Alfonso VI of León and Castile
Alfonso VI, nicknamed the Brave or the Valiant, was king of León and of Galicia, king of the reunited Castile and León. After the conquest of Toledo in 1085, Alfonso proclaimed himself victoriosissimo rege in Toleto, et in Hispania et Gallecia The Battle of Sagrajas and the Battle of Uclés, in which his only son and heir, Sancho Alfónsez died, constituted defeats for the Leonese and Castilian armies; the son of Ferdinand I, King of León and Count of Castile and his wife, Queen Sancha, Alfonso was a "Leonese infante with Navarrese and Castilian blood". His paternal grandparents were Sancho Garcés III, king of Pamplona and his wife Muniadona of Castile, his maternal grandparents were Alfonso V of León and his first wife Elvira Menéndez; the year of Alfonso's birth is not recorded in the medieval documentation. According to one of the authors of the Anonymous Chronicle of Sahagún, who met the monarch and was present at his death, he died at age 62 after reigning 44 years; this indicates that he was born in the second half of 1047 or in the first half of 1048.
Pelagius of Oviedo wrote that Alfonso was 79 when he died, but that would place his birth around 1030, before his parents' marriage. According to the Historia silense, the eldest child of Ferdinand I and Sancha, a daughter called Urraca, was born when her parents were still Count and Countess of Castile, so her birth could be placed in 1033–34; the second child and eldest son, must have been born in the second half of 1038 or in 1039. The third child and second daughter, may have been born in 1039–40, followed by Alfonso in 1040–41, the youngest of the siblings, García, sometime between 1041 and 24 April 1043, the date on which King Ferdinand I, in a donation to the Abbey of San Andrés de Espinareda, mentions his five children. All of them except Elvira signed a document in the monastery of San Juan Bautista de Corias on 26 April 1046. All the children of King Ferdinand I, according to the Historia silense, were educated in the liberal arts, the sons were trained in arms, the "art of running horses in the Spanish usage", hunting.
The cleric Raimundo was in charge of Alfonso's early education. Once king, Alfonso appointed him Bishop of Palencia and referred to him as magistro nostro, viro nobile et Deum timenti. Alfonso spent long periods in Tierra de Campos, along with Pedro Ansúrez, the son of Ansur Díaz and nephew of Count Gómez Díaz de Saldaña, he learned the art of war and what was expected of a knight; as the second son of the king of León and Count of Castile, Alfonso would not have been entitled to inherit the throne. At the end of 1063 on 22 December, taking advantage of the fact that numerous magnates had gathered in León, capital of the kingdom, for the consecration of the Basílica of San Isidoro, Ferdinand I summoned a Curia Regia to make known his testamentary dispositions, under which he decided to distribute his patrimony among his children, a distribution that would not become effective until the death of the monarch in order to prevent any disputes arising after his death: Alfonso inherited the Kingdom of León, "the most extensive and emblematic part: the one that contained the cities of Oviedo and León, cradles of the Asturian-Leonese monarchy", which included Asturias, León, Astorga, El Bierzo, Zamora with Tierra de Campos as well as the parias of the Taifa of Toledo.
His elder brother, was given the Kingdom of Castile, created by his father for him, the parias of the Taifa of Zaragoza. His younger brother, García, received the entire region of Galicia, "elevated to the rank of kingdom" that extended south to the Mondego River in Portugal with the parias of the Taifa of Badajoz and Seville, their sisters and Elvira, both received the Infantazgo, that is, "the patronage and income of all the monasteries belonging to the royal patrimony" on the condition that they remained unmarried. The historian Alfonso Sánchez Candeira suggests that, although the reasons that led King Ferdinand I to divide the kingdom are unknown the distribution was made because the king considered it proper that each son should inherit the region where he had been educated and spent his early years. After his coronation in the city of León in January 1066, Alfonso VI had to confront the expansionist desires of his brother Sancho II, who, as the eldest son, considered himself the sole legitimate heir of all the kingdoms of their father.
The conflicts began after the death of their mother Queen Sancha on 7 November 1067, leading to seven years of war between the three brothers. The first skirmish was the Battle of Llantada, a trial by ordeal in which both brothers agreed that the one, victorious would obtain the kingdom of the defeated brother. Although Sancho II was the winner, Alfonso VI did not comply with the agreement; this was the same event where both decided to join forces to divide between themselves the Kingdom of Galicia, assigned to their younger brother García II. With the complicity of Alfonso VI, Sancho II invaded Galicia in 1071, defeating their brother García II, arrested in Santarém and imprisoned in Burgos until he was exiled to the Taifa of Seville under the rule of Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad. After eliminating their broth
Peruvian Armed Forces
The Peruvian Armed Forces are the military services of Peru, comprising independent Army and Air Force components. Their primary mission is to safeguard the country's independence and territorial integrity against any threat; as a secondary mission they participate in economic and social development as well as in civil defense tasks. The National Police of Peru is classified as a part of the armed forces. Although in fact it has a different organisation and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land and air capabilities and 140,000 personnel; the Peruvian armed forces report through the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police of Peru report through the Ministry of Interior. The Joint Command of the Armed Forces is tasked with the mission to "plan, prepare and conduct military operations and actions to guarantee independence and territorial integrity and support the national development of Peru".
This branch of the armed forces was developed in the 1950s following World War II, when Peru evaluated operational tactics used and adapted them to their own military. On 1 February 1957, the Joint Command was created following a commission of defense agencies studied its role, with the Joint Command depending directly on the President of Peru while being "the highest step in the planning and coordination of the operations of the Army and Aeronautics Forces". Headquartered in Lima, it has a strength of 76,228 troops divided in four military regions with headquarters in Piura, Lima and Iquitos; every military region is assigned several brigades of which there are different types, including infantry and armored. There are several groups and battalions which operate independently of the army's organization; the equipment of the Peruvian Army includes infantry weapons that include assault rifles and carbines such as the M16A2 and the M4A1 and pistols like the FN Five-seveN and Smith & Wesson M&P9.
Vehicles include several types of tanks, armoured personnel carriers, antiaircraft systems and helicopters. Peru has sought to update their collection of tanks and armored personnel carriers that have not been updated since acquiring vehicles from the Soviet Union. After an initial deal with China fell through, Peru has attempted to make a deal with General Dynamics to purchase new military vehicles; the Peruvian Navy is organized in five naval zones headquartered in Piura, Arequipa and Pucallpa. It has a strength of around 25,988 troops divided between the Pacific Operations and the Amazon Operations General Commands and the Coast Guard; the Pacific fleet flagship is the guided-missile cruiser BAP Almirante Grau, named for the 19th-century Peruvian Admiral who fought in the War of the Pacific. The fleet includes 8 Lupo class frigates, 6 PR-72P class corvettes, 3 Terrebonne Parish class landing ships, 2 Type 209/1100 and 4 Type 209/1200 class German-built diesel submarines, as well as patrol vessels and cargo ships.
The Peruvian Navy has a naval aviation force, several naval infantry battalions and special forces units. The Peruvian Marines date back to 6 November 1821, when the Peruvian Navy requested a battalion of soldiers, its first battle was an attack on the Spanish taking the city of Arica. Into the mid-20th century, the Peruvian Marines modernized their equipment and by the 1980s with the Shining Path emerging as a new threat to Peru, the Marines began to be tasked with counterterrorism operations; as part of the Peruvian Navy, the Peruvian Marines utilize the equipment and logistics of the Navy. Various Marine battalions are based in Ancón, Mollendo, Pucallpa and Tumbes; the Peruvian Marines have a Special Forces composed of the Espíritus Negros and Fuerza Delta, based on the American Delta Force and US Army Rangers. On May 20, 1929, the aviation divisions of the Peruvian army and navy were merged into the Peruvian Aviation Corps. In 1950, the corps became the Peruvian Air Force; the Peruvian Air Force is divided into six wing areas, headquartered in Piura, Lima, Arequipa and Iquitos.
With a strength of 17,969 troops, the FAP counts in its arsenal with MiG-29 and Mirage 2000. It has Su-25 close-support aircraft, Mi-25 attack helicopters, Mi-17 transport helicopters, Aermacchi MB-339, Embraer EMB-312 Tucano subsonic training aircraft, the Cessna A-37B for light attack and COIN missions. In 1995, the FAP took part in the Cenepa War against Ecuador covering operations by the army and navy. After the war, the FAP began acquiring new aircraft MiG-29 fighters and Su-25 close air support aircraft which are, along with the Mirage 2000 fighters, the main combat elements of the FAP. Peruvian Ministry of Defence Official Peruvian Army website Official Peruvian Air Force website Official Peruvian Navy website
Armed Forces of Uruguay
The Armed Forces of Uruguay consist of an army and air force. These three branches are constitutionally subordinate to the President of Uruguay through the Minister of Defense. By offering early retirement incentives, the government has trimmed the armed forces to about 16,800 for the army; as of February 2003, Uruguay has more than 2,500 soldiers deployed on 12 UN Peacekeeping missions. The largest groups are in the Democratic Republic of the Haiti. There is a 58-man contingent in the MFO in the Sinai; the Army consists of some 15,000 personnel organized into four divisions. It is equipped with 15 Israeli Ti-67 main battle tanks, 17 American M24 and 46 M41A1 Walker Bulldog light tanks, 24 American M113A1 armored personnel carriers, 15 Czech BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicles and 130 OT-64 SKOT APCs, 64 German Condor APCs, 15 Brazilian EE-9 Cascavel and 18 EE-3 Jararaca armored cars, 48 Russian armored GAZ-3937 amphibious vehicles. In 2008, Uruguay purchased 44 6x6 Mowag Piranha APCs rehabilitated by FAMAE in Chile after initial service in the Canadian Army after that another batch of 100 of Grizzlys and 5 Huskys.
It has 4 sets of RM-70 multiple rocket launchers. The army operates 40 Land Rover Defender 110SW vehicles, is looking to buy between 30 and 40 more; the current assault rifle used by the army is the Argentinian-built version of the Belgian FN FAL. In addition, about 300 Russian AK-101s are used, the elite airborne and antiterrorist Battalion 14 employ German HK G36s. Being produced locally in Uruguay, the Army will receive the Glock 17 pistol as a replacement for its legacy Browning Hi-Power and M1911 pistols. DIO, an Iranian company, was involved in the bidding to replace the FN FAL with its KH-2002; this prompted an investigation. Uruguay special forces are now fielding an indigenous, it is a single-shot bolt-action rifle, developed in Uruguay for about two years. The Uruguayan Army was considering buying either the Panzerfaust 3 or RPG-7 as short-range anti-tank weapons. Acquisition of the rockets was cancelled due to lack of funds; the Navy consists of about 5,700 personnel under Admiral Juan H. Fernández and is organized into four commands: the Fleet Command, the Coast Guard, the Chief Directorate of Naval Materiel, the Chief Directorate of Naval Personnel.
The Navy General Staff acts as an advisory body to the admiral. The current fleet consists of 2 Portuguese João Belo class frigates, 1 French Commandant Rivière class frigate, 1 German Lüneburg class auxiliary oil replenisher, 3 Vigilante class patrol boats, 2 Castrates class patrol boats, 3 East German Kondor II class minesweepers, other smaller craft; the Navy includes a battalion-sized Marine Corps and a small naval air station at Laguna del Sauce. The Uruguayan Naval Academy is located in a suburb of Montevideo. Instruction consists of a 4-year course of study culminating in a cruise on the instructional tall ship ROU Capitán Miranda, which lasts several weeks and takes graduates to various ports around the world; the Air Force consists of about 3,000 personnel and organized into three Air Brigades and 7 Squadrons. Combat aircraft consist of Argentine IA-58 Pucarás and Cessna A-37B Dragonflies. Transport aircraft consist of Lockheed C-130s, Brazilian Embraer Bandeirantes and Embraer Brasilias, Spanish CASA C-212-200 Aviocars, Cessna 206H Stationairs and T-41D Mescaleros.
Helicopters consist of the Bell UH-1H Iroquois and 212 Twin Huey, the Eurocopter AS-365N2 Dauphin, the Westland HC-2 Wessex. The Air Force Academy is located at General Artigas Air Base in Canelones. Training aircraft consists of Italian Aermacchi SF.260s, Beech Barons, Swiss Pilatus PC-7 Turbo Trainers. Cockade of Uruguay#Military Ministerio de Defensa Nacional - Official site of the Uruguayan Department of National Defense Ejército Nacional - Official site of the Uruguayan Army Armada Nacional - Official site of the Uruguayan Navy Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya - Official site of the Uruguayan Air Force Memorias del tiempo de vuelo - Actual and Historical Site about Uruguayan Air Force Uruguay Militaria - Uruguayan armed forces discussion forum World Ranks - Washington Times article on Iranian arms sales
The Reconquista is a name used in English to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492. The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest, the Americas—the "New World"—ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires. Traditional historiography has marked the beginning of the Reconquista with the Battle of Covadonga, the first known victory in Iberia by Christian military forces since the 711 military invasion of Iberia by combined Arab-Berber forces. In that small battle, a group led by the nobleman Pelagius defeated a Muslim patrol in the mountains of northern Iberia and established the independent Christian Kingdom of Asturias. In the late 10th century, the Umayyad vizier Almanzor waged military campaigns for 30 years to subjugate the northern Christian kingdoms.
His armies composed of Slavic and African Mamluks, ravaged the north sacking the great shrine of Santiago de Compostela. When the government of Córdoba disintegrated in the early 11th century, a series of petty successor states known as taifas emerged; the northern kingdoms struck deep into Al-Andalus. After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian forces in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south. After 1491, the entire peninsula was controlled by Christian rulers; the conquest was followed by the Alhambra Decree which expelled Jews who would not convert to Christianity from Castile and Aragon, a series of edicts which forced the conversions of the Muslims in Spain, although a significant part of them was expelled from the Iberian Peninsula. The concept of Reconquista, consolidated in Spanish historiography in the second half of the 19th century, was associated with the development of a Spanish national identity, emphasizing nationalistic and romantic, colonialist, aspects.
Since the 19th century traditional historiography has stressed the existence of the Reconquista, a continuous phenomenon by which the Christian Iberian kingdoms opposed and conquered the Muslim kingdoms, understood as a common enemy who had militarily seized territory from native Iberian Christians. The concept of a Christian reconquest of the peninsula first emerged, in tenuous form, at the end of the 9th century. A landmark was set by the Christian Chronica Prophetica, a document stressing the Christian and Muslim cultural and religious divide in Iberia and the necessity to drive the Muslims out. Both Christian and Muslim rulers fought amongst themselves. Alliances between Muslims and Christians were not uncommon. Blurring distinctions further were the mercenaries from both sides who fought for whoever paid the most; the period is seen today to have had long episodes of relative religious tolerance. The Crusades, which started late in the 11th century, bred the religious ideology of a Christian reconquest, confronted at that time with a staunch Muslim Jihad ideology in Al-Andalus by the Almoravids, to an greater degree by the Almohads.
In fact, previous documents from the 10th and 11th centuries are mute on any idea of "reconquest". Propaganda accounts of Muslim-Christian hostility came into being to support that idea, most notably the Chanson de Roland, a fictitious 11th-century French version of the Battle of Roncevaux Pass dealing with the Iberian Saracens, taught as historical fact in the French educational system since 1880; the modern idea of Reconquista is inextricably linked to the foundational myths of Spanish nationalism in the 19th century, consolidated by the mid-20th century during Franco's National-Catholic dictatorship, based on a strong underlying Castilian ideological element. The idea of a "liberation war" of reconquest against the Muslims, depicted as foreigners, suited well the anti-Republican rebels during the Spanish Civil War who agitated for the banner of a Spanish fatherland threatened by regional nationalisms and communism, their rebellious pursuit was thus a crusade for the restoration of the Church's unity, where Franco stood for both Pelagius of Asturias and El Cid.
The Reconquista has become a rallying call for right and far-right parties in Spain to expel from office incumbent progressive or peripheral nationalist options, as well as their values, in different political contexts as of 2018. Some contemporary authors consider it proved that the process of Christian state-building in Iberia was indeed defined by the reclamation of lands, lost to the Moors in generations past. In this way, state-building might be characterised—at least in ideological, if not practical, terms—as a process by which Iberian states were being'rebuilt'.. In turn, other recent historians dispute the whole concept of Reconquista as a concept created a posteriori in the service of political goals. A few historians point out that Spain and Portugal did not exist as nations, therefore the heirs of the Christian Visigothic Kingdom were not technically reconquering them, as the name suggests. One of the first Spanish intellectuals to question the idea of a "reconquest" that lasted for eight centuries was José Ortega y Gasset, writing in the first half of the 20th century.
However, the term is still in use
Argentine Air Force
The Argentine Air Force is the national aviation branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic. In 2010 it had 6,900 civilian personnel; the Air Force's history begins with the establishment of the Army Aviation Service's Escuela de Aviación Militar on 10 August 1912. Several military officers were amongst the pioneers of Argentine aviation, including Jorge Newbery, a retired Argentine Navy officer; the school began to turn out military pilots who participated in milestone events in Argentine aviation, such as the crossing of the Andes mountains. In 1927 the Dirección General de Aeronáutica was created to coordinate the country's military aviation. In that same year the Fábrica Militar de Aviones, which would become the heart of the country's aviation industry, was founded in Córdoba. By 1938–39 Argentina's air power had about 3,200 staff, maintained about 230 aircraft. About 150 of these were operated by the army and included Dewoitine D.21 and Curtiss P-36 Hawk fighters. About 80 were operated by the navy and included the Supermarine Southampton, Supermarine Walrus, Fairey Seal, Fairey III, Vought O2U Corsair, Consolidated P2Y, Curtiss T-32 Condor II, Douglas Dolphin and Grumman J2F Duck.
By the 1940s there were several air units in the Navy. After the end of World War II, in which the Argentine Air Force took no part, it began a process of modernization, incorporating aircraft such as the Gloster Meteor jet fighter, thus becoming the first air force in Latin America equipped with jet-propelled aircraft. In addition, a number of Avro Lincoln and Avro Lancaster bombers were acquired, creating a powerful strategic force in the region; the Air Force, with former Luftwaffe officers as consultants and German technicians began to develop its own aircraft, such as the Pulqui I and Pulqui II, making Argentina the first country in Latin America and the sixth in the world to develop jet fighter technology on its own. Locally developed aircraft, like the I. Ae. 22 DL trainer and the I. Ae. 24 Calquin tactical bomber, were added to the inventory. In 1952 the Air Force began flight to supply the Antarctic scientific bases using ski-equipped C-47s and establishing Marambio Base on 25 September 1969.
On 11 April 1970 they began landing C-130 Hercules aircraft, when the TC-61 commanded by Commodore Arturo Athos Gandolfi was the first airplane to land in Marambio, the Fokker F-28 Fellowship presidential aircraft T-01 Patagonia is reported to be the first jet to have landed at Marambio, on 28 July 1973. and since the 1970s Twin Otters are deployed. On October 1973 the FAA launched Operation Transantar, achieving the first trans-Antarctic three-continental flight in history when a C-130 flew between Rio Gallegos. In the 1960s new aircraft were incorporated, including the F-86F Sabre jet fighter and the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk used for ground-attack. During the 1970s the Air Force re-equipped itself with modern aircraft, including Mirage III interceptors, IAI Dagger multi-role fighters, C-130 Hercules cargo planes. A counter-insurgency airplane, the Pucará, was used in substantial numbers; the Falklands War, took a great toll on the Air Force. After the war, due to the deteriorating economic situation, international opposition and political distrust of the military, the Air Force was denied the resources needed to replace the war losses.
This, coupled with diminishing budgets, led to a period of reduced activity and growing materiel obsolescence. After the war Britain imposed an arms embargo on Argentina, discontinued in the 1990s but British pressure has prevented so far the acquisition of modern fighter planes and equipment from Western countries. After attempts to acquire surplus IAI Kfirs or F-16As failed for economic and political reasons, the United States military sold Argentina 36 A-4AR Fightinghawks, a refurbished and upgraded version of the A-4 Skyhawks used in the war. Other equipment was bought: 23 US Army surplus OV-1 Mohawks, 22 Ex-Israeli IAI Dagger, 2 C-130B and 1 Lockheed L-100-30; the FAA has been involved in United Nations peacekeeping missions around the world. They sent a Boeing 707 to the 1991 Gulf War. Since 1994 the UN Air contingent in Cyprus under UNFICYP mandate is provided by the FAA, having achieved 10,000 flight hours by 2003 without any accidents; the FAA has since 2005 deployed Bell 212 helicopters to Haiti under MINUSTAH mandate.
In early 2005 the top seventeen brigadiers of the Air Force, including the Chief of Staff, Brigadier General Carlos Rohde, were sacked by President Néstor Kirchner following a scandal involving drug trafficking through Ezeiza International Airport. Kirchner cited failures in the security systems of Argentine airports and
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts in South America during the 19th century. In the 20th century, it fought on the Allied side at World War I and World War II. Aligned with the Western Bloc, during the time of military rule in Brazil from 1964 to 1985, it had active participation in the Cold War, in Latin America and Southern Portuguese Africa, as well as taking part in UN peacekeeping missions worldwide since the late 1950s. Domestically, besides having faced several rebellions throughout these two centuries, with support of local political and economic elites, it ended the monarchy and imposed on the rest of society its political views and economic development projects during the periods that it ruled the country: 1889–94, 1930–50, 1964–85. Main Articles: 1st French-Portuguese colonial war, 2nd French-Portuguese colonial war, Sugar War, French raids, Napoleonic Wars in South America and Possession Conflicts for Banda OrientalAlthough the Brazilian Army was created during the process of the independence of Brazil from Portugal, in 1822, with the units of the Portuguese Army in Brazil that have remained loyal to Prince Dom Pedro, its origins can date back to Land Forces used by Portuguese in the colonial wars against French and Dutch, fought in 16th and 17th centuries.
In the colonial period, King D. Manuel I ordered to organize military expeditions with the purpose of protecting the Portuguese dominions in America newly discovered; as colonization advanced in Pernambuco and São Vicente, the native military authorities and bases of the colony's defensive organization began to be built to meet the ambitions of the French and Dutch. First major interventions were the expulsion of the French from Rio de Janeiro in the 16th century and the Maranhao in 1615; as internalization progressed through the broad territorial expansion movement in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries and Flags forced the organization of the defense of the newly conquered territory. The war against the Dutch, in the 17th century, for the first time mobilized large numbers in the country, began to have a sense of national defense, regardless of the influence of the crown; the first Battle of Guararapes marks the beginning of the organization of the army as a genuinely Brazilian force formed by local whites, led by André Vidal de Negreiros, led by Felipe Camarão, blacks / mulattos, led by Henrique Dias.
This date is celebrated as the anniversary of the Brazilian Army. At this time, following the model of organization of the Portuguese Army implemented following the Restoration of the Independence of Portugal in 1640, the ground forces in Brazil adopt the organization in three lines that will be maintained until the 19th century, which includes: 1st line - Paid troops. At that time, there were frequent clashes between Luso-Brazilians and Hispano-Platinos, in addition, the land force faced the threat of rebellions of Indians and blacks. Main Articles: Imperial Brazilian Army, Brazilian Independence War, Confederation of the Equator, Cisplatine War, Ragamuffin War, Cabanagem Rebellion, Balaiada Revolt, Platine War, Uruguayan War, Paraguayan War, Naval Revolts, Federalist Rebellion and War of Canudos During the Independence process, the Army was composed of Brazilians and foreign mercenaries. Trained in Guerrilla Warfare From To current Day. Most of its commanders were Portuguese officers loyal to Dom Pedro.
Along 1822 and 1823, the Brazilian Army was able to defeat the Portuguese resistance in the North of country and in Cisplatina, having avoid a fragmentation of the new Brazilian Empire after its independence war. After won the Independence War, the Army supported by the National Guard, destroyed any separatist tendencies of the early years, enforcing central authority of the empire, during the Regency period in the country, repressing across Brazil a host of popular movements for political autonomy or against slavery and the colonels' power; the National Guard was a military force organized in Brazil in August 1831, during the regency period, demobilized in September 1922. Its creation occurred by means of law of 18 of August 1831 that "Creates the National Guards and extinguishes the bodies of militias, city guards and ordinances. " According to the aforementioned law, in its article 1, "The National Guards are created to defend the Constitution, Liberty and Integrity of the Empire, to maintain obedience and public tranquility, to assist the Line Army in defense of borders and coasts ", based on art.
145 of the Constitution of 1824: "All Brazilians are obliged to take up arms to support the independence and integrity of the Empire, defend it from its external or internal enemies." In September 1850, through Law No. 602, the National Guard was reorganized and retained its powers subordinated to the Minister of Justice and the provincial presidents. During the 1850s and early 1860s, the Army along with Navy, entered in action against Argentinian and Uruguayan forces, which opposed to Brazilian empire's interests; the Brazilian success with such "Gun Diplomacy" lead to a shock of interests with another country with similar aspirations, the Paraguay in December, 1864. On May 1, 1865, Brazil and Argentina signed the Triple Alliance to defend themselves a