Alfa Romeo Giulietta (750/101)
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta was a family of automobiles made by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1954 to 1965 which included a 2+2 coupé, four-door saloon, spider and Sprint Speciale. The 2+2 was Alfa Romeo's first successful foray into the 1.3-litre class. From 1954 to 1965 a total of 177,690 Giuliettas were made, the great majority in saloon, Sprint coupé, or Spider body styles, but as Sprint Speciale and Sprint Zagato coupés, the rare Promiscua estate; the Giulietta series was succeeded by the Giulia in 1962. The first Giulietta to be introduced was the Giulietta Sprint 2+2 coupé at the 1954 Turin Motor Show. Designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone, it was produced at the coachbuilder's Grugliasco plant near Turin. A year at the Turin Motor Show in April 1955, the Sprint was joined by the 4-door saloon Berlina. In mid 1955, the open two-seat Giulietta Spider. In 1957, a more powerful Berlina version, called Giulietta T. I. was presented with minor cosmetic changes to the dial lights and rear lamps.
Carrozzeria Colli made the Giulietta station wagon variant called Giulietta Promiscua. Ninety-one examples of this version were built. Carrozzeria Boneschi made a few station wagon examples called Weekendina. A new version of the Giulietta Berlina debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1959. Mechanical changes were limited to shifting the fuel pump from the cylinder head to a lower position below the distributor, moving the exposed fuel filler cap from the tail to the right rear wing, under a flap; the bodywork showed a revised front end, with more rounded wings, recessed head lights, new grilles with chrome frames and two horizontal bars. The rear showed changes, with new larger tail lights on vestigial fins, which replaced the earlier rounded rear wings; the interior was much more upholstered in new cloth material. I. housed water temperature gauges. The T. I. received a front side repeater mounted in a small spear, unlike the Normale which kept the earlier small round lamp with no decorations.
During 1959 the type designation for all models was changed from 750 and 753 to 101. In February 1961 the 100,001st Giulietta rolled off the Portello factory, with a celebration sponsored by Italian actress Giulietta Masina. In Autumn 1961 the Giulietta was updated a second time. Both Normale and T. I. had new exhaust systems. With this new engine the car could reach a speed of 160 km/h. At the front of the car square mesh side grilles were now pieced together with the centre shield, at the rear there were larger tail lights. Inside the T. I. had individual instead of bench seats, with storage nets on the seatbacks. June 1962 saw the introduction of the Alfa Romeo Giulia, which would replace the Giulietta; as until 1964 the Giulia only had a larger 1.6-litre engine, production of the standard Berlina ended with 1963, whilst the T. I. continued for a full year more. A last T. I. was completed in 1965. The Giulietta sport models had a different fate: Sprint, Sprint Speciale and Spider were fitted with the new 1.6-litre engine, received some updates and continued to be sold under the Giulia name until they were replaced by all-new Giulia-based models during 1965.
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta used a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. Front suspension was with coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers. At the rear there was a solid axle on hydraulic dampers; the axle was located by a longitudinal link on each side, by a wishbone-shaped arm linking the top of the aluminium differential housing to the chassis. All Giuliettas had hydraulic drum brakes on all four corners; when leaving the Portello factory it fitted Pirelli Cinturato 155 HR15 tyres. The Giulietta used an Alfa Romeo Twin Cam straight-four of 1290 cc, with an aluminium alloy engine block and cast iron inserted sleeves. Bore and stroke measured 75.0 mm. The aluminium alloy cylinder head was of a crossflow design and featured hemispherical combustion chambers; the double overhead camshafts were driven by two timing chains, acted on two valves per cylinder, angled 80°. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale was an aerodynamic 2-door, 2-seat coupé designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone. 1.366 were made from 1957 to 1962.
The car had a steel body, was based on a short-wheelbase Giulietta chassis. It used a 1.3-litre engine brought to 100 PS thanks to double twin-choke carburettors and a high compression ratio. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta SZ was an aluminium-bodied 2-seater berlinetta, built by Zagato for competition use on the chassis and mechanicals of the Sprint Speciale. A crashed Sprint Veloce was rebodied by Zagato in late 1956, was successful in competition. Zagato ended up building 18 rebodied Veloces, called the SVZ and the version gave rise to a full production version; the SVZ was about 120 kg lighter than the Coupé on which it was based, had the highest tuned, 118 CV version of the Giulietta engine. A production competition version of the Giulietta, with lightened bodywork designed by Franco Scaglione for Bertone was premiered at the 1960 Geneve Salon. Handbuilt by Zagato in aluminium and with p
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
Alfa Romeo Giulietta (940)
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta is a small family car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo. Giulietta production started towards the end of 2009 and the model was introduced at the March 2010 Geneva Motor Show. In a viability plan forwarded to the US Government in February 2009, Chrysler reported that the 147 replacement would come to market as the Milano and that it could be built in the USA. However, as of early 2010 Fiat was instead planning to concentrate on bringing larger models to the US, such as the Giulia; the Giulietta came in second place in the 2011 European Car of the Year awards. Between 2010 and 2019 over 400,000 Giuliettas were built, it is current top Alfa sales with about 32,000 cars per year. The 2010 Giulietta is available only as a 5-door hatchback; the Giulietta got its Italian dealer presentation on 22 and 23 May 2010. The Giulietta advertising campaign is made with Hollywood actress Uma Thurman; the end of the advert features the car's mottos -'I am Giulietta, I am such stuff as dreams are made on' and'Without heart, we would be mere machines'.
The platform used is Fiat Group’s Compact called as "C-Evo" during the planning stage. This is an all new platform. Fiat Group used around 100 million euros to re-engineer the C-platform used for the Fiat Stilo, Fiat Bravo and Lancia Delta, into C-Evo, it has a longer wheelbase, shorter overhangs and an advanced new type of MacPherson strut front suspension and multi-link rear suspension. Depending on the market and trim level, 16, 17, or 18 inch wheels are available. Available tire sizes are 205/55 R16, 225/45 R17, 225/40 R18; the wheels use a 5-hole pattern with a 110 mm bolt circle. The length of the Giulietta is around 4.3 metres. Only a five-door body is available for sale. At the 2013 Frankfurt International Motor Show Alfa Romeo presented an updated Giulietta. Trim changes include a new Uconnect infotainment system with 5" or 6.5" Radionav touchscreen, a new front grille, a chrome-plated frame for the fog lights, a new and more supportive seat design, new wheels, as well as new exterior colours: Moonlight Pearl, Anodizzato Blue and Bronze.
A new diesel engine variant has arrived, the two-litre JTDM 2, developing 150 PS and 380 N⋅m. In the 2014 range, all engines comply with Euro 5+ emission standards. Debuting at 2016 Geneva Motor Show, New Giulietta with facelifted front resembling Giulia and with new updated brand logo and new lettering. Trim line up will be changed to Giulietta Super and Giulietta Veloce. New body colour, new rims designs. Previous Giulietta QV will now be changed into sporty Veloce trim available with 240 PS engine and TCT transmission. Debuting will be a new 1.6 JTDm 120 PS TCT diesel engine. For 2019 Giulietta has updated engines, all Euro 6 D: a 1.4-litre 120 PS turbo petrol, a 1.6-litre 120 PS Multijet with manual or Alfa TCT automatic transmission, a 2.0-litre 170 PS Multijet with Alfa TCT. The top of the range model is a version with 1.75 L turbocharged TBi engine rated 235 PS, lowered ride height, 18-inch Spoke design alloy wheels with dark titanium finish and 225/40 R18 tires plus 18-inch 5 hole design alloy wheels as an option.
1750 is an engine size which has its roots in Alfa Romeo's history, with 1.75 L engines being used to power some of Alfa Romeo's first cars. The UK version is sold as the Giulietta Cloverleaf. In Geneva Motor Show Alfa Romeo introduced a new Quadrifoglio Verde, it has new 1,742 cc Turbo gasoline direct injection aluminium-block Inline-four engine now upgraded to 240 PS at 5750 rpm and 340 N⋅m at 2000 rpm of torque and Alfa TCT 6-speed twin dry clutch transmission borrowed from the Alfa Romeo 4C. With new engine the Giulietta's flagship can exceed 240 km/h and accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in only 6.0 seconds. This new facelifted version was premiered with a limited'Launch Edition', recognizable by the black-finish on the sills all round. Available in new matt Grigio Magnesio Opaco along with Rosso Alfa and Rosso Competizione; each car has its own numbered plaque. Around 700 units were made; the GTS Q2 is a version of Hong Kong market version GT Q2 with Sport Package. It includes the engine from 1.4 L TB MultiAir TCT, with a 6-speed TCT transmission.
It is a version using petrol fuel types. It includes Euro 5-compliant 1.4-litre turbo engine rated 120 PS at 5000 rpm and 206 N⋅m at 1750 rpm, three different trim levels for all European markets, 38-litre toroid type LPG tank at spare wheel housing, 6-speed manual transmission. The LPG version was unveiled in 2011 Bologna Motor Show. At Centro Sperimentale di Balocco in October 2014, Alfa Romeo launched a 60th anniversary edition of the Giulietta; the Giulietta Sprint pays homage to the 1954 Giulietta which promised good performance at an affordable price. The 2014 Giulietta Sprint features a unique 1.4-litre MultiAir petrol engine rated 152 PS at 5500 rpm and 250 N⋅m at 1750 rpm. Other changes include a carbon fibre effect interior trim, sporty exterior styling including side skirts, rear diffuser and oversized exhaust; the Squadra Corse TCT is a limited edition version of the Giulietta Quadrifoglio Verde made for
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia is the name of three not directly related models by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. The first is a line of sporty four-door compact executive cars produced from 1962 to 1978, the second is an updated up-engined Spider and Sprint Speciale Giuliettas, the third Giulia is a compact executive car unveiled in 2015. Alfa Romeo was one of the first mainstream manufacturers to put a powerful engine in a light-weight 1 tonne four-door car for mass production; the Type 105 Giulia was equipped with a light alloy twin overhead camshaft four-cylinder engine similar to that of the earlier Giulietta range, available in 1.3-litre and 1.6-litre versions. Various configurations of carburetors and tuning produced power outputs from about 80 to about 110 bhp, coupled in most cases to 5-speed manual transmission. Giulia sedans were noted for lively handling and impressive acceleration among small European four-door sedans of their era considering modest engine sizes offered; the popular Super version with the twin carburettor 1.6 litre engine had a top speed of 170 km/h and accelerated from 0 to 100 km/h in about 12 seconds, better than many sports cars of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
When leaving the factory all variations of the Giulia fitted either Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres or Pirelli Cinturato 155HR15 tyres. The styling of the boxy four-door notchback saloon was somewhat wanting; the engine bay and boot were all square shaped, buffered somewhat by details on the grill, roofline and boot. Use of a wind tunnel during development led to a aerodynamic shape that produced a drag coefficient of Cd=0.34 low for a saloon of the era. The Giulia Spider was succeeded by the Alfa Romeo Spider in 1966. Note: chassis and engine type numbers displayed in italic for each model are sourced from Fusi 1978, pages 841–848. Tipo: 105.14, 105.08, 105.09. Engine: 00514. Unveiled on 27 June 1962 at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI was the first of the Giulia family of cars to be introduced, its 1,570 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was fitted with a single Solex 33 PAIA 7 twin-choke down-draft carburettor, produced 92 DIN-rated PS or 106 SAE-rated PS at 6,200 rpm. The "TI" nomenclature referred to a class of Italian saloon car racing known as "Turismo Internazionale", had been applied to higher-performance versions of the 1900 and Giulietta saloons in the 1950s.
However, for the Giulia saloon, the TI was at first the only version available, with the introduction of the TI Super and Super, the TI became the base version in the 1.6-litre engine class. A distinguishing feature of the original Giulia were drum brakes on all corners, the front ones of the three-shoe type like on late Giuliettas; the car was marketed as a six-seater, thanks to a standard column-mounted shifter and a split bench front seat—though Italian car magazine Quattroruote found it rather a comfortable four-seater. Other notable interior features of the early models were mottled cloth and vinyl upholstery, a grey, trapezoid instrument panel including a strip speedometer, a black steering wheel with two ivory-coloured spokes and a chrome half horn ring. In May 1964 a floor shifter became available, to be ordered in conjunction with the newly introduced separate front seats. Around the same time a right hand drive model variant entered production, with floor shifter only. In February 1966 several changes were made.
The floor shifter became standard. From outside these TIs can be recognized by L-shaped chrome strips around the tail lights which supplanted the previous C-shaped ones. Production of the Giulia TI ceased during 1967. Tipo: 105.16. Engine: 00516; the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI Super was a special road-going sports model produced in limited numbers, fitted with a more powerful engine and a number of weight saving components, intended for racing use. It was introduced to the press at the Monza race track on 24 April 1963. In total only 501 were made, 178 in 1963 and 323 1964. On 2 May 1964 the TI Super received international FIA and Italian CSAI homologation for racing, was extensively campaigned in the European Touring Car Challenge. Today the Giulia TI Super is rare and considered desirable by collectors; the TI Super's 1,570 cc engine was the same installed on the Giulia Sprint Speciale coupé—though bearing a different type code. It was fitted with two twin-choke horizontal Weber 45 DCOE 14 carburettors and, as on the Sprint Speciale, produced 112 DIN-rated PS or 129 SAE-rated PS at 6,500 rpm, pushing top speed to over 185 km/h.
Dry weight was 910 kilograms compared to 1,000 kg of the standard Giulia TI. Parts contributing to the weight reduction were mesh grilles replacing the inner pair of head lamps, bumpers without overriders, fixed front quarter windows, Plexiglas rear windows, magnesium alloy wheels with hubcaps similar in appearance to the standard steel wheels of the TI. Braking was by discs all around. Cars built from August 1964 used the bodyshell of the TI with mounting points for the brake servo, but wer
Alfa Romeo 75
The Alfa Romeo 75, sold in North America as the Milano, is a compact executive car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo between 1985 and 1992. The Alfa 75 was commercially quite successful: in only three years, 236,907 cars were produced, by the end of production in 1992, around 386,767 had been built; the Alfa Romeo 75 was the last model released. The 75 was introduced in May 1985 to replace the Giulietta, was named to celebrate Alfa's 75th year of production; the body, designed by head of Centro Stile Alfa Romeo Ermanno Cressoni, was styled in a striking wedge shape, tapering at the front with square headlights and a matching grille. At the 1986 Turin Auto Show, a prototype 75 estate was to be seen, an attractive forerunner of the 156 Sportwagon; this version was, never listed for sale, being cancelled after Fiat took control of Alfa Romeo. The car, dubbed the 75 Turbo Wagon, was made by Italian coachbuilder Rayton Fissore using a 75 Turbo as the basis. Two estate versions were to be found at the 1987 Geneva Motor Show.
The 75 featured some unusual technical features, most notably the fact that it was perfectly balanced from front to rear. This was achieved by using transaxle schema — mounting the standard five-speed gearbox in the rear connected to the rear differential; the front suspension was a torsion bar and shock absorber combination and the rear an expensive de Dion tube assembled with shock absorbers. The engine crankshaft was bolted directly to the two-segment driveshaft, which ran the length of the underside from the engine block to the gearbox and rotated at the speed of the engine; the shaft segments were joined with elastomeric'doughnuts' to prevent vibration and engine/gearbox damage. The 2.0 L Twin Spark and the 3.0 Litre V6 were equipped with a limited slip differential. The 75 featured a then-advanced dashboard-mounted diagnostic computer, called Alfa Romeo Control, capable of monitoring the engine systems and alerting the drivers of potential faults; the 75 engine range at launch featured four-cylinder 1.6-, 1.8- and 2.0-litre petrol carbureted engines, a 2.0-litre intercooled turbodiesel made by VM Motori, a 2.5-litre fuel injected V6.
In 1986, the 75 Turbo was introduced, which featured a fuel-injected 1,779 cc twin-cam engine using Garrett T3 turbocharger and oil cooler. In 1987, a 3.0-litre V6 was added to the range and the 2.0 L Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was redesigned to have now two spark plugs per cylinder, the engine was named as Twin Spark. With fuel injection and variable valve timing this engine produced 148 PS; this was an early example of a production engine using variable valve timing, though the first to do so was in Alfa Romeo's own Spider in 1980. In North America, where the car was known as the Milano, only the 2.5 and 3.0 V6 engines were available, from 1987 to 1989. The North American 2.5-litres were fundamentally different from their European counterparts. Due to federal regulations, some modifications were required. Most noticeable from the outside were the'America' bumpers, with the typical rubber accordions in them. Furthermore, these bumpers had thick shock-absorbing material inside them and in addition, they were mounted to the vehicle on shock absorbers.
To accommodate these shock absorbers, the'America'-bodies were different from the European ones. Other changes relative to the European model were: A 67-litre fuel tank, located behind the rear seats, reducing the boot capacity from 500 L to 300 L. Side-markers in the bumpers Exhaust silencer sticking out from under the bumper at the r/h side of the vehicle instead of the centre Reinforcements in the doors and boot lid Hooks underneath the bonnet, to keep the bonnet in position in a crashThe North American cars had different equipment levels. L/h and r/h electrically adjustable outside mirrors, electrically reclining seats and cruise control were optional in Europe; the car was available with a 3-speed ZF automatic gearbox option for the 2.5 V6. Other, more common options such as electrically operated rear windows and an A/C system were standard in the USA; the USA-cars had different upholstery styles and of course different dashboard panels indicating speed in mph, oil pressure in psi and coolant temperature in degrees F, as a final touch the AR control was different, including a seat belt warning light.
The European-spec 2.5 V6 was sold only between 1985 and 1987, although some of them were not registered until 1989. Few of them were sold when the 155 PS 1.8 Turbo got launched, which in some countries was cheaper in taxes because of its lower displacement. To create a bigger space between the V6 and the inline fours, the 2.5 was bored out to 2,959 cc's to deliver 188 PS and this new engine was introduced as the 3.0 America in 1987. As its type designation suggests, the 3.0 only came in the US-specification, with the impact-bumpers and in-boot fuel tank. However, the European'America's' were not equipped with side-markers or the door and boot lid fortifications. Depending on the country of delivery, the 3.0 America could be equipped with a catalyt
Alfa Romeo MiTo
The Alfa Romeo MiTo is a front-wheel drive, three-door supermini designed by Centro Stile Alfa Romeo that debuted in 2008 at Castello Sforzesco in Milan with an international introduction at the British Motor Show in 2008. The Mio was marketed across a single generation from 2008–2018, sharing the Fiat Small platform with the Fiat Grande Punto with a production total 250,000 assembled at FCA's Mirafiori plant; the Mito nameplate is a portmanteau of Milano where it was designed and Torino where it was manufactured. The new car was provisionally named the "Junior". In November 2007, a European competition was launched in which the public had a chance to name the car; the winner from each country could win an Alfa Romeo mountain bike. The winning name was "Furiosa", which scored well in Italy, United Kingdom and Germany, but not in Spain. In 2008, Alfa Romeo announced the name would instead be "MiTo", a portmonteau of Milano & Torino, because it was designed in the former and was to be assembled in the latter.
The MiTo is front-wheel drive. The car has a new "Alfa DNA" system which allows the driver to choose between three different driving settings: Dynamic and All-Weather; this system controls the behavior of the engine, steering and gearbox. The MiTo features LED tail lights and 250-litre of luggage space; the MiTo features a Q2 electronic differential on the front wheels, active with the DNA switch in Dynamic position, allows for faster and tighter cornering without loss of traction. In 2010 a new transmission for the MiTo was unveiled at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show, the six-speed TCT, produced by Fiat Powertrain Technologies in Verrone. Magneti Marelli delivers the control system which integrates BorgWarner's hydraulic actuation module into its own power and transmission control units, it can handle torque inputs of up to 350 N⋅m In Geneva was unveiled Blue&Me–TomTom, this new system integrates TomTom navigation to the Blue&Me infotelematic system. For model year 2014, the MiTo gets a new 105 PS 0.9 L Turbo TwinAir engine, new chrome-plated grille, new Anthracite grey colour and new burnished front light clusters.
The car interior is updated with new upholsteries, three new dashboards looks, as well as the new Uconnect 5.0 infotainment systems. The engine range now consists two turbo diesel engines and five petrol engines: the 70 PS 1.4, the 78 PS 1.4, the 135 PS 1.4 MultiAir Turbo and the 170 PS 1.4 MultiAir Turbo. The range has 120 HP 1.4 LPG Turbo option. Debuting at the 2016 2016 Geneva Motor Show, the revised Mito featured a facelifted front fascia with a new updated brand logo and new lettering. Trim line up was changed to Mito and Veloce. A new body colour and new rims designs became available; the previous MiTo QV became available with 170 PS engine and TCT transmission. The Quadrifoglio Verde has traditionally been the highest line of Alfa Romeo models; the car version of Mito was presented at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. The QV version has the new 1.4 litres Turbo Multiair inline-four engine 170 PS at 5500 rpm and 250 N⋅m of torque at 2500 rpm, with newly engineered suspension and new six-speed C635 gearbox developed by Fiat Powertrain Technologies.
Its specific output of 124 PS per litre was highest in its segment at that time. The new multiair technology allows fuel consumption of 6 litres per 100 kilometres in EU combined driving and CO2 emissions of 139 g/km. QV had bigger 305 mm front brake discs and exclusive 18" alloy wheels as standard and Sabelt carbon fibre backed bucket seats as an option. From 2014 QV was now available with TCT robotised gearbox which brought down the 0-100 km/h time to 7.3 s. With 2016 facelift QV was renamed as Veloce. At its launch the MiTo will feature low-displacement turbocharged diesel engines. A power limited 79 PS aspirated engine variant is produced to meet the new Italian legislation for young people. MiTo got new electro-hydraulic valve control system Multiair engines from September 2009. MultiAir engines will increase power and torque, as well as a considerable reduction in consumption levels and CO2 emissions, of particulates and NOx; this new engine is available with 170 PS power ratings. All multiair versions have start-stop system as standard.
In October 2009 was unveiled a dual fuel MiTo version, this version can run with LPG or petrol, with this engine MiTo has range of 1,200 kilometres. The LPG version is made in collaboration with Landi Renzo. In Summer 2010 Alfa introduced the Dual Dry Clutch Transmission called Alfa TCT. From model year 2011 the start-stop system came as standard on all versions. At the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show, AR introduced two new engines for the MiTo – The 0.9 L I2 TwinAir and a new low emission 85 PS version of 1.3 JTD diesel engine. The MiTo has seven airbags as standard, received a'good' or green result from the first Euro NCAP rear impact test; the MiTo received the following ratings: Edizione Sprint: Limited to 250 examples, only for Belgian market. Available only with 1.3 JTDM 95 PS diesel e
Darracq and Company London
A Darracq and Company Limited owned a French manufacturer of motor vehicles and aero engines in Suresnes, near Paris. The French enterprise, known at first as A. Darracq et Cie, was founded in 1896 by Alexandre Darracq after he sold his Gladiator Bicycle business. In 1902, it took effect in 1903, he sold his new business to a held English company named A Darracq and Company Limited, taking a substantial shareholding and a directorship himself. Alexandre Darracq continued to run the business from Paris but was obliged to retire to the Côte d'Azur in 1913 following years of difficulties that brought Darracq & Co into hazardous financial circumstances, he had introduced an unproven unorthodox engine in 1911 which proved a complete failure yet he neglected Suresnes' popular conventional products. France entered the first World War, he died in 1931 but long before that, in 1920, the name of A Darracq & Co 1905 was changed to S T D Motors Limited. In 1922 Darracq's name was dropped from all products, the Suresnes business was renamed Automobiles Talbot and the Suresnes products were branded just Talbot.
His Suresnes business was to continue, still under British control, under the name Talbot until 1935 when it was acquired by investors led by the Suresnes factory's managing director, Antonio Lago. S T D Motors Limited known until 1920 as A Darracq and Company Limited became insolvent and was liquidated during 1935 and 1936. Alexandre Darracq, using part of the substantial profit he had made from selling his Gladiator bicycle factory to Adolpe Clément, set up a plant in 1897 in the Paris suburb of Suresnes; the company to own the business was formed in 1897 and named A Darracq et Cie. Production began with a Millet motorcycle powered by a five-cylinder rotary engine, it was supplemented shortly after by an electric brougham. In 1898 Darracq et Cie made a Léon Bollée-designed voiturette tricar; the voiturette proved a débâcle: the steering was problematic, the five-speed belt drive "a masterpiece of bad design", the hot tube ignition crude, proving the £10,000 Darracq et Cie had paid for the design a mistake.
Darracq et Cie produced its first vehicle with an internal combustion engine in 1900. Designed by Ribeyrolles this was a 6.5 hp voiture legére powered by a single-cylinder engine of 785 cc and it featured shaft drive and three speed column gear change. While not as successful as hoped, one hundred were sold. In 1902 Darracq & Co signed a contract with Adam Opel to jointly produce, under licence, vehicles in the German Empire with the brand name "Opel Darracq". Opel soon moved on to building their own vehicles. A Darracq et Cie was sold as of 30 September 1902 to an English company, A Darracq and Company Limited; the attraction for the British venture capitalists was that French automobile technology and industry experience led the world. It was incorporated in England because French law made the necessary flotation processes more difficult than English law; the perception from across the Atlantic in USA was that French industry was "offloading" on British investors. The English financial group was headed by W B Avery of W & T Avery Limited, a Birmingham scales manufacturer, J S Smith-Winby a London lawyer and a retired army officer, Colonel A Rawlinson.
They bought A Darracq et Cie and sold it again to other investors for five times their purchase price. Darracq received less than 50 percent of the shares in the new company. There was no public offering, eight other investors took up the rest of the shares. Further capital was raised and large sums were spent on factory expansion; the Suresnes site was expanded to some four acres in extent, in England extensive premises were bought. The Darracq & Co automobile company prospered, such that, by 1903, four models were offered: a 1.1-litre single, a 1.3 l and 1.9 l twin, a 3.8 l four. The 1904 models abandoned flitch-plated wood chassis for pressed steel, the new Flying Fifteen, powered by a 3-litre four, had its chassis made from a single sheet of steel; this car was Alexandre Darracq's chef d'oeuvre. There was nothing outstanding in its design but "every part was in such perfect balance and harmony" it became an outstanding model, its exceptional quality helped the company capture a ten percent share of the French auto market.
In late 1904 the chairman reported sales were up by 20 per cent though increased costs meant the profit had risen more slowly. But what was more important was they had many more orders than they could fill and the only solution was to enlarge the factory by as much as 50 per cent. 75 per cent of 1904 output was exported. At the following Annual meeting, twelve months the chairman was able to tell shareholders all the six speed records of the automobile world were held by Darracq cars and they had all been held more than twelve months and yet another had been added by K Lee Guinness, he reported that during 1905 a large property had been bought in Lambeth for examining adjusting and stocking new cars ready for the peak sales period. An announcement followed two days of a scheme of reconstitution of the company to raise more capital for further expansion; the reconstituted company was named Company Limited. Paris resident Alexander Darracq remained managing director, Rawlinson was appointed managing director of the London branch.
The "reconstitution" was to circumvent some holders of the company's shares who were unwilling to share the prosperity and blocked proposed new issues. So the company was sold, they were obliged to buy new shares like anyone else. J S Smith-Winby continued as chairman. After this "reconstitution" over 80 per cent of the shares were held in England. Meanwhile th