost of the Okanagan Trail routes near today's Savona to head up the Deadman River towards the initial strikes near Likely and Horsefly, British Columbia. The Old Cariboo Road started at Lillooet. From there a steamboat service was provided to Quesnellemouthe. A trail from there went east to Barkerville where gold was discovered. From Lillooet there was a trail; this was part of the Old Cariboo Road. By 1864 a new Cariboo road was built, which took a different route, although from Clinton to Alexandria much of the Old Cariboo Road was used for the newer Cariboo Road.
Douglas Road Dozier's Way Cariboo Road Lillooet Cattle Trail Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail River Trail Old Cariboo Highway Cariboo Highway Gold Mining and the Early Development of British Columbia, Winifred Emily Foster, M. A.* Thesis, University of California, 1936. FC 3822.4F68 The Development of Communications in Colonial British Columbia, Helen Ferguson, M. A. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1939 FC 3822 F47 Gold and the Early Settlement of British Columbia, AngusMacLeod Gunn, M. A. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1961. FC 3822.4 G95 1965 c.1 Halfway to the Goldfields - A History of Lillooet, Lorraine Harris, J. J. Douglas, North Vancouver, 1977 Short Portage to Lillooet, Irene Edwards, Irene Edwards 1977
Alexander MacKenzie Heritage Trail
The Alexander MacKenzie Heritage Trail is a 420 km long historical overland route between Quesnel and Bella Coola, British Columbia, Canada. Of the many grease trails connecting the Coast with the Interior, it is the most notable and is referred to as the Grease Trail; the trail was used by the Nuxalk and Carrier people for communication and trade, in particular, trade in Eulachon grease from the Pacific coast. During his trek from Montreal to the Pacific Ocean in the late 18th century, Alexander MacKenzie was led by Nuxalk-Carrier guides, when natural obstacles in the Fraser River prevented his continued water route. Mackenzie's group "took the Parsnip River, crossed the continental divide, canoed down the Fraser River to Alexandria just south of Quesnel. On the advice of local First Nations people, who guided Mackenzie and his party to the Pacific Ocean, they gave up the river route for an overland one; the overland journey started just above the mouth of the Blackwater River at the West Road River west of Quesnel, taking them through the Upper Blackwater, along the Eliguk Lake and Gatcho Lake, through parts of what is now Tweedsmuir Provincial Park, over the Rainbow Mountains, into the Bella Coola Valley and "Friendly Village".
The local people took the group down the Bella Coola River, over the salt water into the Dean Channel." He reached the ocean on July 20, 1793, completing the first recorded transcontinental crossing north of Mexico. The route was designated as an official heritage trail by the Heritage Conservation Act in 1987. From east to west, the modern-day trail begins at the West Road River 53.269063 N,123.148917 W between Quesnel and Prince George, passes Kluskus Lake, Eliguk Lake crosses through what is now |Tweedsmuir Provincial Park follows the Bella Coola River to the North Bentinck Arm inlet. Because of its length and difficulty, experienced hikers can expect the route to take about 18 days, whereas intermediate hikers may require at least 24 days. Hikers may choose to hike only sections of the trail, such as the route through Tweedsmuir Provincial Park which passes the extinct Rainbow Range shield volcano. Only a few hiking or horse riding parties, plus a few ATVs or trucks, pass along the trail each year.
The middle section of the trail passes within 5 km of Pan Phillips' Home Ranch, popularized by the books by Rich Hobson, Grass Beyond the Mountains, Nothing Too Good for a Cowboy, The Rancher Takes a Wife, the CBC television series based on the same books. The Home Ranch closed operations in the early 1970s. Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail Wood, Home to the Nechako: The River and the Land, Heritage House Publishing Co. Ltd. p. 176, ISBN 1927527139 "Alexander Mackenzie Heritage Trail British Columbia, Canada", BC Adventure, 1995–2013 Alexander Mackenzie Heritage Trail
National Historic Sites of Canada
National Historic Sites of Canada are places that have been designated by the federal Minister of the Environment on the advice of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, as being of national historic significance. Parks Canada, a federal agency, manages the National Historic Sites program; as of October 2018, there are 987 National Historic Sites, 171 of which are administered by Parks Canada. The sites are located across all ten provinces and three territories, with two sites located in France. There are related federal designations for National Historic Persons. Sites and Persons are each marked by a federal plaque of the same style, but the markers do not indicate which designation a subject has been given; the Rideau Canal is a National Historic Site. Emerging Canadian nationalist sentiment in the late 19th century and early 20th century led to an increased interest in preserving Canada's historic sites. There were galvanizing precedents in other countries. With the support of notables such as Victor Hugo and Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, the Commission des monuments historique was created in France in 1837.
In the United Kingdom, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty was created in 1894 to protect that country's historic and natural heritage. While there was no National Park Service in the United States until 1916, battlefields of the Civil War were designated and managed by the War Department: Chickamauga and Chattanooga, Shiloh, Gettysburg and Chalmette. Domestically, Lord Dufferin, the Governor General from 1872 to 1878, initiated some of the earliest, high-profile efforts to preserve Canada's historic sites, he was instrumental in stopping the demolition of the fortifications of Quebec City, he was the first public official to call for the creation of a park on the lands next to Niagara Falls. The 1908 tricentennial of the founding of Quebec City, the establishment that same year of the National Battlefields Commission to preserve the Plains of Abraham, acted as a catalyst for federal efforts to designate and preserve historic sites across Canada. At the same time, the federal government was looking for ways to extend the National Park system to Eastern Canada.
The more populated east did not have the same large expanses of undeveloped Crown land that had become parks in the west, so the Dominion Parks Branch looked to historic features to act as focal points for new national parks. In 1914, the Parks Branch undertook a survey of historic sites in Canada, with the objective of creating new recreational areas rather than preserving historic places. Fort Howe in Saint John, New Brunswick was designated a national historic park in 1914, named the "Fort Howe National Park"; the fort was not a site of significant national historic importance, but its designation provided a rationale for the acquisition of land for a park. Fort Anne in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia was designated in 1917. In 1919, William James Roche, the Minister of the Interior, was concerned over the fate of old fur trade posts in Western Canada, he was being lobbied by historical associations across Canada for federal funds to assist with the preservation and commemoration of local landmarks.
At the same time, the Department of Militia and Defence was anxious to transfer old forts, the associated expenses, to the Parks Branch. Roche asked James B. Harkin, the first Commissioner of Dominion Parks, to develop a departmental heritage policy. Harkin believed that the Parks Branch did not have the necessary expertise to manage historic resources. On Harkin's recommendation, the government created the Advisory Board for Historic Site Preservation in 1919 in order to advise the Minister on a new program of National Historic Sites. Brigadier General Ernest Alexander Cruikshank, a noted authority on the War of 1812 and the history of Ontario, was chosen as the Board's first chairman, a post he held for twenty years; the first place designated and plaqued under the new program was the "Cliff Site" in Port Dover, where two priests claimed sovereignty over the Lake Erie region for Louis XIV of France in 1670. Due to a lack of resources, the HSMBC limited itself to recommending sites for designation, the focus of the program was on commemoration rather than on preservation.
Benjamin Sulte, a member of the HSMBC, wrote to Harkin in 1919 about the significant ruins at the Forges du Saint-Maurice, demonstrating his preference for the installation of a plaque over restoration: "All that can be done in our days is to clear away the heap of stones, in order to reach the foundation walls and plant a sign in the centre of the square thus uncovered."In the early years of the program, National Historic Sites were chosen to commemorate battles, important men, the fur trade and political events. Of the 285 National Historic Sites designated by 1943, 105 represented military history, 52 represented the fur trade and exploration, 43 represented famous individuals (almo