The Romanian Revolution was a period of violent civil unrest in the Socialist Republic of Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries. The Romanian Revolution started in the city of Timișoara and soon spread throughout the country culminating in the show trial and execution of longtime Communist Party General Secretary Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena, the end of 42 years of Communist rule in Romania, it was the last removal of a Marxist-Leninist government in a Warsaw Pact country during the events of 1989, the only one that violently overthrew a country's government and executed its leader. Early protests occurred in the city of Timișoara in mid-December on the part of the Hungarian minority in response to an attempt by the government to evict Hungarian Reformed church pastor László Tőkés. In response, Romanians sought revolution and a change in government in light of similar recent events in neighbouring nations; the country's ubiquitous secret police force, the Securitate, both one of the largest in the Eastern Bloc and for decades had been the main suppressor of popular dissension and violently quashing political disagreement proved powerless in stopping the looming, highly fatal and successful revolt.
Social and economic malaise had been present in socialist Romania for quite some time during the austerity years of the 1980s. The austerity measures were designed in part by Ceaușescu to repay foreign debts. Shortly after a botched public speech by Ceaușescu in Bucharest, broadcast to millions of Romanians on state television, rank-and-file members of the military switched unanimously, from supporting the dictator to backing the protesting population. Riots, street violence and murder in several Romanian cities over the course of a week led the Romanian strongman to flee the capital city on 22 December with his wife, Deputy Prime Minister Elena Ceaușescu. Evading capture by hastily departing via helicopter portrayed the couple as both fugitives and acutely guilty of accused crimes. Captured in Târgoviște, they were tried by a drumhead military tribunal on charges of genocide, damage to the national economy and abuse of power to execute military actions against the Romanian people, they were convicted on all charges, sentenced to death, executed on Christmas Day 1989, to this day, are the last people to be condemned to death and executed in Romania.
Present-day Romania has unfolded in the shadow of the Ceaușescus along with its communist past, the tumultuous departure from it. The National Salvation Front took power after Ceaușescu was toppled, promising free and fair elections within five months. Elected in a landslide the following May, the National Salvation Front, reconstituted as a political party, installed a series of economic and democratic reforms, with further social policy changes being implemented by governments. Since that point Romania has become far more integrated with the West than its former, albeit tepid, relations with Moscow. Romania became the European Union in 2004 and 2007, respectively. Democratic reforms have proven to be moderately successful. Economic reforms continue, with Romania still possessing, for example, one of the highest child poverty rates in the developed world. In 1981 Ceaușescu began an austerity programme designed to enable Romania to liquidate its entire national debt. To achieve this, many basic goods—including gas and food—were rationed, which drastically reduced the standard of living and increased malnutrition.
The infant mortality rate grew to be the highest in Europe. The secret police, had become so omnipresent that it made Romania a police state. Free speech was limited and opinions that did not favour the Communist Party were forbidden; the large numbers of Securitate informers made organised dissent nearly impossible. The regime deliberately played on this sense that everyone was being watched to make it easier to bend the people to the Party's will. By Soviet-bloc standards, the Securitate was exceptionally brutal. Ceaușescu created a cult of personality, with weekly shows in stadiums or on streets in different cities dedicated to him, his wife and the Communist Party. There were several megalomaniac projects, such as the construction of the grandiose House of the Republic —the biggest palace in the world—the adjacent Centrul Civic and a never-completed museum dedicated to communism and Ceaușescu, today the Casa Radio; these and similar projects drained the country's finances and aggravated the dire economic situation.
Thousands of Bucharest residents were evicted from their homes, which were subsequently demolished to make room for the huge structures. Unlike the other Warsaw Pact leaders, Ceaușescu had not been slavishly pro-Soviet but rather had pursued an "independent" foreign policy. Conversely, while Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev spoke of reform, Ceaușescu maintained a hard political line and cult of personality; the austerity programme started in 1981 and the widespread poverty it introduced made the Communist regime unpopular. The austerity programmes were met with little resistance among Romanians and there were only a few strikes and
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
Theodor Paleologu is a Romanian historian and politician. An independent, a member of the National Liberal Party, the People's Movement Party and the Democratic Liberal Party, he was a member of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies for Bucharest from 2008 to 2016. Additionally, in the first two Emil Boc cabinets, from December 2008 to December 2009 he was Minister of Culture, Religious Affairs and Cultural Heritage; the son of Olimpia and Alexandru Paleologu, he was born in Bucharest and completed secondary studies at the city's German High School. He attended University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne from 1992 to 1998, where he obtained undergraduate and master's degrees in Philosophy, he attended the École Normale Supérieure from 1996 to 2001, from 1998 to 2001, worked on a doctorate in political sciences at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales and the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. He was a lecturer at Boston College from 1999 to 2000, a visiting professor at Deep Springs College in 2003, a research fellow at the University of Notre Dame, New York University, Harvard University and the Institute for Advanced Study, Berlin.
He was an external lecturer at the University of Copenhagen in 2007 and 2008, since 2003 has been assistant professor and director of the summer university at the European College of Liberal Arts in Berlin. Between 2005 and 2008, he served as Romania's ambassador to Iceland. In the Chamber, he sits on the Arts and Mass Media Committee; as minister, his top priority was the preservation of Romania's historic monuments. His ministerial term ended when he was not reappointed to a new cabinet under Boc at the end of 2009. At the 2012 local election, he ran for mayor of Bucharest's Sector 1, finishing second with 14.1% of the vote. Running in the legislative election that year, he placed second in his district, but won another term through the redistribution mechanism specified by the electoral law. In February 2014, he followed Elena Udrea in resigning from the PD-L and joining the People's Movement Party. A year he entered the National Liberal Party, proclaiming that the PMP had degenerated into a "total fiasco".
In June 2016, the PNL expelled him after he criticized the party leadership for its disrespect toward Save Bucharest Union leader Nicușor Dan. Paleologu ran as an independent in the December election and won some 8,000 votes, well short of the 25,000 needed to secure a seat, he has written one on Carl Schmitt and one on the year 2004 in Romanian politics. In 2013, he began holding private courses on the humanities and diplomacy in his family home, he was married to a French opera singer of Lebanese origin. The two are divorced and have one son, Mihail
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, violence, compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families. Unfree labour includes all forms of slavery, related institutions. Many of these forms of work may be covered by the term forced labour, defined by the International Labour Organization as all involuntary work or service exacted under the menace of a penalty. However, under the ILO Forced Labour Convention of 1930, the term forced or compulsory labour shall not include: any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws for work of a purely military character. If payment occurs, it may be in one or more of the following forms: The payment does not exceed subsistence or exceeds it. Unfree labour is more instituted and enforced on migrant workers, who have traveled far from their homelands and who are identified because of their physical, linguistic, or cultural differences from the general population, since they are unable or unlikely to report their conditions to the authorities.
According to the Marxian economics, under capitalism, workers never keep all of the wealth they create, as some of it goes to the profit of capitalists. By contrast with modern subjective theory of value, the wages offered represent the marginal utility of the labour, any profit is due to other inputs provided, such as capital, time value of money, or risk. Unfree labor re-emerged as an issue in the debate about rural development during the years following the end of the Second World War, when a political concern of Keynesian theory was not just economic reconstruction but planning. A crucial aspect of the ensuing discussion concerned the extent to which different relational forms constituted obstacles to capitalist development, why. During the 1960s and 1970s unfree labor was regarded as incompatible with capitalist accumulation, thus an obstacle to economic growth, an interpretation advanced by exponents of the then-dominant semi-feudal thesis. From the 1980s onwards, however and different Marxist view emerged, arguing that evidence from Latin America and India suggested agribusiness enterprises, commercial farmers and rich peasants reproduced, introduced or reintroduced unfree relations.
However, recent contributions to this debate have attempted to exclude Marxism from the discussion. These contributions maintain that, because Marxist theory failed to understand the centrality of unfreedom to modern capitalism, a new explanation of this link is needed; this claim has been questioned by Tom Brass, ‘Debating Capitalist Dynamics and Unfree Labour: A Missing Link?’, The Journal of Development Studies, 50:4, 570–82. He argues that many of these new characteristics are in fact no different from those identified earlier by Marxist theory and that the exclusion of the latter approach from the debate is thus unwarranted; the International Labour Organization estimates that at least 12.3 million people are victims of forced labour worldwide. Other 2.5 million are forced to work by rebel military groups. From an international law perspective, countries that allow forced labor are violating international labour standards as set forth in the Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, one of the fundamental conventions of the ILO.
According to the ILO Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, global profits from forced trafficked labour exploited by private agents are estimated at US$44,3 billion per year. About 70% of this value come from trafficked victims. At least the half of this sum comes from industrialized countries. Trafficking is a term to define the recruiting, harbouring and transportation of a person by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as acts related to commercial sexual exploitation
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. It is not the end of a war, since it may constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace, it is derived from the Latin arma, meaning "arms" and -stitium, meaning "a stopping". The United Nations Security Council imposes, or tries to impose, cease-fire resolutions on parties in modern conflicts. Armistices are always negotiated between the parties themselves and are thus seen as more binding than non-mandatory UN cease-fire resolutions in modern international law. An armistice is a modus vivendi and is not the same as a peace treaty, which may take months or years to agree on; the 1953 Korean War Armistice Agreement is a major example of an armistice which has not been followed by a peace treaty. Armistice is different from a truce or ceasefire, which refer to a temporary cessation of hostilities for an agreed limited time or within a limited area. A truce may be needed in order to negotiate an armistice.
Under international law an armistice is a legal agreement which ends fighting between the "belligerent parties" of a war or conflict. At the Hague Convention of 1899, where three treaties were agreed and three declarations made, the Convention with respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land stated that "If duration is not fixed," the parties can resume fighting as they choose, but with proper notifications; this is in comparison to a "fixed duration" armistice, where the parties can renew fighting only at the end of the particular fixed duration. When the belligerent parties say, "this armistice ends the fighting" without any end date for the armistice duration of the armistice is fixed in the sense that no resumption of the fighting is allowed at any time. For example, the Korean Armistice Agreement calls for a "ceasefire and armistice" and has the "objective of establishing an armistice which will ensure a complete cessation of hostilities and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a final peaceful settlement is achieved.
Armistice Day is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the Armistice of 11 November 1918 signed between the Allies of World War I and the German Empire at Compiègne, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918. Most countries changed the name of the holiday after World War II, to honor veterans of that and subsequent conflicts. Most member states of the Commonwealth of Nations adopted the name Remembrance Day, while the United States chose Veterans Day. Armistice of Copenhagen of 1537 ended the Danish war known as the Count's Feud Armistice of Stuhmsdorf of 1635 between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden Peace of Westphalia of 1648 that ended the Thirty Years' War and Eighty Years' War World War I Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, December 1917 Armistice of Salonika between Bulgaria and the Allies, September 1918 Armistice of Mudros between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies, October 1918 Austrian-Italian Armistice of Villa Giusti ended the fighting of the war on the Italian front in early November 1918 Armistice with Germany, ended the fighting of the war on the western front, November 11, 1918 Armistice of Mudanya between Turkey, Italy and the UK and Greece, 1922 World War II Armistice with France, 1940 Armistice of Saint Jean d'Acre between British forces in the Middle East and Vichy France forces in Syria, 1941 Armistice with Italy, formal agreement of warring parties, the Allies and Italy, to stop fighting, signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano.
Moscow Armistice, signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 19 September 1944 ending the Continuation War 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan and Syria Korean War Armistice Agreement, July 1953 Geneva Agreements signed by France and the Viet Minh on 20 July 1954 ending the First Indochina War Armistice in Algeria, 1962, which attempted to end the Algerian War "Allied Armistice Terms, 11 November 1918". The War to End All Wars. FirstWorldWar.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-04; the Expanded Cease-Fires Data Set Code Book
Lesbos is an island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. It has an area of 1,633 km2 with 320 kilometres of coastline, making it the third largest island in Greece, it is separated from Turkey by the narrow Mytilini Strait and in late Palaeolithic/Mesolithic times was joined to the Anatolian mainland before the end of the last glacial period. Lesbos is the name of a regional unit of the North Aegean region, within which Lesbos island is one of five governing islands; the others are Chios, Ikaria and Samos. The North Aegean region governs nine inhabited islands: Lesbos, Psara, Ikaria, Fournoi Korseon, Agios Efstratios and Samos; the capital of the North Aegean Region is Mytilene. The population of Lesbos is 86,000, a third of whom live in its capital, Mytilene, in the southeastern part of the island; the remaining population is distributed in small villages. The largest are Plomari, the Gera Villages, Agiassos and Molyvos. According to Greek writers, Mytilene was founded in the 11th century BC by the family Penthilidae, who arrived from Thessaly and ruled the city-state until a popular revolt led by Pittacus of Mytilene ended their rule.
In fact the archaeological and linguistic record may indicate a late Iron Age arrival of Greek settlers although references in Late Bronze Age Hittite archives indicate a Greek presence then. The name Mytilene. According to Homer's Iliad, Lesbos was part of the kingdom of Priam, based in Anatolia. Much work remains to be done to determine just when. In the Middle Ages, it was under Byzantine and Genoese rule. Lesbos was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1462; the Ottomans ruled the island until the First Balkan War in 1912, when it became part of the Kingdom of Greece. The name is from Ancient Greek: Λέσβος Lésbos "forested" or "woody" a Hittite borrowing, as the original Hittite name for the island was Lazpa. An older name for the island, maintained in Aeolic Greek was Ἴσσα Íssa. Lesbos lies in the far east of the Aegean sea, facing the Turkish coast from the east; the shape of the island is triangular, but it is intruded by the gulfs of Kalloni, with an entry on the southern coast, of Gera, in the southeast.
The island is forested and mountainous with two large peaks, Mt. Lepetymnos at 968 m and Mt. Olympus at 967 m, dominating its northern and central sections; the island's volcanic origin is manifested in the two gulfs. Lesbos is verdant, aptly named Emerald Island, with a greater variety of flora than expected for the island's size. Eleven million olive trees cover 40% of the island together with other fruit trees. Forests of mediterranean pines, chestnut trees and some oaks occupy 20%, the remainder is scrub, grassland or urban; the island has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. The mean annual temperature is 18 °C, the mean annual rainfall is 750 mm, its exceptional sunshine makes it one of the sunniest islands in the Aegean Sea. Snow and low temperatures are rare; the entire territory of Lesbos is "Lesvos Geopark", a member of the European Geoparks Network and Global Geoparks Network on account of its outstanding geological heritage, educational programs and projects, promotion of geotourism.
This geopark was enlarged from former "Lesvos Petrified Forest Geopark". Lesbos contains one of the few known petrified forests called Petrified forest of Lesbos and it has been declared a Protected Natural Monument. Fossilised plants have been found in many localities on the western part of the island; the fossilised forest was formed during the Late Oligocene to Lower–Middle Miocene, by the intense volcanic activity in the area. Neogene volcanic rocks dominate the central and western part of the island, comprising andesites and rhyolites, pyroclastics and volcanic ash; the products of the volcanic activity covered the vegetation of the area and the fossilization process took place during favourable conditions. The fossilized plants are silicified remnants of a sub-tropical forest that existed on the north-west part of the island 20–15 million years ago. According to Classical Greek mythology, Lesbos was the patron god of the island. Macareus of Rhodes was reputedly the first king whose many daughters bequeathed their names to some of the present larger towns.
In Classical myth his sister, was killed to have him made king. The place names with female origins are claimed by some to be much earlier settlements named after local goddesses, who were replaced by gods. Homer refers to the seat of Macar. Hittite records from the Late Bronze Age name the island Lazpa and must have considered its population significant enough to allow the Hittites to "borrow their gods" to cure their king when the local gods were not forthcoming, it is believed that emigrants from mainland Greece from Thessaly, entered the island in the Late Bronze Age and bequeathed it with the Aeolic dialect of the Greek language, whose written form survives in the poems of Sappho, amongst others. The abundant grey pottery ware found on the island and the worship of Cybele, the great mother-goddess of Anatolia, suggest the cultural continuity of the population from Neolithic times; when the Persian king Cyrus defeated Croesus the Ionic Greek cities of An
The Palaiologos found in English-language literature as Palaeologus or Palaeologue, was the name of a Byzantine Greek family, which rose to nobility and produced the last ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire. Founded by the 11th-century general Nikephoros Palaiologos and his son George, the family rose to the highest aristocratic circles through its marriage into the Doukas and Komnenos dynasties. After the Fourth Crusade, members of the family fled to the neighboring Empire of Nicaea, where Michael VIII Palaiologos became co-emperor in 1259, recaptured Constantinople and was crowned sole emperor of the Byzantine Empire in 1261, his descendants ruled the empire until the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks on May 29, 1453, becoming the longest-lived dynasty in Byzantine history. A branch of the Palaiologos became the feudal lords of Italy; this inheritance was incorporated by marriage to the Gonzaga family, rulers of the Duchy of Mantua, who are descendants of the Palaiologoi of Montferrat.
The origins of the Palaiologoi are unknown. Traditions sometimes tied them to the Italian city of Viterbo or to the Romans who immigrated east with Constantine the Great during the founding of his new capital. Both were fabrications created to help legitimize the dynasty; the family are first attested as local lords in Asia Minor Anatolikon, with Nikephoros Palaiologos rising to command over Mesopotamia under Michael VII Doukas. He supported the revolt of Nikephoros III Botaneiates, while his son George married Anna Doukaina and therefore supported his sister-in-law's husband Alexios Komnenos during his rise to power; as commander of Dyrrhachium, George faced the Norman Duke Robert Guiscard in battle. The Palaiologoi held military offices and further united their family to the Doukai and Komnenoi during the 12th century, they followed Theodore Laskaris to Nicaea and began to assume high-ranking political offices as well. Alexios Palaiologos, whose wife was a granddaughter of Zoe Doukaina and her husband Adrianos Komnenos.
Another Alexios Palaiologos married Irene Angelina, eldest daughter of Alexios III Angelos and Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera. The latter couple's daughter Theodora Palaiologina married her cousin Andronikos Palaiologos, descended from Zoe; the couple were the progenitors of the imperial dynasty. Their son was Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos. Michael VIII's son Andronikos II Palaiologos married Anne of Hungary and fathered Michael Palaiologos, sometimes numbered the ninth. Michael IX married Rita of Armenia, their son, the grandson of Andronikos II, was Andronikos III Palaiologos. Andronikos III married Anna of Savoy, their son was John V Palaiologos. John V married a daughter of his co-ruler John VI Kantakouzenos, their sons included Manuel II Palaiologos. Manuel II married Helena Dragaš, they were the parents of John VIII Palaiologos and Constantine XI Palaiologos, the last Byzantine emperor, as well as the despots of Morea Demetrios Palaiologos and Thomas Palaiologos. Demetrios, after giving Mehmed II a pretext to invade Morea, was kept from his throne and remained in captivity.
His daughter Helen was a member of the sultan's harem for a time. Thomas, in exile in Venice, sold the imperial title to Charles VIII of France, who however never used it for formal purposes. Thomas' daughter Zoe married Ivan III of Russia and, on rejoining the Orthodox faith, returned to her earlier name Sophia, her influence on the court curtailed the power of the boyars and led to the proclamation of the Grand Prince of Muscovy as the Tsar of all the Russias. Though Thomas's male-line descendants soon became extinct, his descent lives on through a daughter and the family of Castriota Dukes of san Pietro di Galatina in south-Italian aristocracy. Descent from Thomas to many of the current and former ruling houses of Europe comes from his descendant Charles Marie Raymond d'Arenberg, his daughter and Duchess Leopoldine d'Arenberg, married Joseph Nicholas of Windisch-Graetz, chamberlain to Archduchess Marie Antoinette of Austria. The Dukes in Bavaria descend from this line, as do the ruling houses of Belgium and Liechtenstein, the former ruling houses of Portugal and Romania.
Other branches of the Palaiologoi remained in Ottoman Constantinople, prospered in the immediate post-conquest period. In the decades after 1453, Ottoman tax registers show a consortium of noble Greeks co-operating to bid for the lucrative tax farming district including Constantinople and the ports of western Anatolia; this group included names like "Palologoz of Kassandros" and "Manuel Palologoz". This group stood in close contact with two powerful viziers, Mesih Pasha and Hass Murad Pasha, both of whom were members of the Palaiologos family and had converted to Islam after the fall of Constantinople, as well as with other converted scions of Byzantine and Balkan aristocratic families like Mahmud Pasha Angelović, forming what the Ottomanist Halil İnalcık termed a "Greek faction" at the court of Mehmed II. Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos, son of Michael VIII Michael IX Palaiologos, co-emperor, son of Andronikos II Andronikos III Palaiologos, son of Michael IX John V Palaiologos, son of