A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Alfa Romeo 1750 Berlina
The Alfa Romeo 1750 Berlina and Alfa Romeo 2000 Berlina were executive cars produced by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1968 to 1977. Berlina is the Italian term for a saloon car. Both cars had Alfa Romeo twin cam inline-four engines; the 1.8-litre engined 1750 series cars were introduced by Alfa Romeo in 1968. The 1750 Berlina 4-door notchback saloon was presented to the international press in January 1968 in Vietri sul Mare, together with the 1750 GT Veloce coupé and Spider Veloce; some days it was displayed at the Brussels Motor Show. The 1750 Berlina was based on the existing Giulia saloon; the 1750 was meant to top the saloon range, above the 1600 cc versions of the Giulia. In the United States, the Giulia saloon ceased to be available and was replaced by the 1750 Berlina; the 1750 entered full production in South Africa in early 1969 complemented by the 2000. In contrast to the Giulia, the 1750s had reworked bodywork and bigger engine, shared many parts with other concurrent models in the Alfa Romeo range, but sold many fewer units during their production span.
The 1750 bodyshell had a longer wheelbase than the Giulia, revised external panels, but it shared many of the same internal panels. The windscreen was the same; the revisions were carried out by Bertone, while it resembled the Giulia some of that vehicle's distinctive creases were smoothed out, there were significant changes to the trim details. The car's taillights were used on the De Tomaso Longchamp; the car has hydraulic clutch. The 1.8 L engine produced 118 PS with two twin sidedraught carburettors. For the US market the 1750 was equipped with SPICA fuel injection. In 1971, the 1750 Berlina was fitted with an experimental three-speed ZF automatic gearbox; the model designation was 1750A Berlina. According to official Alfa Romeo archives, 252 units were produced with few surviving to this day; some of 1750A Berlina didn't have the model plate with production date embossed. The automatic gearbox wasn't well-suited to the four-cylinder motor due to baulky shifting and ill-chosen gear ratio; because of this, its fuel consumption was frighteningly high and acceleration was a bit too slow.
During 1971 the 1750 series was superseded across the Alfa Romeo range by the 2000 series. Some 83 final 1750 Berlinas were assembled in 1972. A direct replacement in the 1.8-litre saloon class came that same year, in the form of the all-new Alfa Romeo Alfetta. The Alfa Romeo 2000 Berlina was produced by Alfa Romeo between 1971 and 1977; the engine stroked out to 1,962 cc. A different grill distinguishes 2000 from 1750. External lights were different between the models; the 1750 had 7 inch diameter outboard headlights, whereas the 2000 had 5 3/4 inch diameter in all four positions. The tail light clusters were of a simpler design on the 1750. With two carburetors, this 2 litre Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine produces 132 PS. Top speed was 200 km/h and 0-100 km/h acceleration took 9 seconds. In USA this engine was equipped with mechanical fuel injection. Gearbox was 5-speed manual. In 1977 the Alfetta 2000, a two-litre upmarket Alfetta version, replaced the 2000 Berlina; the 2000 Berlina was produced in 89,840 examples, of which 2.200 units fitted with automatic gearboxes.
Motorbase: Alfa Romeo 1750 Berlina Motorbase: Alfa Romeo 1750 GTV Motorbase: Alfa Romeo 1750 Spider Berlina Register
Alfa Romeo Giulietta (940)
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta is a small family car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo. Giulietta production started towards the end of 2009 and the model was introduced at the March 2010 Geneva Motor Show. In a viability plan forwarded to the US Government in February 2009, Chrysler reported that the 147 replacement would come to market as the Milano and that it could be built in the USA. However, as of early 2010 Fiat was instead planning to concentrate on bringing larger models to the US, such as the Giulia; the Giulietta came in second place in the 2011 European Car of the Year awards. Between 2010 and 2019 over 400,000 Giuliettas were built, it is current top Alfa sales with about 32,000 cars per year. The 2010 Giulietta is available only as a 5-door hatchback; the Giulietta got its Italian dealer presentation on 22 and 23 May 2010. The Giulietta advertising campaign is made with Hollywood actress Uma Thurman; the end of the advert features the car's mottos -'I am Giulietta, I am such stuff as dreams are made on' and'Without heart, we would be mere machines'.
The platform used is Fiat Group’s Compact called as "C-Evo" during the planning stage. This is an all new platform. Fiat Group used around 100 million euros to re-engineer the C-platform used for the Fiat Stilo, Fiat Bravo and Lancia Delta, into C-Evo, it has a longer wheelbase, shorter overhangs and an advanced new type of MacPherson strut front suspension and multi-link rear suspension. Depending on the market and trim level, 16, 17, or 18 inch wheels are available. Available tire sizes are 205/55 R16, 225/45 R17, 225/40 R18; the wheels use a 5-hole pattern with a 110 mm bolt circle. The length of the Giulietta is around 4.3 metres. Only a five-door body is available for sale. At the 2013 Frankfurt International Motor Show Alfa Romeo presented an updated Giulietta. Trim changes include a new Uconnect infotainment system with 5" or 6.5" Radionav touchscreen, a new front grille, a chrome-plated frame for the fog lights, a new and more supportive seat design, new wheels, as well as new exterior colours: Moonlight Pearl, Anodizzato Blue and Bronze.
A new diesel engine variant has arrived, the two-litre JTDM 2, developing 150 PS and 380 N⋅m. In the 2014 range, all engines comply with Euro 5+ emission standards. Debuting at 2016 Geneva Motor Show, New Giulietta with facelifted front resembling Giulia and with new updated brand logo and new lettering. Trim line up will be changed to Giulietta Super and Giulietta Veloce. New body colour, new rims designs. Previous Giulietta QV will now be changed into sporty Veloce trim available with 240 PS engine and TCT transmission. Debuting will be a new 1.6 JTDm 120 PS TCT diesel engine. For 2019 Giulietta has updated engines, all Euro 6 D: a 1.4-litre 120 PS turbo petrol, a 1.6-litre 120 PS Multijet with manual or Alfa TCT automatic transmission, a 2.0-litre 170 PS Multijet with Alfa TCT. The top of the range model is a version with 1.75 L turbocharged TBi engine rated 235 PS, lowered ride height, 18-inch Spoke design alloy wheels with dark titanium finish and 225/40 R18 tires plus 18-inch 5 hole design alloy wheels as an option.
1750 is an engine size which has its roots in Alfa Romeo's history, with 1.75 L engines being used to power some of Alfa Romeo's first cars. The UK version is sold as the Giulietta Cloverleaf. In Geneva Motor Show Alfa Romeo introduced a new Quadrifoglio Verde, it has new 1,742 cc Turbo gasoline direct injection aluminium-block Inline-four engine now upgraded to 240 PS at 5750 rpm and 340 N⋅m at 2000 rpm of torque and Alfa TCT 6-speed twin dry clutch transmission borrowed from the Alfa Romeo 4C. With new engine the Giulietta's flagship can exceed 240 km/h and accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in only 6.0 seconds. This new facelifted version was premiered with a limited'Launch Edition', recognizable by the black-finish on the sills all round. Available in new matt Grigio Magnesio Opaco along with Rosso Alfa and Rosso Competizione; each car has its own numbered plaque. Around 700 units were made; the GTS Q2 is a version of Hong Kong market version GT Q2 with Sport Package. It includes the engine from 1.4 L TB MultiAir TCT, with a 6-speed TCT transmission.
It is a version using petrol fuel types. It includes Euro 5-compliant 1.4-litre turbo engine rated 120 PS at 5000 rpm and 206 N⋅m at 1750 rpm, three different trim levels for all European markets, 38-litre toroid type LPG tank at spare wheel housing, 6-speed manual transmission. The LPG version was unveiled in 2011 Bologna Motor Show. At Centro Sperimentale di Balocco in October 2014, Alfa Romeo launched a 60th anniversary edition of the Giulietta; the Giulietta Sprint pays homage to the 1954 Giulietta which promised good performance at an affordable price. The 2014 Giulietta Sprint features a unique 1.4-litre MultiAir petrol engine rated 152 PS at 5500 rpm and 250 N⋅m at 1750 rpm. Other changes include a carbon fibre effect interior trim, sporty exterior styling including side skirts, rear diffuser and oversized exhaust; the Squadra Corse TCT is a limited edition version of the Giulietta Quadrifoglio Verde made for
Alfa Romeo 6C
The Alfa Romeo 6C name was used on road and sports cars produced between 1927 and 1954 by Alfa Romeo. Bodies for these cars were made by coachbuilders such as James Young, Touring and Pininfarina. Starting from 1933 there was a 6C version with a factory Alfa body, built in Portello. In the early 1920s Vittorio Jano received a commission to create a lightweight, high performance vehicle to replace the Giuseppe Merosi designed RL and RM models; the car was introduced in April 1925 at the Salone dell' Automobile di Milano as the 6C 1500. It was based on the P2 racing car, using single overhead cam 1,487 cc in-line six-cylinder motor producing 44 horsepower, in 1928 the 1500 Sport was presented, the first Alfa Romeo road car with double overhead camshafts. In the mid-1920s, Alfa's RL was considered too large and heavy, so a new development began; the 2-liter formula that had led to Alfa Romeo winning the Automobile World Championship in 1925, changed to 1.5-liter for the 1926 season. The 6C 1500 was introduced in 1925 at the Milan Motor Show, production started 1927, with the P2 Grand Prix car as a starting point.
Engine capacity was now 1487 cc, against the P2's 1987 cc. First versions were bodied by Touring. In 1928, a 6C Sport was released, with a dual overhead camshafts engine, its sport version won many races, including the 1928 Mille Miglia. Total production was 3000. Ten copies of a supercharged Super Sport variant were made; the more powerful 6C 1750 was introduced in 1929 in Rome. The car featured a top speed of 95 mph, a chassis designed to flex and undulate over wavy surfaces, as well as sensitive geared-up steering, it was produced in six series between 1929 and 1933. The base model had a single overhead cam. Super Sport and Gran Sport versions had a double overhead cam engine. Again, a supercharger was available. Most of the cars were sold as rolling chassis and bodied by coachbuilders such as Zagato, Touring. Additionally, there were 3 examples built with James Young bodywork, one of, a part of the permanent collection at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, USA in original, unrestored condition.
In 1929, it won every major racing event it was entered in, including the Grands Prix of Belgium, Spain and Monza, the Mille Miglia was won with Giuseppe Campari and Giulio Ramponi. The Brooklands Double Twelve and the Ulster TT were won, in 1930 it won again at the Mille Miglia and Spa 24 Hours. Total production was 2635; the 1931 6C 1750 with license plate number "3710 SV" and chassis/engine number #10814331, owned by notorious rare car collector Corrado Lopresto, is a unique exemplar, which's story is told in Lopresto's bilingual 2015 Skira book Best in Show – Capolavori dell'auto italiana dalla collezione Lopresto – Italian Cars Masterpieces from the Lopresto Collection. The English-language section about this car tells: Born with a spider body by Zagato, this car is a 6C 1750 Gran Sport with compressor, the sportiest version of the Milanese 6-cylinder, is sold new to Giovanni Battista Aldo Barabini of Genova in 1931. After several changes of ownership the car goes back to Alfa Romeo, to be resold in 1933 to Dino Carabba, who in 1934 enrolls in the Varese-Campo dei Fiori, coming in fourth in class and eleventh overall.
In those years, the 6C runs in minor races, changing hands three times before being sold to the body shop Giuseppe Aprile of Savona, in August 1938. Less than a year after, the car is purchased by Brunello Feltri of Altare, province of Savona, but meanwhile, Aprile has rebuilt the body of the car with a new modern and elegant look; the design, so well executed, indicates the work of the most famous designer of that time: Mario Revelli di Beaumont, father of this and many other beautiful bodies. The car so transformed survives the war unscathed and changes ownership again in 1956, in Liguria, where it remains still today, rediscovery yet in order, although with some modifications; the painstaking restoration work has restored it to its original splendor, as well conceived by Revelli: a unique car that blends the great elegance to the sporty temperament of mechanics. A plush version of the car, manufactured by Vitale Barberis Canonico, was given, together with the book, to some of Lopresto's friends.
The Alfa Romeo 6C 1900 was the last derivative of the original 6C 1500, produced in 197 examples during 1933, as a transitional model before the new 6C 2300 was introduced the following year. Only made in Gran Turismo guise with a 2,920 mm wheelbase, the 6C 1900 replaced the corresponding 6C 1750 model. Besides the larger displacement, other notable mechanical changes were aluminium cylinder heads, an improved frame and a new transmission; the same upgrades were applied to the 1933 model 6C 1750 Gran Sport, which together with the 6C 1900 forms the sixth series of the 6C. Alfa Romeo offered the 6C 1900 with an in-house 4-door saloon body, while bespoke coachbuilt body styles included 4-seat cabriolets; the double overhead camshaft aspirated straight-six engine was bored out from 66 mm to 68 mm, bringing displacement to 1,917 cc. For the first time on a 6C the cylinder head was aluminium. With 68 bhp at 4,500 rpm the 6C 1900 could achieve a top speed of 130 km/h; the improved frame consisted of boxed rails and crossmembers, instead of the 1750s C-shaped sec
Alfa Romeo Alfasud
The Alfa Romeo Alfasud was a small family car, manufactured from 1971 to 1989 by Industria Napoletana Costruzioni Autoveicoli Alfa Romeo-Alfasud S.p. A of Italy, a new company owned by Alfa Finmeccanica; the company was based in the southern region of Italy as a part of the labour policy of the government. It is considered one of Alfa Romeo's most successful models, with 893,719 examples sold between 1972 and 1983, plus 121,434 Sprint coupé versions between 1976 and 1989. A common nickname for the car is ’Sud; the car went through two facelifts, the first in 1977 and the second one in 1980. Alfa Romeo had explored building a smaller front wheel drive car in the 1950s but it was not until 1967 that firm plans were laid down for an all-new model to fit in below the existing Alfa Romeo range, it was developed by Austrian Rudolf Hruska, who created a unique engineering package, clothed in a body styled by Giorgetto Giugiaro of ItalDesign. The car was built at a new factory at Pomigliano d'Arco in southern Italy, hence the car's name, Alfa Sud.
January 18, 1968, saw the registration at Naples of a new company named "Industria Napoletana Costruzioni Autoveicoli Alfa Romeo-Alfasud S.p. A.". 90% of the share capital was subscribed by Alfa Romeo and 10% by Finmeccanica, at that time the financial arm of the government controlled IRI. Construction work on the company's new state-sponsored plant at nearby Pomigliano d'Arco began in April 1968, on the site of an aircraft engine factory used by Alfa Romeo during the Second World War; the Alfasud was shown at the Turin Motor Show three years in 1971 and was praised by journalists for its styling. The four-door saloon featured a cutting-edge technology, following the technical scheme experimented in Lancia since 1960 on the Lancia Flavia, that is: a front wheel drive with Boxer of 1,186 cc water-cooled engine with a belt-driven overhead camshaft on each cylinder head, it featured an elaborate suspension setup for a car in its class:. Other unusual features for this size of car were four-wheel disc brakes, rack and pinion steering.
The engine design allowed the Alfasud to have a low bonnet line, making it aerodynamic for its day giving it a low centre of gravity. As a result of these design features, the car had excellent performance for its engine size, levels of road-holding and handling that would not be equalled in its class for another ten years. Despite its two-box shape, a hatchback was not part of the range; some of the controls were unorthodox, the lights, turn indicators, horn and heater fan all being operated by pulling, turning or pushing the two column stalks. In November 1973 the first Alfasud sport model joined the range, the two-door Alfasud ti—. Along with a 5-speed gearbox, it featured a more powerful version of the 1.2 litre engine, brought to 68 PS by adopting a Weber twin-choke carburettor, allowing the small saloon to reach 160 km/h. Quad round halogen headlamps, special wheels, a front body-colour spoiler beneath the bumper and rear black one around the tail distinguished the "ti", while inside there was a three-spoke steering wheel, auxiliary gauges, leatherette/cloth seats, carpets in place of rubber mats.
In 1974, Alfa Romeo launched a more upscale model, the Alfasud SE. The SE was replaced by the Alfasud L model introduced at the Bruxelles Motor Show in January 1975. Recognizable by its bumper overriders and chrome strips on the door sills and on the tail, the Lusso was better appointed than the standard Alfasud, with such features as cloth upholstery, padded dashboard with glove compartment and optional tachometer. A three-door estate model called the Alfasud Giardinetta was introduced in May 1975, with the same equipment of the Alfasud "L"; the Lusso model was produced until 1976, was replaced by the new Alfasud 5m model, the first four-door Alfasud with a five-speed gearbox. Presented at the March 1976 Geneva Motor Show, it was equipped like the Lusso. In September 1976, the Alfasud Sprint coupé was launched. Built on the same platform of the saloon, it featured lower, more angular bodywork, again by Giorgetto Giugiaro, featured a hatchback; the Sprint was powered by a new, more powerful Boxer, stroked from the 1.2 to displace 1,286 cc and develop 76 PS, was paired the five-speed gearbox.
The same 1286 cc engine was fitted into the 2-door saloon, creating the Alfasud ti 1.3, put on sale alongside the "ti" 1.2 in July 1977. In late 1977 the Alfasud Super replaced the range-topping four-door "5m", it was available with both the 1.2- and 1.3-litre engines from the "ti", though both were equipped with a single-choke carburettor. The Super introduced improvements both outside, with new bumpers including large plastic strips, inside, with a revised dashboard, new door cards and two-tone cloth seats. Similar upgrades were applied to the Giardinetta. In May 1978 the Sprint and "ti" got new engines, a 79 PS 1.3 and a 85 PS 1.5, both with a twin-choke carburettor. At the same time the Alfasud ti received cosmetic updates: bumpers from the Super, new rear spoiler on the boot lid, black wheel arch extensions and black front spoiler, was upgraded to the revised interior of the Super; the 1.3 and 1.5 engines were soon made available alongside the 1.2 on the Giardinetta and Super, with a lower output compared to the sport models, due to having a single-choke carburettor.
In 1979 the Sprint was given a double twin-choke carbur
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl