Igor Dodon is a Moldovan politician, the President of Moldova since 23 December 2016. He was the leader of the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova, he served as Minister of Trade and Economics in the governments of Vasile Tarlev and Zinaida Greceanîi from September 2006 to September 2009 and was a member of the Parliament of Moldova from 2009 to 2016. Igor Dodon was born on 18 February 1975 in Sadova village in the Călărași District of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic to Nikolai and Galina Dodon, he studied economics at the Agricultural State University of Moldova and received a doctorate in 1998 from the Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova. From 1997 to 2005, he worked as an assistant lecturer in the academic field; this is where he would meet his wife Galina in May 1995. Besides his wife, Dodon has three children, his oldest son Vladislav is a passionate player of water polo. Aside from his native Romanian, he speaks Russian and English. On 9 September 2018, Dodon was involved in a car accident on the Chisinau-Călărași highway.
Although Dodon wasn't injured himself, his mother and his middle son Nicolae sustained serious injuries. His accident came hours after Abkhazian Prime Minister Gennadi Gagulia was killed in a car accident in the Abkhazian city of Myussera. Dodon was appointed to the post of Associate Minister of Trade and Economics in May 2005, during the second Tarlev Cabinet, he assumed the position of Minister of Trade and Economics in September 2006. He held the position until September 2009. Dodon held the post of Associate Prime Minister under Greceanîi from 2008 until 2009. In June 2011, Dodon lost to Dorin Chirtoacă in the election for mayor of Chișinău, he took 49.4% of the vote. In November 2011, Dodon left the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova citing hopes that a deal could be worked out with the ruling Alliance for European Integration to elect a president and end a constitutional crisis that had dragged on since the resignation of Vladimir Voronin in 2009. Greceanîi and Veronica Abramciuc left at the same time.
On 18 December 2011, Dodon joined the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova and was elected chairman of the party. On 16 March 2012, three former communists voted for the Alliance for European Integration candidate Nicolae Timofti as President of Moldova. Dodon stated that he regretted his vote for Timofti. After he was elected as the President of Moldova, due to specifics of Moldovan law, Dodon resigned as PSRM chairman and left the party, being replaced by Zinaida Greceanîi as interim leader. According to the polls carried out in 2019 related to the most respected politicians of the Republic of Moldova, Igor Dodon enjoys the highest trust, ranking first among politicians in which Moldovans have the highest trust. Igor Dodon is considered a pro-Russian politician and in favor of the federalization of Moldova. In 2010, the Party of Communists started promoting a new official flag for Moldova. In March 2012, Igor Dodon and the Party of Socialists invited PCRM to initiate a referendum to change the national flag of Moldova from the original tricolour to a red-blue bicolor flag.
The proposed flag is considered by the Academy of Sciences of Moldova as a "pure political invention". In November 2012, Dodon posted on his Facebook profile a photo that shows him wearing clothes printed with a patch of the Russian flag, criticized as a sign of Dodon's alleged Russophilia. In November 2014, the socialist politician of Russian ethnicity Valentin Crîlov accused Igor Dodon of being an "instrument of scenarios that would cause'bloodshed' in Moldova", labeled the Party of Socialists as "being in the service of another country" such as Russia, he accused the party of becoming a threat to the "stability and the existence" of the Republic of Moldova and its extraordinarily large base of financial resources — the origin of which bear "reasonable doubt". In October 2016, during the presidential election campaign, Igor Dodon affirmed that Crimea, the subject of a territorial dispute between Russia and Ukraine, "is a territory of the Russian Federation". In January 2017 Dodon stated that Moldova would not recognize Crimea as Russian, stressing that "we need to build friendships with Ukraine, we need to solve the Transnistrian problem."On 17 October 2017, the Constitutional Court of Moldova decided that Dodon is temporarily unable to perform his duties for failing to swear in proposed Defence Minister Eugen Sturza.
On 2 January 2018, the Constitutional Court of Moldova decided that Dodon is temporarily unable to perform his duties for failing to swear in a number of seven ministers. Several days the Constitutional Court once again temporarily suspended Dodon, due to his veto on a bill on restricting Russian news broadcasts; this allowed the parliament to bypass his veto and enact a law restricting Russian television broadcasts. The law bans television channels from broadcasting news and analytical programs from countries that have not signed the regional agreement for the European Broadcasting Area, such as Russia. Dodon was sworn in on December 2016 in the Palace of the Republic. Three days the flag of the European Union, hanging next to the Moldovan flag was removed from the building of the Moldovan presidential administration. On January 4, 2017, in the Dodon met with the President of the breakaway republic of Transnistria Vadim Krasnoselsky; this meeting was the first meeting of the leaders of Transnistria in 8 years.
His first two internati
Nicolae Timofti is a Moldovan jurist and politician, President of Moldova from 23 March 2012 until 23 December 2016. He served as head of Moldova's Supreme Magistrate Council and was elected President by parliament on 16 March 2012. Timofti was born to Elena and Vasile Timofti in Ciutulești, Moldavian SSR, Soviet Union, has four siblings. At the beginning of 1949, his family moved to Florești. On 6 July 1949, his paternal grandfather Tudor Timofti was deported by Soviet authorities to the Amur region, where he died in 1953. Timofti graduated from the law school of Moldova State University in 1972. After graduation, Timofti spent two years in the Soviet Army before beginning his career as a judge in 1976. "He is a person, with us when we started reforms in the 1990s," Mihai Ghimpu said. In 2005, Timofti was appointed to the Higher Judicial Chamber and, in 2011, he was named chairman of the Supreme Council of Magistrates. After his election by parliament, Timofti identified Moldova's European orientation as a priority, as it had been the country's policy during the previous years.
Former acting president and speaker of the Parliament of Moldova Mihai Ghimpu called Timofti "...a progressive man, means a lot for the Republic of Moldova." Timofti is married to the lawyer Margareta Timofti and they have three sons: Alexei works as a lawyer for the World Bank in Washington, Nicolae is a sports journalist in Chișinău, Ștefan studies economics in Chișinău. Official Youtube channel of Nicolae Timofti Profile: Who Is Moldova's New President-Elect? News in Moldova about Nicolae Timofti Timofti's inauguration in 2012 Timofti with Giorgi Margvelashvili in 2014 Timofti with Patriarch Kirill of Moscow in 2013
Popular Front of Moldova
The Popular Front of Moldova was a political movement in the Moldavian SSR, one of the 15 union republics of the former Soviet Union, in the newly independent Republic of Moldova. Formally, the Front existed from 1989 to 1992, it was the successor to the Democratic Movement of Moldova, was succeeded by the Christian Democratic Popular Front and by the Christian-Democratic People's Party. The Popular Front was well organized nationally, with its strongest support in the capital and in areas of the country most populated by Moldavians. Once the organization was in power, internal disputes led to a sharp fall in popular support, it fragmented into several competing factions by early 1993; the precursor of the Front, the Democratic Movement of Moldova organized public meetings and song festivals since February 1988, which grew in size and intensity. In the streets, the center of public manifestations was the Stephen the Great Monument in Chișinău, the adjacent park harboring Aleea Clasicilor. On January 15, 1988, in a tribute to Mihai Eminescu at his bust on the Aleea Clasicilor, Anatol Șalaru submitted the proposal to continue the meetings.
In the public discourse, the movement called for national awakening, freedom of speech, revival of Moldavian traditions, for attainment of official status for the Moldovan language and return of it to the Latin script. The transition from "movement" to "front" was regarded by its sympathizers as a natural "upgrade" once the movement has gained momentum with the public, the Soviet authorities could no longer crack down on it. Leonida Lari was main leaders of Popular Front of Moldova; the Front's founding congress took place on May 20, 1989 amidst the backdrop of a ferment that had gripped the republic since late 1988, spurred by the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev. It was a reformist movement modeled on the Baltic pattern that stressed glasnost and demokratizatsiya and was not exclusivist; the congress was attended by representatives from many of Moldova's ethnic groups, including a delegate from the Gagauz umbrella organisation, Gagauz Halkı. During the second congress, Ion Hadârcă was elected as president of the Front, from among 3 candidates for the job.
Other two candidates that sought election to the post were Gheorghe Ghimpu. FPM was at first called a "public organization", since political parties other than the Communist Party were forbidden in the USSR; the movement consisted of a broad multi-ethnic coalition of independent cultural and political groups that pressed for reform within the Soviet system and for the national emancipation of ethnic Moldovans. However, an ethnic cleavage became apparent as titular Popular Front representatives called only for the Moldovan language, written in Latin script, to be made official, other ethnicities began to feel alienated. In April 1989, in response to this agitation, Gagauz nationalists had begun to demand the creation of their own ethno-federal unit in Moldova, Gagauz mobilization accelerated in the wake of massive Moldovan nationalist demonstrations that summer calling for a new language law, republican sovereignty and secession. In summer 1989, Russian-speaking elites in Transnistria had defected from the movement, perceiving the language demands as an example of chauvinism.
In early August, a Communist party newspaper in Tiraspol published drafts of the new law, showing that no plans existed to declare Russian a second official language. An alliance between Gagauz and Russians formed, in opposition to Moldovan demands and enjoying support from the USSR government, so that by early August, Moldova's ad hoc multiethnic opposition, which had allowed the Popular Front to emerge as a unified force from a plethora of informal organisations 2½ months earlier, was defunct. Moreover, Moscow was worried by the Front's raising another issue: the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact; the Popular Front was far from dead and soon achieved its first major objective. Grand National Assembly was the first major achievement of the Popular Front. Mass demonstrations organized by its activists, including one attended by 300,000 participants on August 27, were of critical importance in convincing the Moldovan Supreme Soviet to adopt a new language law on August 31, 1989, to thunderous applause.
The law stipulated Latin-script Moldovan as the state language, although it was quite moderate, for instance defining Russian as a second "language of interethnic communication" alongside Moldovan, the language of communication with the Soviet Union authorities. When this autonomous territorial unit was created and Russian were recognized as official alongside Moldovan in Gagauzia. On August 27, 1989, the FPM organized a mass demonstration in Chișinău, that became known as the Great National Assembly, which pressured the authorities of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic to adopt a language law on August 31, 1989 that proclaimed the Moldovan language written
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev was a Soviet politician. The fifth leader of the Soviet Union, he was General Secretary of the Central Committee of the governing Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1964 until his death in 1982. Ideologically, he was a Marxist-Leninist. Brezhnev was born to a Russian worker's family in Kamenskoye in the Russian Empire. After graduating from the Kamenskoye Metallurgical Technicum, he became a metallurgical engineer in the iron and steel industry. After the October Revolution led to the formation of a one-party state led by the Communist Party, Brezhnev joined the party's youth league, Komsomol, in 1923, became an active party member by 1929. With the onset of World War II, he was drafted into immediate military service and left the army in 1946 with the rank of major general. In 1952 Brezhnev was promoted in 1957 to full member of the Politburo. In 1964, he succeeded Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the CPSU; as the leader of the Soviet Union, Brezhnev's conservatism and carefulness to reach decisions through consensus within the Politburo resulted in sustained political stability within the party and the country.
However, his hostility towards reform and tolerance of corruption ushered in a period of socioeconomic decline that came to be known as the Brezhnev Stagnation. On the world stage, Brezhnev pushed hard for the adoption of détente to relax tensions and foster economic cooperation between the two Cold War superpowers. Despite such diplomatic gestures, his regime presided over widespread military interventionism and a massive arms buildup that grew to comprise 12.5% of the nation's GNP. After years of declining health, Brezhnev died on 10 November 1982 and was succeeded as General Secretary by Yuri Andropov. Upon coming to power in 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev denounced his regime's pervasive inefficiency and inflexibility before overseeing steps to liberalize the Soviet Union. Brezhnev's eighteen-year term as General Secretary was second only to that of Joseph Stalin in duration. During Brezhnev's rule, the global influence of the Soviet Union grew in part because of the expansion of its military during this time.
His tenure as leader was marked by the beginning of an era of economic and social stagnation in the Soviet Union. Brezhnev was born on 19 December 1906 in Kamenskoye, Yekaterinoslav Governorate, Russian Empire, to metalworker Ilya Yakovlevich Brezhnev and his wife, Natalia Denisovna Mazalova, his parents used to live in Brezhnevo before moving to Kamenskoe. Brezhnev's ethnicity was specified as Ukrainian in main documents including his passport, Russian in some others. Like many youths in the years after the Russian Revolution of 1917, he received a technical education, at first in land management and in metallurgy, he graduated from the Kamenskoye Metallurgical Technicum in 1935 and became a metallurgical engineer in the iron and steel industries of eastern Ukraine. Brezhnev joined the Communist Party youth organisation, the Komsomol, in 1923, the Party itself in 1929. In 1935 and 1936, Brezhnev served his compulsory military service, after taking courses at a tank school, he served as a political commissar in a tank factory.
In 1936, he became director of the Dniprodzerzhynsk Metallurgical Technicum. In 1936, he was transferred to the regional center of Dnipropetrovsk, in 1939, he became Party Secretary in Dnipropetrovsk, in charge of the city's important defence industries; as a survivor of Stalin's Great Purge of 1937–39, he was able to advance as the purges created numerous openings in the senior and middle ranks of the Party and state governments. When Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, Brezhnev was, like most middle-ranking Party officials drafted, he worked to evacuate Dnipropetrovsk's industries to the east of the Soviet Union before the city fell to the Germans on 26 August, was assigned as a political commissar. In October, Brezhnev was made deputy of political administration for the Southern Front, with the rank of Brigade-Commissar; when Ukraine was occupied by the Germans in 1942, Brezhnev was sent to the Caucasus as deputy head of political administration of the Transcaucasian Front.
In April 1943, he became head of the Political Department of the 18th Army. That year, the 18th Army became part of the 1st Ukrainian Front, as the Red Army regained the initiative and advanced westward through Ukraine; the Front's senior political commissar was Nikita Khrushchev, who had supported Brezhnev's career since the pre-war years. Brezhnev had met Khrushchev in 1931, shortly after joining the Party, before long, as he continued his rise through the ranks, he became Khrushchev's protégé. At the end of the war in Europe, Brezhnev was chief political commissar of the 4th Ukrainian Front, which entered Prague in May 1945, after the German surrender. Brezhnev temporarily left the Soviet Army with the rank of Major General in August 1946, he had spent the entire war as a political commissar rather than a military commander. After working on reconstruction projects in Ukraine, he again became General Secretary in Dnipropetrovsk. In 1950, he became a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union's highest legislative body.
That year he was appointed Party First Secretary in the Moldavian SSR. In 1952, he had a meeting with Stalin after which Stalin promoted Brezhnev to the Communist Party's Central Commit
Ion C. Inculeț was the president of the Moldavian Democratic Republic, he was a minister in Romania. Born in Răzeni, the Russian Empire, now in Republic of Moldova, Inculeț graduated the Chișinău Seminary, studied medicine for a year at the Estonian Dorpat University and he moved to Saint Petersburg, where he graduated in science at the Saint Petersburg University, working there as a lecturer. After getting his PhD in 1915, Inculeț worked as a physicist at the Meteorological Observatory, while at the same time, he wrote for the Basarabia newspaper of Constantin Stere. Participating in the February Revolution, on May 25 Inculeț was sent by Alexander Kerensky as a representative of the Russian Provisional Government to Bessarabia to follow the evolution of events. Sfatul Țării, a representative body was formed on November 21, 1917, Inculeț is chosen in unanimity its president; the first session of Sfatul Țării was held on December 4 1917, chose Ion Inculeț as its president. On December 15 1917, Sfatul Țării proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic, with Inculeț as President.
On April 9 1918, Sfatul Țării decided the union of Bessarabia with Romania and Inculeț was appointed Minister for Bessarabia in the Romanian government. On October 22 1918, Ioan Simionescu proposed Inculeț to be a member of the Romanian Academy and he was elected as a full member on the meeting which took place the following day, his inaugural speech was named "Space and time in new scientific light" and it talked about the importance of Einstein's 1916 Theory of Relativity. Together with Pan Halippa, Inculeț founded the Bessarabian Peasants' Party, which militated for land reform in Bessarabia. In 1923, his wing of the party joined the National Liberal Party. Inculeț was buried at the Bellu cemetery in Bucharest; the remains of Ion C. Inculeț and his spouse, Roxana Cantacuzino, were moved to Bârnova on June 7, 1942; the tombs of Inculeț and his wife are inside the Bârnova church
Petru Lucinschi is a former Moldovan politician, Moldova's second President. Petru Lucinschi was born on 27 January 1940 in Rădulenii Vechi village, Soroca County, Kingdom of Romania, he has a PhD in Philosophy from the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. From 1971, Lucinschi was a member of the Executive Committee of the Central Committee of the Communist Party in Moldavian SSR, he was the only native Moldovan in the leadership of Communist Party of Moldova at that time, when the leadership of Moldavian SSR was completely in the hands of people from outside the republic or Transnistrians. From 1978 to 1989, he was First Secretary of Chișinău City Committee of the Communist Party of Moldova. In 1978, Ivan Bodiul sent him to work for the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in Moscow, where Lucinschi remained until 1986. From 1986 to 1989, Lucinschi was second secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan. Upon his return to Moldavian SSR in 1989, he became first secretary of the Communist Party of Moldova.
In early 1991, he was appointed First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, so he again left Moldavian SSR for Moscow. In 1992, he was appointed as Ambassador of Moldova in Russia. On 4 February 1993, he was elected as Speaker of the Moldovan Parliament, being re-elected on 29 March 1994 for a new term, he held the position until 1997. Lucinschi was elected Moldova's second president in November 1996, he served until 2001, when he called a snap election, the Parliament voted in favour of Vladimir Voronin. Lucinschi was married to Antonina, a retired schoolteacher, has two sons and Chiril. Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour Order of Redeemer Grand Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre Order "Star of Romania"
1990 Moldavian Supreme Soviet election
Parliamentary elections were held in the Moldavian SSR in February and March 1990 to elect the 380 members of the Supreme Soviet. They were the first and only free elections to the Supreme Soviet of the MSSR, although the Communist Party of Moldova was the only registered party allowed to contest the election, opposition candidates were allowed to run as independents. Together with affiliated groups, the Popular Front of Moldova won a landslide victory. Candidates who were supporters of the Popular Front won about 27% of seats. On 5 June the Supreme Soviet renamed the Moldavian SSR the "Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova" and issued a Declaration of Sovereignty on 23 June, it subsequently removed references to socialism and soviets on 23 May 1991 by adopting the name "Republic of Moldova". It subsequently declared full independence from the Soviet Union on 27 August 1991; the next legislature was elected as the Parliament of Moldova in 1994. All 380 deputies were elected in uninominal constituencies.
The first sitting of the parliament was held on April 17, 1990. Andrei Baştovoi, electronics engineer in Soroca Anatol Salaru, a physician Victor Pavlic, agronomist Soroca District Ilie Mocanu, first secretary of the Communist Party of Moldova, Soroca Vasile Gudima, kolkhoz president, Ocniţa district Andrei Ţurcanu, "Institute of Language and Literature" of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova Mihai Poita, deputy minister of Culture Nicolae Robu, engineer Soroca District Vasile Nedelciuc, Chişinău Engineer Alexandru Mosanu, dean of the History Faculty, Moldova State University Ion Popa, sovkhoz director, Orhei district Constantin Culea, sovkhoz director, Orhei district Gheorghe Carlan, People's Court, Chisinau Mihai Sâromatnicov, kolkhoz president, Riscani District Valeriu Cibotaru, lawyer r-l Suvorov Valentin Mândâcanu, USSR Union of Writers, teacher Titu Serghei, Leadoveni Pavel Lupăcescu, Chief of the zootechnical complex in Sîngereii Mihai Bejan, kolkhoz president Costeşti Dumitru Guţu, First Secretary of the Communist Party of Moldova Riscani Jorj Crisico, president of "Avangard" Soroca District Mihai Străjescu, mathematical teacher Verejeni r Teleneşti Vitalie Ustroi, general manager "Valeologia" Dumitru Cereş, president of CR Taraclia Anatol Ivanov, director of "Moldprojectmobeli" Institute Chisinau Peter Soltan, professor Moldova State University Alexandru Gorodnicenco, first secretary of the Komsomol Chişinău Iurie Maxuta, chairman of the trade union committee "Sciotmaş" - pensioner Vladimir Dobrea, Chief Executive Officer of Chişinău - "Lukoil" Company, Romania Nicolae Grosu, Sovihoz "Miciurin", Talmaza village - president of NGO "Renaşterea" Nicolae Alexei, Inspector, SAI Straseni — Chief of the Republican Ecological Inspectorate Ion Eremia, Professor ŞM, Colibaşi - Director of V. Alecsandri High School, Colibaşi village Dumitru Braşoveanu, member of the Supreme Court - lawyer Elisei Secrieru, People's Court - lawyer Vlad Pascaru, editor-in-chief of "Plaiul Orhei" newspaper - editor "Customs Courier" Teodor Macrinici, kolkhoz president, village Bieşti - coordinator economist, National Bank Vasile Pruteanu, Professor ŞM, Peresecina - mayor, Peresecina village Dumitru Cernei, kolkhoz president, village of Bulăieşti - deputy director "Baştina-Radog" Nicolae Domente, first secretary of CR of PCM Orhei — employee of "Glass Container Company" Gheorghe Bogdanov, Deputy Head of Civil Aviation Department - Retired Iurie Timoshenco, General Manager of Technological Equipment Plant - retired Vasile Basoc, kolkhoz president, s.
Măcăreşti - deputy mayor, village of Măcăreşti Ion Borsevici, Rector of IP "Ion Creanga" - retired Anton Spanu, Chief of the Department, Medical University of Chisinau - doctor-surgeon Tudor Lefter, president of CER Teleneşti — businessman Andrei Munteanu, priest - abbot of Hârbovăţ Monastery, Calarasi r. Gheorghe Siumbeli, kolkhoz president - deceased Gheorghe Nechit, first secretary of CPM Party District Committee Taraclia — Head of Division, Court of Accounts Dumitru Holban, Agricultural Institute - University Professor, UAS Grigore Cusnir, worker of CC of PCM - businessman Gheorghe Răducan, director of SPT-29 - deceased Fiodor Nirean, the president of CR Slobozia -? Sergiu Fandofan, Head of Management at "Agropromsoiuz" - Inspector at the State Environmental Inspectorate Ion Tacu, kolkhoz president, s. Ciuciuleni - businessman Mihai Scutaru, kolkhoz president, Mileşti - director of "Moldovagroindbank" Nisporeni Mihai Ciorici, chairman of the PMC Nisporeni CR — director of "D. Invest-Serving" Nisporeni Ilarion Guidea, president of CAI "Vărzăreşti" - chief land specialist, Vărzăreşti Ion Scutaru, kolkhoz president, s.
Bălăsineşti - invalid grade II Mihai Lazar, kolkhoz president - contractor Nicolae Misail, correspondent for the newspaper "Socialist Moldova" - editor-in-chief of the newspaper "Oraşul Satului" Ion Tanas Vasile Para, Chief Engineer at Dairy Farm - businessman Valeriu Jardan, Neuropathologist at SR Corneşti - Director, Ungheni College of Medicine Alexandru Ohotnicov, Head of Section at Moldovaghidromas Chisinau - Head of the Service of the Presidency of the RM Valentin Colun, Head of the Legal Section of AP "Sciotmas" - Attorney Semion Guranda, deputy chief medical officer at COMC - deceased Sergiu Argatu, kolkhoz president, s