Azienda Trasporti Milanesi
Azienda Trasporti Milanesi is a public company responsible for public transportation in Milan city and some surrounding municipalities, in Italy. It operates 4 metro lines, 18 tram lines, 69 urban bus lines, 4 trolleybus lines, 53 interurban bus lines, carrying over 734 million passengers in 2010. ATM offers other minor services related to transportation around the city; these services include an on-call minibus service. Public transport in Milan started on August 1840, with the opening of the Milan-Monza railway. Horse-drawn buses were introduced in 1841. Services were run by the Società Anonima degli Omnibus, "Omnibus Anonymous Company"; the company was responsible for 11 bus lines between 1861 and 1865. Few years the first horse-drawn trams were introduced: 3 lines were opened in 1881 followed in 1893 by the first electric tramway, built by Edison company. Two years the same company opened 18 more lines, all ruled by municipality offices. Edison's concession on new lines expired in 1917. Few years the public offices responsible for public transport operations were made independent, becoming the Azienda Tranviaria Municipale in 1931.
In the meantime, the first petrol powered bus lines were introduced in 1905, operated by SITA and moved under control of ATM along with the first trolleybus line. After World War II resources were focused on bus lines and, since the mid-1950s, on the new metro. Milan Metro construction began in 1957 and in 1964 the first line was opened. Five years the Line 2 was inaugurated. On 1 January 1965, ATM changed its name to "Azienda Trasporti Municipali". In these years a new generation of longer tram were introduced. In the 1960s Italy and Milan saw a strong increase in car owners, the increasing importance of private over public transport. Several new stations of the two metro lines are opened in the following years; the new Line 3 was inaugurated in 1990. Tram line 15 to Rozzano was the first to go beyond the city border in 1992. ATM changed its name again in 1999 to adopt the current one, "Azienda Trasporti Milanesi", it became a S.p.a. in 2001. In these years, the first on-demand service, the Radiobus, was introduced to operate during the night.
The first fast tram line was introduced on 7 December 2002. This was followed by other 2 on Line 15 on the south. New magnetic tickets and electronic pass cards were introduced in 2004; the complete upgrade process took 3 years. The Milan rapid transit network consists of 4 lines: M1 Sesto I Maggio - Rho Fiera / Bisceglie M2 Assago Milanofiori Forum / Abbiategrasso - Cologno Nord / Gessate M3 San Donato - Comasina M5 San Siro Stadio - BignamiThe network is more than 100 km long and serves 113 stations underground; the system is the biggest in Italy. The company will manage the fourth line, the fifth in order of construction, as soon as it will be ready. Outside of Italy, ATM operates the Copenhagen Metro; the urban tram network comprises 15 lines within the city limits, plus two lines linking the city centre with the hinterland, one interurban line. Some of the lines are operated with Peter Witt streetcars from the 1920s; the trolleybus network consists of 4 lines: lines 90 and 91 run around the city, while lines 92 and 93 serve some of the northern and eastern neighbourhoods.
ATM operates 69 urban bus lines and 53 interurban bus lines. Transport in Milan Integrated ticketing in Lombardy
Alfa Romeo MiTo
The Alfa Romeo MiTo is a front-wheel drive, three-door supermini designed by Centro Stile Alfa Romeo that debuted in 2008 at Castello Sforzesco in Milan with an international introduction at the British Motor Show in 2008. The Mio was marketed across a single generation from 2008–2018, sharing the Fiat Small platform with the Fiat Grande Punto with a production total 250,000 assembled at FCA's Mirafiori plant; the Mito nameplate is a portmanteau of Milano where it was designed and Torino where it was manufactured. The new car was provisionally named the "Junior". In November 2007, a European competition was launched in which the public had a chance to name the car; the winner from each country could win an Alfa Romeo mountain bike. The winning name was "Furiosa", which scored well in Italy, United Kingdom and Germany, but not in Spain. In 2008, Alfa Romeo announced the name would instead be "MiTo", a portmonteau of Milano & Torino, because it was designed in the former and was to be assembled in the latter.
The MiTo is front-wheel drive. The car has a new "Alfa DNA" system which allows the driver to choose between three different driving settings: Dynamic and All-Weather; this system controls the behavior of the engine, steering and gearbox. The MiTo features LED tail lights and 250-litre of luggage space; the MiTo features a Q2 electronic differential on the front wheels, active with the DNA switch in Dynamic position, allows for faster and tighter cornering without loss of traction. In 2010 a new transmission for the MiTo was unveiled at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show, the six-speed TCT, produced by Fiat Powertrain Technologies in Verrone. Magneti Marelli delivers the control system which integrates BorgWarner's hydraulic actuation module into its own power and transmission control units, it can handle torque inputs of up to 350 N⋅m In Geneva was unveiled Blue&Me–TomTom, this new system integrates TomTom navigation to the Blue&Me infotelematic system. For model year 2014, the MiTo gets a new 105 PS 0.9 L Turbo TwinAir engine, new chrome-plated grille, new Anthracite grey colour and new burnished front light clusters.
The car interior is updated with new upholsteries, three new dashboards looks, as well as the new Uconnect 5.0 infotainment systems. The engine range now consists two turbo diesel engines and five petrol engines: the 70 PS 1.4, the 78 PS 1.4, the 135 PS 1.4 MultiAir Turbo and the 170 PS 1.4 MultiAir Turbo. The range has 120 HP 1.4 LPG Turbo option. Debuting at the 2016 2016 Geneva Motor Show, the revised Mito featured a facelifted front fascia with a new updated brand logo and new lettering. Trim line up was changed to Mito and Veloce. A new body colour and new rims designs became available; the previous MiTo QV became available with 170 PS engine and TCT transmission. The Quadrifoglio Verde has traditionally been the highest line of Alfa Romeo models; the car version of Mito was presented at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. The QV version has the new 1.4 litres Turbo Multiair inline-four engine 170 PS at 5500 rpm and 250 N⋅m of torque at 2500 rpm, with newly engineered suspension and new six-speed C635 gearbox developed by Fiat Powertrain Technologies.
Its specific output of 124 PS per litre was highest in its segment at that time. The new multiair technology allows fuel consumption of 6 litres per 100 kilometres in EU combined driving and CO2 emissions of 139 g/km. QV had bigger 305 mm front brake discs and exclusive 18" alloy wheels as standard and Sabelt carbon fibre backed bucket seats as an option. From 2014 QV was now available with TCT robotised gearbox which brought down the 0-100 km/h time to 7.3 s. With 2016 facelift QV was renamed as Veloce. At its launch the MiTo will feature low-displacement turbocharged diesel engines. A power limited 79 PS aspirated engine variant is produced to meet the new Italian legislation for young people. MiTo got new electro-hydraulic valve control system Multiair engines from September 2009. MultiAir engines will increase power and torque, as well as a considerable reduction in consumption levels and CO2 emissions, of particulates and NOx; this new engine is available with 170 PS power ratings. All multiair versions have start-stop system as standard.
In October 2009 was unveiled a dual fuel MiTo version, this version can run with LPG or petrol, with this engine MiTo has range of 1,200 kilometres. The LPG version is made in collaboration with Landi Renzo. In Summer 2010 Alfa introduced the Dual Dry Clutch Transmission called Alfa TCT. From model year 2011 the start-stop system came as standard on all versions. At the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show, AR introduced two new engines for the MiTo – The 0.9 L I2 TwinAir and a new low emission 85 PS version of 1.3 JTD diesel engine. The MiTo has seven airbags as standard, received a'good' or green result from the first Euro NCAP rear impact test; the MiTo received the following ratings: Edizione Sprint: Limited to 250 examples, only for Belgian market. Available only with 1.3 JTDM 95 PS diesel e
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian luxury car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has been involved in car racing since 1911; the company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group. In February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy; the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and the Italian partners of the company hired Giuseppe Merosi to design new cars. On 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Merosi.
A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto. Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among, Alfa Romeo, through the "Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali". In 1925, the railway activities were separated from the Romeo company, in 1928, Nicola Romeo left. In 1933, the state ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolini's government, which had effective control; the company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models.
In 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. During the 1960s and 1970s, Alfa Romeo produced a number of sporty cars, but struggled to make a profit, so Istituto per la Reconstruzione, the state conglomerate that controls Finmeccanica sold the marque to the Fiat Group in 1986. Alfa Romeo has competed in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing, rallies, it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, Alfa Romeo won the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925; the race victories gave a sporty image to the marque, Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team, before becoming independent in 1939. It has had the most wins of any marque in the world; the company's name is a combination of the original name, "A. L. F.
A.", the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who took control of the company in 1915. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909; the firm's initial location was in Naples, but before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late in 1906 that Milan would be more suitable and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres was erected. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suited to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.
L. F. A. Cars, with more powerful engines. A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built, the GP1914, with a four-cylinder engine, double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder, twin ignition. However, the onset of the First World War halted automobile production at A. L. F. A. for three years. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft engines and other components and generators based on the company's existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. After the war, Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railway carriage plants in Saronno and Naples, which were added to his A. L. F. A. Ownership. Car production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars had remained at the A.
L. F. A. Factory since 1915. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged, their first success came in 1920 whe
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia is the name of three not directly related models by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. The first is a line of sporty four-door compact executive cars produced from 1962 to 1978, the second is an updated up-engined Spider and Sprint Speciale Giuliettas, the third Giulia is a compact executive car unveiled in 2015. Alfa Romeo was one of the first mainstream manufacturers to put a powerful engine in a light-weight 1 tonne four-door car for mass production; the Type 105 Giulia was equipped with a light alloy twin overhead camshaft four-cylinder engine similar to that of the earlier Giulietta range, available in 1.3-litre and 1.6-litre versions. Various configurations of carburetors and tuning produced power outputs from about 80 to about 110 bhp, coupled in most cases to 5-speed manual transmission. Giulia sedans were noted for lively handling and impressive acceleration among small European four-door sedans of their era considering modest engine sizes offered; the popular Super version with the twin carburettor 1.6 litre engine had a top speed of 170 km/h and accelerated from 0 to 100 km/h in about 12 seconds, better than many sports cars of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
When leaving the factory all variations of the Giulia fitted either Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres or Pirelli Cinturato 155HR15 tyres. The styling of the boxy four-door notchback saloon was somewhat wanting; the engine bay and boot were all square shaped, buffered somewhat by details on the grill, roofline and boot. Use of a wind tunnel during development led to a aerodynamic shape that produced a drag coefficient of Cd=0.34 low for a saloon of the era. The Giulia Spider was succeeded by the Alfa Romeo Spider in 1966. Note: chassis and engine type numbers displayed in italic for each model are sourced from Fusi 1978, pages 841–848. Tipo: 105.14, 105.08, 105.09. Engine: 00514. Unveiled on 27 June 1962 at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI was the first of the Giulia family of cars to be introduced, its 1,570 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was fitted with a single Solex 33 PAIA 7 twin-choke down-draft carburettor, produced 92 DIN-rated PS or 106 SAE-rated PS at 6,200 rpm. The "TI" nomenclature referred to a class of Italian saloon car racing known as "Turismo Internazionale", had been applied to higher-performance versions of the 1900 and Giulietta saloons in the 1950s.
However, for the Giulia saloon, the TI was at first the only version available, with the introduction of the TI Super and Super, the TI became the base version in the 1.6-litre engine class. A distinguishing feature of the original Giulia were drum brakes on all corners, the front ones of the three-shoe type like on late Giuliettas; the car was marketed as a six-seater, thanks to a standard column-mounted shifter and a split bench front seat—though Italian car magazine Quattroruote found it rather a comfortable four-seater. Other notable interior features of the early models were mottled cloth and vinyl upholstery, a grey, trapezoid instrument panel including a strip speedometer, a black steering wheel with two ivory-coloured spokes and a chrome half horn ring. In May 1964 a floor shifter became available, to be ordered in conjunction with the newly introduced separate front seats. Around the same time a right hand drive model variant entered production, with floor shifter only. In February 1966 several changes were made.
The floor shifter became standard. From outside these TIs can be recognized by L-shaped chrome strips around the tail lights which supplanted the previous C-shaped ones. Production of the Giulia TI ceased during 1967. Tipo: 105.16. Engine: 00516; the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI Super was a special road-going sports model produced in limited numbers, fitted with a more powerful engine and a number of weight saving components, intended for racing use. It was introduced to the press at the Monza race track on 24 April 1963. In total only 501 were made, 178 in 1963 and 323 1964. On 2 May 1964 the TI Super received international FIA and Italian CSAI homologation for racing, was extensively campaigned in the European Touring Car Challenge. Today the Giulia TI Super is rare and considered desirable by collectors; the TI Super's 1,570 cc engine was the same installed on the Giulia Sprint Speciale coupé—though bearing a different type code. It was fitted with two twin-choke horizontal Weber 45 DCOE 14 carburettors and, as on the Sprint Speciale, produced 112 DIN-rated PS or 129 SAE-rated PS at 6,500 rpm, pushing top speed to over 185 km/h.
Dry weight was 910 kilograms compared to 1,000 kg of the standard Giulia TI. Parts contributing to the weight reduction were mesh grilles replacing the inner pair of head lamps, bumpers without overriders, fixed front quarter windows, Plexiglas rear windows, magnesium alloy wheels with hubcaps similar in appearance to the standard steel wheels of the TI. Braking was by discs all around. Cars built from August 1964 used the bodyshell of the TI with mounting points for the brake servo, but wer
Alfa Romeo 4C
The Alfa Romeo 4C is a mid-engined, rear-wheel drive sports car. Available in coupé and spider body style, it uses a carbon fiber tub and rear crash box, hybrid rear subframe out of aluminum to keep weight at 895 kg and 1,050 kg in the United States; the 4C is Alfa Romeo's first mass-produced vehicle of the 21st century to re-enter the North American automotive market. Alfa Romeo 4C Concept is a two-seater, rear-wheel drive coupé with technology and materials derived from the Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione, with 1750 turbo petrol engine with direct injection, the "Alfa TCT" twin dry clutch transmission, the Alfa DNA dynamic control selector; the 4C concept version unveiled in the 81st Geneva Motor Show in March 2011, followed by Mille Miglia 2011 parade, Goodwood Festival of Speed 2011, 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show. It was displayed for the first time outside in Concorso d'Eleganza Villa d'Este in 2012. Compared to the production version, it is similar, with the biggest differences being front lights, side vents and mirrors.
The Alfa Romeo 4C Concept was voted the'Most Beautiful Concept Car of the Year' award by the readers of German magazine Auto Bild, won the Auto Bild Design Award 2011. It was awarded the "Design Award for Concept Cars & Prototypes" by referendum of the public in Villa d'Este; the production car was unveiled at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show, followed by 2013 Essen'Techno Classica', Goodwood Festival of Speed 2013, Moscow Raceway, 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show. The bare'4C000' chassis was shown at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show. Ordering of European models began in October 2013 at Alfa Romeo dealerships in Europe; as part of Alfa Romeo 4C launch, Alfa Romeo Style Centre and Compagnia Ducale designed a 4C IFD Bicycle, inspired by the Alfa Romeo 4C coupé. The vehicle went on sale in December 2013 and marketed in Europe and America. Production of 4C began May 2013 at Maserati's plant in Modena, with an expected production of up to 2500 units per year, it will be the first mass-produced Alfa Romeo car for re-entry into the US market.
Production of Alfa Romeo 4C was estimated to be over 1000 units per year, with an upper limit of 3500 units per year, depending on the quantity of carbon fiber chassis that can be built by the supplier Adler Plastic. Within the 3,500-unit quota, 1,000 units of which are earmarked for Europe. Delivery of European Alfa Romeo 4C Launch Edition took place at Balocco Test Centre, with vehicles delivered to Pierluigi De Silvestro, Philippe Walch, Carlos Diniz, Aldo Mariani and Stefano Zanotti; the car was developed by Alfa Romeo. The chassis is composed with aluminium subframes front and rear; the carbon fiber tub is produced by TTA in Airola, as a joint venture between Adler Plastic and Lavorazione Materiali Compositi. The carbon fiber components that make up the chassis are cut using CNC technology; the entire carbon-fiber monocoque chassis of the car weighs a mere 143 lb. Front and rear aluminum subrames combine with the tub, roof reinforcements and engine mounting to comprise the 4C chassis giving the vehicle a total chassis weight of 236 lb and a total vehicle curb weight of just 2,465 lb.
The 4C has a single carbon fiber body, similar to the body of many supercars. The outer body is made of a composite material, 20% lighter than steel; the stability is better than aluminium. The 4C employs double wishbone suspensions at MacPherson struts at the rear; the resultant weight distribution is 62 % on the rear axle. Wheels and tyres have different diameters and widths front and rear: 205/45 R17 front and 235/40 R18 back as standard, with optional 205/40 R18 and 235/35 R19. Both wheel options come equipped with Pirelli P Zero tires; the 4C uses vented disc brakes on all wheels. The car can stop from 100 km/h in 36 meters. To save weight and increase steering feel, the 4C has no power steering, its center of gravity height at just 40 centimetres off the ground is 7 centimetres lower than the Lotus Elise. The 4C uses a new all-aluminium 1.75 L inline 4 cylinder turbocharged engine producing 240 horsepower at 6000 rpm. The engine has been designed for minimum weight; the engine's combined fuel consumption 6.8 L/100 km.
0–62 miles per hour acceleration is achieved in 4.5 seconds and the top speed is 258 km/h, the power-to-weight-ratio being just 0.267 hp/kg. A journalist from Quattroruote car magazine demonstrated how the 4C accelerates from 0–100 kilometres per hour faster than 4.5 seconds. In race mode, with left foot on the brake pedal, if you pull the right shift paddle the engine will rev to 3500 rpm, but if you pull the left paddle the engine will rev to 6000 rpm and 0–100 kilometres per hour time will go down to 4.2 seconds. Italian car magazine Quattroruote published the lap time of 4C around Nurburgring, it lapped the ring in 8:04. The 4C is equipped with a six speed Alfa TCT Dual Dry Clutch Transmission, can be operated via gearshift paddles on the steering wheel, it has an Alfa'DNA' dynamic control selector which controls the behavior of engine, throttle response and gearbox. In addition to the modes seen in Giulietta, the 4C has a new "Race" mode; the 4C Launch Edition was a limited and numbered edition, unveiled at the vehicle's launch at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show.
Alfa Romeo RL
The Alfa Romeo RL was produced between 1922-1927. It was Alfa's first sport model after World War I; the car was designed in 1921 by Giuseppe Merosi. It had a straight-6 engine with overhead valves. Three different versions were made: Normale and Sport. RL total production was 2640; the RLTF was the race version of RL - it weighed half of normal versions, the engine had seven main bearings instead of four and double carburetors. In 1923 Alfa's race team had drivers like Ugo Sivocci, Antonio Ascari, Giulio Masetti and Enzo Ferrari. Sivocci's car had green cloverleaf symbol on white background and when he won Targa Florio 1923, that symbol was to become the Alfa team's good luck token. In 1927, 2 different RLSS were entered in the first Mille Miglia, but both dropped out after leading the race. A 1925 RLSS version with rare, original bodywork by Thornton Engineering Company in Bradford, UK, is on permanent display in the Brooklands exhibit at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, USA.
It is one of only 9 RLSS still in existence
Alfa Romeo Giulietta (750/101)
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta was a family of automobiles made by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1954 to 1965 which included a 2+2 coupé, four-door saloon, spider and Sprint Speciale. The 2+2 was Alfa Romeo's first successful foray into the 1.3-litre class. From 1954 to 1965 a total of 177,690 Giuliettas were made, the great majority in saloon, Sprint coupé, or Spider body styles, but as Sprint Speciale and Sprint Zagato coupés, the rare Promiscua estate; the Giulietta series was succeeded by the Giulia in 1962. The first Giulietta to be introduced was the Giulietta Sprint 2+2 coupé at the 1954 Turin Motor Show. Designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone, it was produced at the coachbuilder's Grugliasco plant near Turin. A year at the Turin Motor Show in April 1955, the Sprint was joined by the 4-door saloon Berlina. In mid 1955, the open two-seat Giulietta Spider. In 1957, a more powerful Berlina version, called Giulietta T. I. was presented with minor cosmetic changes to the dial lights and rear lamps.
Carrozzeria Colli made the Giulietta station wagon variant called Giulietta Promiscua. Ninety-one examples of this version were built. Carrozzeria Boneschi made a few station wagon examples called Weekendina. A new version of the Giulietta Berlina debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1959. Mechanical changes were limited to shifting the fuel pump from the cylinder head to a lower position below the distributor, moving the exposed fuel filler cap from the tail to the right rear wing, under a flap; the bodywork showed a revised front end, with more rounded wings, recessed head lights, new grilles with chrome frames and two horizontal bars. The rear showed changes, with new larger tail lights on vestigial fins, which replaced the earlier rounded rear wings; the interior was much more upholstered in new cloth material. I. housed water temperature gauges. The T. I. received a front side repeater mounted in a small spear, unlike the Normale which kept the earlier small round lamp with no decorations.
During 1959 the type designation for all models was changed from 750 and 753 to 101. In February 1961 the 100,001st Giulietta rolled off the Portello factory, with a celebration sponsored by Italian actress Giulietta Masina. In Autumn 1961 the Giulietta was updated a second time. Both Normale and T. I. had new exhaust systems. With this new engine the car could reach a speed of 160 km/h. At the front of the car square mesh side grilles were now pieced together with the centre shield, at the rear there were larger tail lights. Inside the T. I. had individual instead of bench seats, with storage nets on the seatbacks. June 1962 saw the introduction of the Alfa Romeo Giulia, which would replace the Giulietta; as until 1964 the Giulia only had a larger 1.6-litre engine, production of the standard Berlina ended with 1963, whilst the T. I. continued for a full year more. A last T. I. was completed in 1965. The Giulietta sport models had a different fate: Sprint, Sprint Speciale and Spider were fitted with the new 1.6-litre engine, received some updates and continued to be sold under the Giulia name until they were replaced by all-new Giulia-based models during 1965.
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta used a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. Front suspension was with coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers. At the rear there was a solid axle on hydraulic dampers; the axle was located by a longitudinal link on each side, by a wishbone-shaped arm linking the top of the aluminium differential housing to the chassis. All Giuliettas had hydraulic drum brakes on all four corners; when leaving the Portello factory it fitted Pirelli Cinturato 155 HR15 tyres. The Giulietta used an Alfa Romeo Twin Cam straight-four of 1290 cc, with an aluminium alloy engine block and cast iron inserted sleeves. Bore and stroke measured 75.0 mm. The aluminium alloy cylinder head was of a crossflow design and featured hemispherical combustion chambers; the double overhead camshafts were driven by two timing chains, acted on two valves per cylinder, angled 80°. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale was an aerodynamic 2-door, 2-seat coupé designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone. 1.366 were made from 1957 to 1962.
The car had a steel body, was based on a short-wheelbase Giulietta chassis. It used a 1.3-litre engine brought to 100 PS thanks to double twin-choke carburettors and a high compression ratio. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta SZ was an aluminium-bodied 2-seater berlinetta, built by Zagato for competition use on the chassis and mechanicals of the Sprint Speciale. A crashed Sprint Veloce was rebodied by Zagato in late 1956, was successful in competition. Zagato ended up building 18 rebodied Veloces, called the SVZ and the version gave rise to a full production version; the SVZ was about 120 kg lighter than the Coupé on which it was based, had the highest tuned, 118 CV version of the Giulietta engine. A production competition version of the Giulietta, with lightened bodywork designed by Franco Scaglione for Bertone was premiered at the 1960 Geneve Salon. Handbuilt by Zagato in aluminium and with p