Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire, of the Byzantine Empire, of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire, until falling to the Ottoman Empire. It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, dedicated on 11 May 330; the city was located in what is now the core of modern Istanbul. From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe; the city was famed for its architectural masterpieces, such as the Greek Orthodox cathedral of Hagia Sophia, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares. The University of Constantinople was founded in the fifth century and contained numerous artistic and literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453, including its vast Imperial Library which contained the remnants of the Library of Alexandria and had over 100,000 volumes of ancient texts.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times as the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and as the guardian of Christendom's holiest relics such as the Crown of Thorns and the True Cross. Constantinople was famed for its complex defences; the first wall of the city was erected by Constantine I, surrounded the city on both land and sea fronts. In the 5th century, the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius under the child emperor Theodosius II undertook the construction of the Theodosian Walls, which consisted of a double wall lying about 2 kilometres to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front; this formidable complex of defences was one of the most sophisticated of Antiquity. The city was built intentionally to rival Rome, it was claimed that several elevations within its walls matched the'seven hills' of Rome; because it was located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara the land area that needed defensive walls was reduced, this helped it to present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces and towers, the result of the prosperity it achieved from being the gateway between two continents and two seas.
Although besieged on numerous occasions by various armies, the defences of Constantinople proved impregnable for nearly nine hundred years. In 1204, the armies of the Fourth Crusade took and devastated the city, its inhabitants lived several decades under Latin misrule. In 1261 the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos liberated the city, after the restoration under the Palaiologos dynasty, enjoyed a partial recovery. With the advent of the Ottoman Empire in 1299, the Byzantine Empire began to lose territories and the city began to lose population. By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, the first known name of a settlement on the site of Constantinople was Lygos, a settlement of Thracian origin founded between the 13th and 11th centuries BC; the site, according to the founding myth of the city, was abandoned by the time Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara founded Byzantium in around 657 BC, across from the town of Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus.
The origins of the name of Byzantion, more known by the Latin Byzantium, are not clear, though some suggest it is of Thraco-Illyrian origin. The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas; the Byzantines of Constantinople themselves would maintain that the city was named in honour of two men and Antes, though this was more just a play on the word Byzantion. The city was renamed Augusta Antonina in the early 3rd century AD by the Emperor Septimius Severus, who razed the city to the ground in 196 for supporting a rival contender in the civil war and had it rebuilt in honour of his son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, popularly known as Caracalla; the name appears to have been forgotten and abandoned, the city reverted to Byzantium/Byzantion after either the assassination of Caracalla in 217 or, at the latest, the fall of the Severan dynasty in 235. Byzantium took on the name of Kōnstantinoupolis after its refoundation under Roman emperor Constantine I, who transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium in 330 and designated his new capital as Nova Roma'New Rome'.
During this time, the city was called'Second Rome','Eastern Rome', Roma Constantinopolitana. As the city became the sole remaining capital of the Roman Empire after the fall of the West, its wealth and influence grew, the city came to have a multitude of nicknames; as the largest and wealthiest city in Europe during the 4th–13th centuries and a centre of culture and education of the Mediterranean basin, Constantinople came to be known by prestigious titles such as Basileuousa and Megalopol
Vardar Macedonia was the name given to the territory of the Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia corresponding to today's North Macedonia. It covers the northwestern part of geographical Macedonia, whose modern borders came to be defined by the mid-19th century, it refers to the part of the region of Macedonia attributed to the Kingdom of Serbia by the Treaty of Bucharest. The territory is named after the major river in the area; the area was called Southern Serbia Vardar Banovina, because the name Macedonia was prohibited in Serbia the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After World War I, the present-day Strumica and Novo Selo municipalities were broken away from Bulgaria and ceded to Yugoslavia. After World War II, most of the area became part of SFR Yugoslavia as SR Macedonia. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, besides the Republic of North Macedonia, the region encompasses Trgovište and Preševo municipalities in Serbia, as well the Elez Han municipality in Kosovo. Sometimes in the region are included the areas of Golo Brdo and Mala Prespa in Albania.
Below is the Church of Saint John at Kaneo in Ohrid. Macedonia Aegean Macedonia Pirin Macedonia Geography of North Macedonia Vardar statistical region Danforth, L. M.. The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World. Princeton University Press. P. 44. ISBN 0-691-04356-6 Alice Ackermann. Making Peace Prevail: Preventing Violent Conflict in Macedonia. Syracuse University Press. Pp. 55–. ISBN 978-0-8156-0602-4. Ilká Thiessen. Waiting for Macedonia: Identity in a Changing World. University of Toronto Press. Pp. 29–. ISBN 978-1-55111-719-5. Hugh Poulton. Who are the Macedonians?. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. Pp. 2–. ISBN 978-1-85065-534-3. Stefan Troebst. Das makedonische Jahrhundert: von den Anfängen der nationalrevolutionären Bewegung zum Abkommen von Ohrid 1893-2001. Oldenbourg. Pp. 344–. ISBN 978-3-486-58050-1. Dimitar Bechev. Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia. Scarecrow Press. Pp. 232–. ISBN 978-0-8108-6295-1
Vlachs Wallachians, is a historical term from the Middle Ages that designates an exonym—a name that foreigners use—mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube. As a contemporary term, in the English language, the Vlachs are the Eastern Romance-speaking peoples who live south of the Danube in what are now eastern Serbia, southern Albania, northern Greece, the Republic of North Macedonia, southwestern Bulgaria, as indigenous ethnic groups, such as the Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Macedo-Vlachs. In Polish and Hungarian, derivations of the term were applied to Italians; the term became a synonym in the Balkans for the social category of shepherds, was used for non-Romance-speaking peoples, in recent times in the western Balkans derogatively. There is a Vlach diaspora in other European countries Romania, as well as in North America and Australia."Vlachs" were identified and described during the 11th century by George Kedrenos. According to one origin theory, modern Romanians and Aromanians originated from Dacians.
According to some linguists and scholars, the Eastern Romance languages prove the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the lower Danube basin during the Migration Period and western Balkan populations known as "Vlachs" have had Romanized Illyrian origins. Nowadays, Eastern Romance-speaking communities are estimated at 26–30 million people worldwide. All Balkan countries have indigenous Romance-speaking minorities; the word Vlach/Wallachian is etymologically derived from the ethnonym of a Celtic tribe, adopted into Proto-Germanic *Walhaz, which meant "stranger", from *Wolkā-. Via Latin, in Gothic, as *walhs, the ethnonym took on the meaning "foreigner" or "Romance-speaker", was adopted into Greek Vláhi, Slavic Vlah, Hungarian oláh and olasz, etc; the root word was notably adopted in Germanic for Wales and Walloon, in Switzerland for Romansh-speakers, in Poland Włochy or in Hungary olasz became an exonym for Italians. The term was used for the Romanians. Testimonies from the 13th-14th centuries show that, although in the European space they were called Vlachs or Wallachians, the Romanians used for themselves the endonym "Rumân/Român", from the Latin "Romanus".
Via both Germanic and Latin, the term started to signify "stranger, foreigner" in the Balkans, where it in its early form was used for Romance-speakers, but the term took on the meaning of "shepherd, nomad". The Romance-speaking communities themselves however used the endonym "Romans". During the early history of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, there was a social class of Vlachs in Serbia and Ottoman Macedonia, made up of Christians who served as auxiliary forces and had the same rights as Muslims. In Croatia, the term became derogatory, Vlasi was used for the ethnic Serb community who, despite being Slavic, were given the term due to the Orthodox faith which they shared with the Vlachs. Romanian scholars have suggested that the term Vlach appeared for the first time in the Eastern Roman Empire and was subsequently spread to the Germanic- and Slavic-speaking worlds through the Norsemen, who were in trade and military contact with Byzantium during the early Middle Ages. Nowadays, the term Vlachs is used in scholarship for the Romance-speaking communities in the Balkans those in Greece and North Macedonia.
In Serbia the term Vlach is used to refer to Romanian speakers those living in eastern Serbia. Aromanians themselves use the endonym "Armãn" or "Rãmãn", etymologically from "Romanus", meaning "Roman". Megleno-Romanians designate themselves with the Macedonian form Vla in their own language. Byzantine historians used the term Vlachs for Latin speakers; the 7th century Byzantine historiographer Theophylact Simocatta wrote about “Blachernae” in connection with some historical data of the 6th century, during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Maurice. First precise data about Vlachs are in connection with the Vlachs of the Rynchos river. During the late 9th century the Hungarians invaded the Carpathian Basin, where the province of Pannonia was inhabited by the "Slavs and Vlachs, the shepherds of the Romans " (sclauij, Bulgarij et Blachij, ac pastores romanorum —according to the Gesta Hungarorum, written around 1200 by the anonymous chancellor of King Béla III of Hungary. George Kedrenos mentioned about Vlachs in 976.
The Vlachs were guards of Roman caravans in Balkans. Between Prespa and Kastoria they fought with a Bulgarian rebel named David; the Vlachs killed David in their first documented battle. Mutahhar al-Maqdisi, "They say that in the Turkic neighbourhood there are the Khazars, Slavs, Alans and many other peoples."Ibn al-Nadīm published in 938 the work “Kitāb al-Fihrist” mentioning “Turks and Vlahs” Byzantine writer Kekaumenos, author of the Strategikon
Grand Principality of Serbia
Serbia known as Raška was a Serb medieval state that comprised parts of what is today Serbia, Montenegro and Herzegovina, southern Dalmatia, being centred in the region of Raška. The state was formed in ca. 1091 out of a vassal principality of Duklja, a Serb state which had itself emerged from the early medieval Serbian Principality, centred in Raška until 960, when it was left in obscurity in sources after the Byzantine–Bulgarian wars. Its founder, took the title of Grand Prince when his uncle and overlord Constantine Bodin ended up in Byzantine prison after decades of revolt. While Duklja was struck with civil wars, Raška continued the fight against the Byzantines, it was ruled by the Vukanović dynasty, who managed to put most of the former Serbian state under their rule, as well as expanding to the south and east. Through diplomatic ties with Hungary it managed to retain its independence past the mid-12th century. After a dynastic civil war in 1166, Stefan Nemanja emerged victorious. Nemanja's son Stefan was crowned king in 1217, while his younger son Rastko was ordinated the first Archbishop of Serbs in 1219.
According to the De Administrando Imperio, the Serbs settled the Balkans under the protection of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, were ruled by a dynasty known in historiography as the Vlastimirović dynasty. Slavs had begun settling the region in the early 6th century, after raiding deep into the Empire, they settled "baptized Serbia", which included Bosnia, the maritime lands of Travunija and Paganija, while maritime Duklja was held by the Byzantines, it was settled with Serbs as well. All of the maritime lands bordered "baptized Serbia" to the north. In the mid-9th century, the hitherto peaceful neighbour of Bulgaria was defeated in war. Serbia was Christianized. 870, although missions had been made during Heraclius' reign. In the following decades, members of the dynasty fought succession wars, Serbia became a matter of Byzantine-Bulgarian rivalry; the written information regarding the dynasty ends with the DAI and Prince Časlav's death, after which the realm crumbled into pieces. The Byzantines established a short-lived catepanate at Ras, with military governorship ending soon thereafter with the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria, was re-established only ca. 1018 with the short-lived Theme of Sirmium, which however did not extend much into Raška.
Meanwhile, Duklja emerged as the dominant Serbian principality, as the renewed state, including Raška, Travunija and Zahumlje. A vassal of the Byzantine Empire, Stefan Vojislav rose up and managed to take over the territories of the earlier Serbian principality, founding the Vojislavljević dynasty. Between 1043 and 1080, under Mihailo Vojislavljević, his son, Constantine Bodin, Duklja saw its apogee. Mihailo was given the nominal title King of Slavs by the Pope after having left the Byzantine camp and supported a Slavic uprising in the Balkans, in which his son Bodin played a central part. Having incorporated the Serbian hinterland and installed vassal rulers there, it emerged as the most powerful Serb polity, seen in the titles used by its rulers. However, its rise was short-lived, as Bodin was imprisoned. In 1091 or 1092, Vukan became independent, his state was centered around present-day Novi Pazar. Subordinate to him were local counts, who seem to have been more or less autonomous in the internal affairs of their counties, but who obliged loyalty, support in warfare.
It seems. Vukan began. 1090, the Byzantines being unable to take counter-measures as they faced invading Pechenegs. After defeating the Pechenegs, Alexios I Komnenos sent an army with the strategos of Dyrrhachium, defeated by Vukan in 1092. Alexios mobilized a much larger army, led by himself, marched onto Raška. After the Emperor's departure, Vukan broke the treaty, began to expand along the Vardar, obtaining much booty and taking the cities of Vranje and Tetovo. In 1094 or 1095, Alexios marched out and met Vukan, who offered peace and gave twenty hostages including his cousin Uroš and son Stefan. At this time, Vukan acted on his own, no longer a vassal of Duklja, which because of its civil war did not involve itself in the conflicts. Following Bodin's death in 1101, Vukan took advantage of the dynastic civil wars in Duklja, forged an alliance with Kočapar, with whom he invaded Duklja in 1102. Kočapar's reign was short-lived. Upon spreading his influence in Duklja, Vukan invaded Byzantium once more in the spring of 1106, taking advantage of the Norman campaign, defeating co-emperor John II Komnenos, but sent hostages in return for peace in November.
There is no written record of Vukan after this war, he is believ
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Its boundaries have changed over time. Today the region is considered to include parts of six Balkan countries: Greece, North Macedonia, Albania and Kosovo, it covers 67,000 square kilometres and has a population of 4.76 million. Its oldest known settlements date back to 7,000 BC. From the middle of the 4th century BC, the Kingdom of Macedon became the dominant power on the Balkan Peninsula; the definition of Macedonia has changed several times throughout history. Prior to its expansion under Alexander the Great, the ancient kingdom of Macedonia, to which the modern region owes its name, lay within the central and western parts of the current Greek province of Macedonia and was consisted of 17 provinces/districts or eparchies. Expansion of Kingdom of Macedon: Kingdom of Perdiccas I: Macedonian Kingdom of Emathia consisting of six provinces Emathia, Bottiaea, Mygdonia and Almopia. Kingdom of Alexander I: All the above provinces plus the eastern annexations Crestonia and the western annexations Elimiotis and Lynkestis.
Kingdom of Philip II: All the above provinces plus the appendages of Pelagonia and Macedonian Paeonia to the north, Sintike and Edonis to the east and the Chalkidike to the south. In the 2nd century, Macedonia covered the area where it is considered to be today, but the northern regions of today Republic of North Macedonia were not identified as Macedonian lands. For reasons that are still unclear, over the next eleven centuries Macedonia's location was changed significantly; the Roman province of Macedonia consisted of what is today Northern and Central Greece, much of the geographical area of the present-day Republic of North Macedonia and southeast Albania. Put, the Romans created a much larger administrative area under that name than the original ancient Macedon. In late Roman times, the provincial boundaries were reorganized to form the Diocese of Macedonia, consisting of most of modern mainland Greece right across the Aegean to include Crete, southern Albania, parts of south-west Bulgaria and southern Republic of North Macedonia.
In the Byzantine Empire, a province under the name of Macedonia was carved out of the original Theme of Thrace, well east of the Struma River. This thema variously gave its name to the Macedonian dynasty. Hence, Byzantine documents of this era that mention Macedonia are most referring to the Macedonian thema; the region of Macedonia, on the other hand, ruled by the First Bulgarian Empire throughout the 9th and the 10th century, was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire in 1018 as the Themе of Bulgaria. With the gradual conquest of southeastern Europe by the Ottomans in the late 14th century, the name of Macedonia disappeared as an administrative designation for several centuries and was displayed on maps; the name was again revived to mean a distinct geographical region in the 19th century, defining the region bounded by Mount Olympus, the Pindus range, mounts Shar and Osogovo, the western Rhodopes, the lower course of the river Mesta and the Aegean Sea, developing the same borders that it has today.
During medieval and modern times, Macedonia has been known as a Balkan region inhabited by ethnic Greeks, Vlachs, Bulgarians and Turks. Today, as a frontier region where several different cultures meet, Macedonia has an diverse demographic profile. Macedonian Greeks self-identify culturally and regionally as "Macedonians", they form the majority of the region's population. They number 2,500,000 and, they live entirely in Greek Macedonia; the Greek Macedonian population is mixed, with other indigenous groups and with a large influx of Greek refugees descending from Asia Minor, Pontic Greeks, East Thracian Greeks in the early 20th century. This is due to the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, during which over 1.2 million Orthodox Christian refugees from Turkey were settled in Greece, 638,000 of whom were settled in the Greek province of Macedonia. Smaller Greek minorities exist in Bulgaria and the Republic of North Macedonia, although their numbers are difficult to ascertain. In official census results, only 86 persons declared themselves Greeks in Bulgarian Macedonia in 2011, out of a total of 1,379 in all Bulgaria.
Ethnic Macedonians self-identify as "Macedonians" in an ethnic sense as well as in the regional sense. They are the second largest ethnic group in the region; because of their Slavic origin they are known as "Macedonian Slavs" and "Slav Macedonians". They form the majority of the population in the Republic of North Macedonia where according to the 2002 census 1,300,000 people declared themselves as Macedonians. According to the latest Bulgarian census held in 2011, there are 561 people declaring themselves ethnic Macedonians in the Blagoevgrad Province of Bulgaria; the official number of ethnic Macedonians in Bulgaria is 1,654. A small number of ethnic Macedonians exist among the Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia. There has not been a census in Greece on the question of mother tongue since 1951, when the census recorded 41,017 Slavic-speakers, mostly