Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale and Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint Speciale known as Giulietta SS and Giulia SS, are small sports cars manufactured by Alfa Romeo from 1959 to 1966. The first prototype of the Giulietta SS was presented in 1957 at the Turin Motor Show. After two more prototypes were presented in car shows, the official presentation of the production version for the press was on 24 June 1959 on the Monza race track; the first 101 cars produced had 750 SS designation. 100 cars minimum were needed to homologate a car in FIA regulations. While there were some all-aluminium cars produced, the majority of these cars had steel bodies with aluminium doors, engine bonnet and boot lid. First cars were equipped with Weber 40 DCO3 carburettors changed to 40 DCOE2; the drag coefficient of the Sprint Speciale is 0.28, the same as a Chevrolet Corvette, was not surpassed for more than twenty years. Cars used the 1,290 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, a design with hemispheric combustion chambers and valves controlled directly by twin overhead camshafts.
Small changes to a production version included steel doors, Weber 40 DCOE2 carburetors, higher front nose, removal of plexiglas windows. Bumpers were fitted front and rear cars had some minimal sound-proofing. With the 1290 cc engine and 100 hp of power the maximum speed was around 200 km/h; the 1.3 litre engine and gearbox was the same as used in race-oriented Giulietta Sprint Zagato. All Giuliettas SS had three-shoe drum brakes at the rear. Export versions had 101.17 designation. Side badges had "Giulietta Sprint Speciale" script. There was a prototype by Bertone of a replacement for Giulietta SS, named "Giulia SS Bertone Prototipo", but the new shape did not enter production and the next generation Giulia SS carried over an unchanged Giulietta SS body. Giulia Sprint Speciale Bertone Prototipo The bigger engine 1.6 L Giulia series replaced the Giulietta and was introduced at the March 1963 Geneva Motor Show. As Giulietta is the diminutive for Giulia in Italian, the new Giulia name was a wordplay hinting that the new car was a grown-up version of the Giulietta.
In spite of a Giulia SS prototype, Alfa Romeo decided to retain the Giulietta-shaped SS in production. The 1,570cc engine made up to 200 km/h possible; the 1,570cc engine with Weber 40 DCOE2 carburetors was taken from Giulia Sprint Veloce and delivered 112 hp of power. Most Giulia SS had disc brakes at front wheels. An easy way to distinguish the Giulia SS from the Giulietta SS is by the dashboard; the Giulia has a leather underside with the glovebox at a different angle than the main fascia. The dashboard in the Giulietta painted in one colour without a leather underside. Side badges carried "Giulia SS" scripts. Production ended in 1965, with a last single Sprint Speciale completed in 1966.1,366 Giulietta Sprint Speciale and 1,400 Giulia Sprint Speciale were produced. 25 cars were converted to right hand drive by RuddSpeed. Alfa Romeo Giulietta Alfa Romeo Giulia SSZ Stradale Media related to Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint at Wikimedia Commons Sprint Speciale Register
Alfa Romeo Giulia (952)
The Alfa Romeo Giulia is a compact executive car produced by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. It was unveiled in June 2015, with market launch scheduled for February 2016, it is the first saloon offered by Alfa Romeo after the production of the 159 ended in 2011; the Giulia is the first mass-market Alfa Romeo vehicle in over two decades to use a longitudinal rear-wheel drive platform, since the 75, discontinued in 1992. The Giulia was second in 2017 European Car of the Year voting and was named Motor Trend Car of the Year for 2018; the car was designed at the Centro Stile Alfa Romeo, by a team headed by Marco Tencone and including Senior Exterior Designer, Andrea Loi. along with Interior Chief Designer, Inna Kondakova and Senior Interior Designer, Manuele Amprimo. The Giulia has been the subject of a long gestation and delayed launch dates due to the design being sent back to the drawing board by Sergio Marchionne, CEO of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the parent company of Alfa Romeo at the time.
The new Giulia was unveiled to the press at the Museo Storico Alfa Romeo in Arese, on 24 June 2015, at an event which involved only the top-of-the-range Quadrifoglio variant and a rendition of "Nessun dorma" by Italian tenor Andrea Bocelli. The occasion coincided with the company's 105th anniversary, saw the company debut a restyled logo for all future Alfa Romeo models; the Giulia was presented under the new La meccanica delle emozioni slogan. The Giulia is the first model in the company's relaunch plan, which involves a €5 billion investment for an eight car line-up and a worldwide sales target of 400,000 by 2018—up from 74,000 in 2013, it is underpinned by an all-new, longitudinal-engine, rear-wheel drive platform developed for Alfa Romeo—codenamed "Giorgio". Development of the Giulia, along with development of the entire "Giorgio" project, has been overseen by the technical director of Ferrari, Philippe Krief; the Giulia uses a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, featuring an 50% front and 50% rear weight distribution.
Suspension is independent all-around, of the double wishbone type at the front and multilink at the rear. All Giulia models employ a carbon-fibre drive shaft made by Hitachi Automotive Systems, as well as aluminium alloy shock towers, suspension components, front wings and doors. Four-wheel drive models will be offered. Depending on trim level it has a 6.5-inch or 8.8-inch colour display, optional Sport and Luxury Packs are available. The sport package includes sports steering wheel with added grip, aluminium inserts on the dashboard, centre console and door panels, Xenon headlights; the luxury package offers premium leather wood trim. The performance package includes mechanical limited-slip differential along with electronic suspension and paddle shifters on the steering column in the cars equipped with an automatic transmission; the base model Giulia, mid-level Super, loaded Speciale are powered by a 200 PS gasoline engine, or the choice of 150 PS or 180 PS turbo diesel engine. The base model comes with 16 inch alloys, the Super can be distinguished with 17 inch alloys and dual chrome exhaust tip for the diesel model.
The Speciale has 18 inch alloys, black brake calipers, leather sports seats from the Veloce. The Giulia Veloce was presented at the 2016 Paris International Motor Show held in October; the Veloce offers the choice of two engines: the 2.0-litre turbo petrol and the 2.2-litre diesel inline-4 engines, both equipped with an 8-speed automatic transmission and Alfa Q4 all-wheel drive system. The Veloce has a glossy black door trim. On the interior, it has black, red or tan leather sport seats and a sports steering wheel with a suede grip, aluminium inserts on the dashboard, central tunnel, door panels and Xenon headlights; the new petrol straight-4 engine produces a maximum power output of 280 PS at 5,250 rpm and a maximum torque of 400 N⋅m at 2,250 rpm. It has MultiAir electro-hydraulic valve activation system along with "2-in-1" " turbocharger system and direct injection with a 200-bar high pressure system; the 210 PS diesel all aluminum straight-4 engine comes with MultiJet II technology and electrically operated variable geometry turbocharger.
The Alfa Q4 all wheel drive system behaves like a rear-wheel drive vehicle: 100% of torque is distributed to the rear axle. As it reaches the wheel adherence limit, the system transfers up to 60% of the torque to the front axle. To ensure maximum speed of response in re-distributing torque, the system exploits a high mechanical over slippage between the two axles, which translates into segment-beating vehicle control in terms of traction and directional stability on bends; the new trim level between Veloce and Quadrifoglio was introduced at the 2018 Goodwood Festival of Speed, sitting between the standard Veloce and the high-powered Quadrifoglio models. Its exterior design is inspired by the Quadrifoglio with an optional carbon fibre pack; the high-performance Giulia Quadrifoglio was the first model in the new Giulia range. It was unveiled at Italy in June 2015, it made its official international debut at the 2015 Frankfurt Motorshow. The Quadrifoglio's main competitors are cars such as the Mercedes-AMG C63, BMW M3 and Cadillac ATS-V.
The Quadrifoglio is powered by an all-aluminium alloy, twin-turbocharged gasoline direct injection 90° V6 engine, with a single-cylinder displacement of just under half a litre, for a total of 2,891 cc (176.4 cu
Alfa Romeo 8C
The Alfa Romeo 8C was a range of Alfa Romeo road and sports cars of the 1930s. In 2004 Alfa Romeo revived the 8C name for a V8-engined concept car which made it into production for 2007, the 8C Competizione; the 8C designates 8 cylinders, a straight 8-cylinder engine. The Vittorio Jano designed 8C was Alfa Romeo's primary racing engine from its introduction in 1931 to its retirement in 1939. In addition to the two-seater sports cars it was used in the world's first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car, the Monoposto'Tipo B' - P3 from 1932 onwards. In its development it powered such vehicles as the twin-engined 1935 6.3-litre Bimotore, the 1935 3.8-litre Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, the Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Mille Miglia Roadster. It powered top-of-the-range coach-built production models, including a Touring Spider and Touring Berlinetta. In 1924, Vittorio Jano created his first straight-eight-cylinder engine for Alfa Romeo, the 1987 cc P2, with common crankcase and four plated-steel two-cylinder blocks, which won the first World Championship in 1925.
Although it was a straight-8, the 8C designation was not used. The 8C engine, first entered at the 1931 Mille Miglia road race through Italy, had a common crankcase, now with two alloy four-cylinder blocks, which incorporated the heads; the bore and stroke, were the same as the 6C 1750. There was no separate head, no head gasket to fail, but this made valve maintenance more difficult. A central gear tower drove the overhead camshafts and ancillaries; as far as production cars are concerned, the 8C engine powered two models, the 8C 2300 and the more rare and expensive 8C 2900, bore increased to 68 mm and stroke to 100 mm. At the same time, since racing cars were no longer required to carry a mechanic, Alfa Romeo built the first single seater race car; as a first attempt, the 1931 Monoposto Tipo A used a pair of 6-cylinder engines fitted side by side in the chassis. As the resulting car was too heavy and complex, Jano designed a more suitable and successful racer called Monoposto Tipo B for the 1932 Grand Prix season.
The Tipo B proved itself the winning car of its era, winning straight from its first outing at the 1932 Italian Grand Prix, was powered with an enlarged version of the 8C engine now at 2,665 cc, fed through a pair of superchargers instead of a single one. Alfa Romeo announced that the 8C was not to be sold to private owners, but by autumn 1931 Alfa sold it as a rolling chassis in Lungo or Corto form with prices starting at over £1000; the chassis were fitted with bodies from a selection of Italian coach-builders such as Zagato, Carrozzeria Touring, Carrozzeria Castagna, Carrozzeria Pinin Farina and Brianza though Alfa Romeo did make bodies. Some chassis were clothed by coach-builders such as Graber and Tuscher of Switzerland and Figoni of France. Alfa Romeo had a practice of rebodying cars for clients, some racing vehicles were sold rebodied as road vehicles; some of the famous first owners include Baroness Maud Thyssen of the Thyssen family, the owner of the aircraft and now scooter company Piaggio Andrea Piaggio, Raymond Sommer, Tazio Nuvolari.
The first model was the 1931'8C 2300', a reference to the car's 2.3 L engine designed as a racing car, but produced in 188 units for road use. While the racing version of the 8C 2300 Spider, driven by Tazio Nuvolari won the 1931 and 1932 Targa Florio race in Sicily, the 1931 Italian Grand Prix victory at Monza gave the "Monza" name to the twin seater GP car, a shortened version of the Spider; the Alfa Romeo factory added the name of events won to the name of a car.'8C 2300 tipo Le Mans' was the sport version of the'8C 2300' and it had a successful debut in the 1931 Eireann Cup driven by Henry Birkin. It won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1931; the 8C 2300 Le Mans model on display at the Museo Alfa Romeo was bought by Sir Henry Birkin in 1931 for competition use, but it is not the car in which Birkin and Howe won the 1931 Le Mans 24 hours. A 1933 8C 2300 Le Mans, chassis #2311201, is part of the permanent collection at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, US; the car was owned by Lord Howe who campaigned it in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1934 as well as in 1935 when it set the fastest lap before retiring.
In 1933 the supercharged dual overhead cam straight-8 engine, enlarged to 2.6 litres for the Tipo B, was fitted to the Scuderia Ferrari 8C Monzas. Scuderia Ferrari had become the "semi-official" racing department of Alfa Romeo, who were no longer entering races as a factory effort due to the poor economic situation of the company. With the initial 215 hp of the 2.6 engine, the Monoposto Tipo B racer could accelerate to 60 mph in less than 7 seconds and could reach 135 mph. For 1934 the race engines became 2.9 litres. Tazio Nuvolari won the 1935 German GP at the Nürburgring at the wheel of a 3.2 L Tipo B against the more powerful Silver Arrows from Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union. Eight 3.8-litre versions, sharing no castings with the earlier blocks, were individually built for racing in five months, most being used in the Alfa Romeo Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, as raced by Scuderia Ferrari. The 3.8 produced 330 bhp at 5500 rpm, had 320 lb⋅ft from 900 rpm to 5500 rpm. It had 15.5-inch drum brakes all round, using Pirelli 5.25 or 5.50 x 19 tyres at the front and 7.00 or 7.50 x 19 tyres at the rear.
Alfa Romeo Montreal
The Alfa Romeo Montreal is a 2+2 coupé sports car produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1970 to 1977. The Alfa Romeo Montreal was introduced as a concept car in 1967 at Expo 67, held in Montreal, Canada; the concept cars were displayed without any model name, but the public took to calling it The Montreal. It was a 2+2 coupe using the 1.6-litre engine of the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI and the short wheelbase chassis of the Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint GT, with a body designed by Marcello Gandini at Bertone. One of the two concept cars built for Expo 67 is displayed in the Alfa Romeo Historical Museum in Arese, while the other is in museum storage; the first production car, Tipo 105.64, was shown at the 1970 Geneva Motor Show and was quite different from the original, using a 2593 cc 90° dry-sump lubricated, cross-plane V8 engine with SPICA fuel injection that produced around 200 PS, coupled to a five-speed ZF manual gearbox and a limited-slip differential. This engine was derived from the 2-litre V8 used in the 33 Stradale and in the Tipo 33 sports prototype racer.
The chassis and running gear of the production Montreal were taken from the Giulia GTV coupé and comprised double wishbone suspension with coil springs and dampers at the front and a live axle with limited slip differential at the rear. Since the concept car was unofficially known as The Montreal, Alfa Romeo kept the model name in production. Stylistically, the most eye catching feature is the car's front end with four headlamps covered by unusual "grilles", that retract when the lights are switched on. Another stylistic element is the NACA duct on the bonnet; the duct is blocked off since its purpose is not to draw air into the engine, but to optically hide the power bulge. The slats behind the doors contain the cabin vents, but apart from that only serve cosmetic purposes. Paolo Martin is credited for the prototype instrument cluster; the Montreal was more expensive to buy than the Jaguar E-Type or the Porsche 911. When launched in the UK it was priced at GB£5,077, rising to GB£5,549 in August 1972 and to GB£6,999 by mid-1976.
Production was split between the Alfa Romeo plant in Arese and Carrozzeria Bertone's plants in Caselle and Grugliasco outside Turin. Alfa Romeo produced the chassis and engine and mechanicals and sent the chassis to Caselle where Bertone fitted the body. After body fitment, the car was sent to Grugliasco to be degreased zinc coated, manually spray painted and have the interior fitted; the car was returned to Arese to have the engine and mechanicals installed. It is worth noting that because of this production method, there is not any correspondence between chassis number, engine number and production date; the Montreal remained unchanged until it was discontinued in 1977. By production had long ceased as Alfa were struggling to sell their remaining stock; the total number built was around 3900. None of them were sold in Montreal since Alfa did not develop a North American version to meet the emission control requirements in the United States & Canada. A Montreal can be seen in the 1974 movie The Marseille Contract where Michael Caine drives a metallic dark brown example.
A careful observer can find a red Montreal in the beginning of the James Cameron movie True Lies prior to the lead character saying "Here is my invitation." A Montreal is featured in the 2017 movie Atomic Blonde. Autodelta completed late in 1972 a Group 4 Montreal, it was launched at the London Racing Car Show in January 1973, it was sold to Alfa Romeo Germany to be used in the DRM series for GT cars. Ready to race in May 1973, the car was entrusted to specialist racing team of Dieter Gleich, the principle driver; the Autodelta version had 2997 cc engine with maximum power of 370 hp at 9000 rpm. Without any further development the car was outdated soon. A Montreal was campaigned in the United States but without success. Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale The Alfa Romeo Montreal Website Classic Motorsports magazine Alfa Romeo Montreal buyer's guide
Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale
The Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale is a mid-engined sports car built by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. 18 examples were produced between 1967 and 1969. "Stradale" is a term used by Italian car manufacturers to indicate a street-legal version of a racing car. A twin headlight 33 Stradale can be seen in the 1969 Italian movie Un bellissimo novembre; the 33 Stradale, first built in 1967, was based on the Autodelta Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 racing car. The car, designed by Franco Scaglione, built by Carrozzeria Marazzi, made its debut at the 1967 Turin Motor Show; the first prototype was built at Autodelta's workshop in Settimo Milanese, side by side with the Tipo 33 "Periscopica" race car in 1967. The body was built by his men, while Autodelta made the technical production. Another magnesium bodied. However, this was not finished until 1968 by Marazzi; the two prototypes are the only ones to have dual headlight arrangement. This was redesigned by Scaglione on the following production cars due to regulations on minimum headlight distance from the ground.
The two prototypes carry the projects original serial numbers, 105.33.xx. However, the Tipo 33 racing - and production Stradales got 750.33.1 xx chassis numbers. Marazzi claims to have built 18 chassis. 5 of them were used for 6 concept cars by Pininfarina and Giugiaro/ItalDesign. Eight are confirmed with Scaglione's beautiful bodies; the rest are unconfirmed at this point. There are huge holes in the history of the Tipo 33s and the exact number of actual Stradale-chassis doesn't quite match the range of chassis numbers; the car was introduced at the Sport Car Show at Monza, Italy in September 1967. Only 18 were made; the prototype was sold to private Gallery Japan. The second magnesium bodied Stradale prototype and the five concept cars are now part of the Alfa Romeo Museum; the 33 Stradale is the first production vehicle to feature dihedral doors known as butterfly doors. The 33 Stradale features windows which seamlessly curve upward into the'roof' of the vehicle; the car has aluminium body on aluminium tubular chassis.
As a result of being built by hand, each model differs from the others for some details. For example, early models had twin headlights, replaced in the last ones by single lights; the position of the windscreen wiper, the number of them, is another thing that differentiates each example from the others. The late models have vents added behind both the front and rear wheels to allow hot air from the brakes to escape; the car has 13-inch Campagnolo magnesium wheels, the front wheels eight and the rear wheels nine inches wide. The suspension system of the car is directly derived from the race cars of the 1960s with upper and lower control arms in front and double trailing arms in the rear, along with substantial antiroll bars; the race-bred engine bore no relation to the mass-produced units in Alfa's more mainstream vehicles. The engine is related to the V8 of the Alfa Montreal, albeit with smaller capacity and in a much higher state of tune. Both engines were derived from the 33 racers‘ but differed in many details.
Both engines had chain driven camshafts as opposed to the racers‘ gear driven ones, but the Stradale kept the racing engine’s flat plane crankshaft, whereas the Montreal engine had a cross plane crank. Race engineer Carlo Chiti designed an oversquare bore x stroke of 78 mm × 52.2 mm dry-sump lubricated all aluminum 1,995 cc V8 engine that featured SPICA fuel injection, four ignition coils and twin spark plugs per cylinder. The engine used four chain-driven camshafts to operate the DOHC 2 valves per cylinder valvetrain and had a rev-limit of 10,000 rpm with a compression ratio of 10.5:1, producing 230 PS at 8,800 rpm and 206 N⋅m at 7,000 rpm of torque in road trim and 270 bhp in race trim. Because every Stradale is hand built and unique the power levels can vary by car, used rpms etc. for example the first production Stradale has factory datasheet that claims 243 hp at 9,400 rpm with a "street" exhaust and 254 hp with open exhaust. Like on the racing car the transmission was a six-speed Colotti transaxle gearbox.
Although the Stradale is a road car, it has some limitations which may make the everyday use hard, for example missing locks and the lack of ground clearance. The car takes less than six seconds to reach 100 km/h from a standing start and has a claimed top speed of 260 km/h. In 1968, the German Auto, Motor und Sport magazine measured a top speed of 252 km/h and 24.0 seconds for the standing kilometer which made it the fastest commercially available car for this distance. Similar performance cars from that time were all using twice the Stradale`s cylinder capacity, the Lamborghini Miura, Ferrari Daytona and Maserati Ghibli. Built in an attempt by Alfa to make some of its racing technology available to the public, it was the most expensive automobile for sale to the public in 1968 at US$17,000. In the same year, in Italy, the retail price for a 33 Stradale was 9,750,000 lire. In comparison, the Lamborghini Miura was sold for 7,700,000 lire, while the average worker's wage was about 150,000 lire.
The Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale are hardly traded.
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian luxury car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has been involved in car racing since 1911; the company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group. In February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy; the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and the Italian partners of the company hired Giuseppe Merosi to design new cars. On 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Merosi.
A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto. Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among, Alfa Romeo, through the "Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali". In 1925, the railway activities were separated from the Romeo company, in 1928, Nicola Romeo left. In 1933, the state ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolini's government, which had effective control; the company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models.
In 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. During the 1960s and 1970s, Alfa Romeo produced a number of sporty cars, but struggled to make a profit, so Istituto per la Reconstruzione, the state conglomerate that controls Finmeccanica sold the marque to the Fiat Group in 1986. Alfa Romeo has competed in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing, rallies, it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, Alfa Romeo won the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925; the race victories gave a sporty image to the marque, Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team, before becoming independent in 1939. It has had the most wins of any marque in the world; the company's name is a combination of the original name, "A. L. F.
A.", the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who took control of the company in 1915. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909; the firm's initial location was in Naples, but before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late in 1906 that Milan would be more suitable and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres was erected. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suited to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.
L. F. A. Cars, with more powerful engines. A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built, the GP1914, with a four-cylinder engine, double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder, twin ignition. However, the onset of the First World War halted automobile production at A. L. F. A. for three years. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft engines and other components and generators based on the company's existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. After the war, Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railway carriage plants in Saronno and Naples, which were added to his A. L. F. A. Ownership. Car production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars had remained at the A.
L. F. A. Factory since 1915. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged, their first success came in 1920 whe
Darracq and Company London
A Darracq and Company Limited owned a French manufacturer of motor vehicles and aero engines in Suresnes, near Paris. The French enterprise, known at first as A. Darracq et Cie, was founded in 1896 by Alexandre Darracq after he sold his Gladiator Bicycle business. In 1902, it took effect in 1903, he sold his new business to a held English company named A Darracq and Company Limited, taking a substantial shareholding and a directorship himself. Alexandre Darracq continued to run the business from Paris but was obliged to retire to the Côte d'Azur in 1913 following years of difficulties that brought Darracq & Co into hazardous financial circumstances, he had introduced an unproven unorthodox engine in 1911 which proved a complete failure yet he neglected Suresnes' popular conventional products. France entered the first World War, he died in 1931 but long before that, in 1920, the name of A Darracq & Co 1905 was changed to S T D Motors Limited. In 1922 Darracq's name was dropped from all products, the Suresnes business was renamed Automobiles Talbot and the Suresnes products were branded just Talbot.
His Suresnes business was to continue, still under British control, under the name Talbot until 1935 when it was acquired by investors led by the Suresnes factory's managing director, Antonio Lago. S T D Motors Limited known until 1920 as A Darracq and Company Limited became insolvent and was liquidated during 1935 and 1936. Alexandre Darracq, using part of the substantial profit he had made from selling his Gladiator bicycle factory to Adolpe Clément, set up a plant in 1897 in the Paris suburb of Suresnes; the company to own the business was formed in 1897 and named A Darracq et Cie. Production began with a Millet motorcycle powered by a five-cylinder rotary engine, it was supplemented shortly after by an electric brougham. In 1898 Darracq et Cie made a Léon Bollée-designed voiturette tricar; the voiturette proved a débâcle: the steering was problematic, the five-speed belt drive "a masterpiece of bad design", the hot tube ignition crude, proving the £10,000 Darracq et Cie had paid for the design a mistake.
Darracq et Cie produced its first vehicle with an internal combustion engine in 1900. Designed by Ribeyrolles this was a 6.5 hp voiture legére powered by a single-cylinder engine of 785 cc and it featured shaft drive and three speed column gear change. While not as successful as hoped, one hundred were sold. In 1902 Darracq & Co signed a contract with Adam Opel to jointly produce, under licence, vehicles in the German Empire with the brand name "Opel Darracq". Opel soon moved on to building their own vehicles. A Darracq et Cie was sold as of 30 September 1902 to an English company, A Darracq and Company Limited; the attraction for the British venture capitalists was that French automobile technology and industry experience led the world. It was incorporated in England because French law made the necessary flotation processes more difficult than English law; the perception from across the Atlantic in USA was that French industry was "offloading" on British investors. The English financial group was headed by W B Avery of W & T Avery Limited, a Birmingham scales manufacturer, J S Smith-Winby a London lawyer and a retired army officer, Colonel A Rawlinson.
They bought A Darracq et Cie and sold it again to other investors for five times their purchase price. Darracq received less than 50 percent of the shares in the new company. There was no public offering, eight other investors took up the rest of the shares. Further capital was raised and large sums were spent on factory expansion; the Suresnes site was expanded to some four acres in extent, in England extensive premises were bought. The Darracq & Co automobile company prospered, such that, by 1903, four models were offered: a 1.1-litre single, a 1.3 l and 1.9 l twin, a 3.8 l four. The 1904 models abandoned flitch-plated wood chassis for pressed steel, the new Flying Fifteen, powered by a 3-litre four, had its chassis made from a single sheet of steel; this car was Alexandre Darracq's chef d'oeuvre. There was nothing outstanding in its design but "every part was in such perfect balance and harmony" it became an outstanding model, its exceptional quality helped the company capture a ten percent share of the French auto market.
In late 1904 the chairman reported sales were up by 20 per cent though increased costs meant the profit had risen more slowly. But what was more important was they had many more orders than they could fill and the only solution was to enlarge the factory by as much as 50 per cent. 75 per cent of 1904 output was exported. At the following Annual meeting, twelve months the chairman was able to tell shareholders all the six speed records of the automobile world were held by Darracq cars and they had all been held more than twelve months and yet another had been added by K Lee Guinness, he reported that during 1905 a large property had been bought in Lambeth for examining adjusting and stocking new cars ready for the peak sales period. An announcement followed two days of a scheme of reconstitution of the company to raise more capital for further expansion; the reconstituted company was named Company Limited. Paris resident Alexander Darracq remained managing director, Rawlinson was appointed managing director of the London branch.
The "reconstitution" was to circumvent some holders of the company's shares who were unwilling to share the prosperity and blocked proposed new issues. So the company was sold, they were obliged to buy new shares like anyone else. J S Smith-Winby continued as chairman. After this "reconstitution" over 80 per cent of the shares were held in England. Meanwhile th