Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto racing has existed since the invention of the automobile. Races of various sorts were organised, with the first recorded as early as 1867. Many of the earliest events were reliability trials, aimed at proving these new machines were a practical mode of transport, but soon became an important way for competing makers to demonstrate their machines. By the 1930s, specialist racing cars had developed. There are now each with different rules and regulations; the first prearranged match race of two self-powered road vehicles over a prescribed route occurred at 4:30 A. M. on August 30, 1867, between Ashton-under-Lyne and Old Trafford, a distance of eight miles. It was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles; the first organized contest was on April 28, 1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier.
It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne. On July 22, 1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the world's first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee; the first American automobile race is held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28, 1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile. With auto construction and racing dominated by France, the French automobile club ACF staged a number of major international races from or to Paris, connecting with another major city, in France or elsewhere in Europe. Brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907, it featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners. One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2.5-mile-long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana.
It is the largest capacity sports venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257,000+ seated spectators. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21, 1948, with the help of several other drivers of the time. The first NASCAR "Strictly Stock" race was held on June 19, 1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars, with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers. From 1972 through 2003, NASCAR's premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, sponsored by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company cigarette brand Winston; the changes that resulted from RJR's involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCAR's "modern era". The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, which ran its first season in 1999; the European races became the related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs.
Turismo Carretera is a popular touring car racing series in Argentina, the oldest car racing series still active in the world. The first TC competition took place in 1937 with 12 races, each in a different province. Future Formula One star Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1940 and 1941 editions of the TC, it was during this time that the series' Chevrolet-Ford rivalry began, with Ford acquiring most of its historical victories. The two most popular varieties of open wheel road racing are the IndyCar Series. Formula One is a European-based series that runs only street race tracks; these cars are based around technology and their aerodynamics. With the highest speed record set in 2005 by Juan Pablo Montoya hitting 373 kph; some of the most prominent races are the Monaco Grand Prix, the Italian Grand Prix, the British Grand Prix. The season ends with the crowning of the World Championship for constructors. In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, the cars have aerofoil wings front and rear to produce downforce and enhance adhesion to the track.
In Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is referred to as'Formula', with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the'Formula' terminology is not followed; the sport is arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In the United States, the most popular series is the National Championship, more known as the IndyCar Series and known as CART; the cars have traditionally been similar though less technologically sophisticated than F1 cars, with more restrictions on technology aimed at controlling costs. While these cars are not as technologically advanced, they are faster because they compete on oval race tracks, being able to average a lap at 388 kph; the series' biggest race is the Indianapolis 500, referred to as "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing" due to being the longest continuously run race and having the largest crowd for a single-day sporting event. The other major international single-seater racing series is Formula 2.
Regional series include Formula Nippon and Formula V6 Asia, Formula Renault 3.5, Formula Three, For
1984 Formula One World Championship
The 1984 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 38th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1984 Formula One World Championship for Drivers and the 1984 Formula One World Championship for Manufacturers, which were contested concurrently over a sixteen-race series that commenced on 25 March and ended on 21 October. In the Drivers' Championship, the season became a duel between McLaren drivers Alain Prost and Niki Lauda. Prost won seven races to Lauda's five, including the last two races of the season, but Lauda prevailed by half a point – the smallest margin in Formula One history, it was Lauda's third title, his first since 1977. McLaren comfortably won the Manufacturers' Championship, their first since 1974; this season featured the last driver of the 20th century to compete in both the F1 championship and the Indianapolis 500 in the same season, Italy's Teo Fabi. No driver would repeat this feat until 2017, when Fernando Alonso participated at the Indy 500. Brabham retained their 4-cylinder BMW engines, now rated at 900 bhp, along with reigning World Champion Nelson Piquet.
Italian brothers Teo and Corrado Fabi replaced Riccardo Patrese and shared the #2 seat allowing older brother Teo to honour commitments in the US based CART World Series. Rumour had both John Watson and young Brazilian Roberto Moreno in the second Brabham seat, but the team's main sponsor, Italian dairy company Parmalat, insisted on an Italian driver instead. Piquet and the Fabi brothers drove the Gordon Murray-designed BT53. Tyrrell had an all new driver line up. Michele Alboreto and Danny Sullivan were replaced by F1 rookies Martin Brundle and young West German sports car former driver Stefan Bellof. Tyrrell were the only team to run the full season with the aspirated, 530 bhp, Cosworth DFY V8 engine. Brundle and Bellof would drive the Maurice Philippe-designed 012. Williams retained their 1983 line up of 1982 World Champion Keke Rosberg, veteran Jacques Laffite. Williams had exclusive use of the 800 bhp Honda V6 turbo engine for the entire season after having only run it in the last race of 1983 in South Africa.
The Honda turbo would power the Patrick Head and Neil Oatley-designed FW09. McLaren had exclusive use of the 750 bhp TAG-Porsche turbo engine that had debuted in the Netherlands the previous year. Frenchman Alain Prost, who had finished 2nd in the 1983 Drivers' Championship, re-joined the team after being sacked from the factory Renault team and replaced John Watson. Prost joined double World Champion Niki Lauda to drive the John Barnard-designed MP4/2. While the TAG engine was the least powerful of the main contenders, superior fuel economy and the superior aerodynamics of Barnard's MP4/2 at high speed, as well as the driving and car set up skills of Lauda and Prost, more than made up for any lack of power. Lotus promised to get back to their glory days with the turbocharged Renault engines and their 1983 driver line up of Elio de Angelis and Nigel Mansell. Both drivers would have the all-new Lotus 95T designed by former Renault chief designer Gérard Ducarouge. After a disappointing end to the 1983 season which saw the factory Renault team lose its way at the end of the year costing Alain Prost the Drivers' Championship and the team the Constructors' Championship, the major changes to the national French team was its drivers as well as the loss of designer Ducarouge.
Prost and American Eddie Cheever were replaced with Frenchman Patrick Tambay and Englishman Derek Warwick. The all new RE50 was designed by Michel Tétu and Bernard Dudot and was powered by the 800 bhp EF4 V6 turbo engine. Toleman, who were an up-and-coming team in Formula One, lost Warwick to Renault and released Bruno Giacomelli, but signed former Grand Prix motorcycle World Champion in the 350 and 750 classes, Venezuelan Johnny Cecotto, as well as a rookie from Brazil by the name of Ayrton Senna, the reigning British Formula 3 Champion; the team continued to use the turbocharged, 4-cylinder Hart 415T engine for the 1984 season to power their 1983 car, the TG183B, their new car which appeared for the first time in France, the TG184 designed by Rory Byrne and Pat Symonds. Toleman started the year using Pirelli tyres, but a dispute with the Italian supplier at San Marino saw the team switch to using Michelins for the remainder of the season. Euro Racing continued to run the factory backed Alfa Romeo team, but they lost major sponsor Marlboro.
Replacing the red and white colours of the cigarette giant was the green and red of Italian clothes manufacturer Benetton. Gone were drivers Andrea de Cesaris and Mauro Baldi, replaced by Riccardo Patrese and Eddie Cheever; the team continued to use the thirsty, moderately powerful 890T V8 turbocharged engine for the season. If not for the engine's appalling fuel economy and Cheever might well have scored more points and/or podium finishes as both drivers retired within laps of race finishes while in point scoring positions because they ran out of fuel. Alfa used the Mario Tollentino and Luigi Marmiroli-designed 184T. Ferrari introduced the latest version of their successful 126C model, the 126C4 designed by Mauro Forghieri and Harvey Postlethwaite, powered by the 850 bhp Tipo 031 V6 engine. After releasing Patrick Tambay who subsequently signed for Renault, the team signed its first Italian driver since 1973 with Michele Alboreto to join Frenchman René Arnoux, who had finished third in the Drivers' Championship for Ferrari in 1983.
It was reported that Enzo Ferrari broke his own rule against signing an Italian driv
1983 Formula One World Championship
The 1983 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 37th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1983 Formula One World Championship for Drivers and the 1983 Formula One World Championship for Constructors, which were contested concurrently over a fifteen-race series that commenced on 13 March and ended on 15 October. Nelson Piquet won the Drivers' Championship, his second Formula One title and the first to be won by a driver using a turbocharged engine, while Ferrari won the Constructors' Championship; the Drivers' Championship developed into a four-way battle between Brabham-BMW driver Piquet, Renault driver Alain Prost and Ferrari duo René Arnoux and Patrick Tambay. Prost led the championship from the Belgian Grand Prix in May until the final race in South Africa in October, where a turbo problem forced him to retire and thus enabled Piquet to snatch the title. Ferrari won the Constructors' Championship despite its better driver, finishing only third overall – a unique feat in Formula One history.
The season included a single non-championship Formula One race, the Race of Champions, held at Brands Hatch and won by defending World Champion Keke Rosberg in a Williams-Ford. This was to be the last non-championship race in Formula One history. A major change in technical regulations mandated a flat undertray for the cars, with a complete ban on the ground effect technology pioneered by the Lotus 78 in 1977; this was done to reduce downforce and cornering speeds, which were deemed to have reached dangerous levels in 1982, a season in which several violent and fatal accidents occurred. The following drivers and constructors contested the 1983 FIA Formula One World Championship. Williams retained defending world champion Keke Rosberg, but their number two seat, occupied on a temporary basis by both Mario Andretti and Derek Daly in 1982 after the departure of Carlos Reutemann, was filled for 1983 by Ligier's Jacques Laffite. During the season Frank Williams signed an exclusive deal to use the turbocharged Honda V6 engines in his cars to replace the Cosworth DFV.
Honda engines first appeared in the back of a Williams at the season ending South African Grand Prix. Ligier lost Eddie Cheever to Renault. Team boss Guy Ligier replaced them with Jean-Pierre Jarier, signed from Osella, Raul Boesel of March. Jarier would gain a reputation through the season as a "mobile chicane". Ligier lost the use of the V12 Matra engines and were forced to use the Cosworth DFV. Osella filled Jarier's seat with Corrado Fabi, the younger brother of Teo Fabi, who had raced for Toleman in 1982. Fabi was joined by fellow Italian debutante Piercarlo Ghinzani, who filled the seat, vacant since Riccardo Paletti's death in Canada; the March team became RAM March. As well as Boesel, Rupert Keegan was replaced by the team, who shrunk to just one car, for Eliseo Salazar of ATS; the German team were reduced to one car, run for Manfred Winkelhock who had driven alongside Salazar in 1982. Tyrrell kept Michele Alboreto as their team leader after the Italian won for the first time at the last race of 1982.
They replaced Brian Henton in the other car with 33-year-old American rookie Danny Sullivan at the request of team sponsor Benetton. The Brabham, McLaren and Lotus teams all retained both of their 1982 drivers – Nelson Piquet and Riccardo Patrese for Brabham, John Watson and Niki Lauda with McLaren and Elio de Angelis and Nigel Mansell at Lotus. Late in the season McLaren would abandon the Cosworth DFV engine in favor of a 1.5 Litre, turbocharged V6 TAG engine. Brabham went the turbo route, though unlike McLaren they used the powerful BMW M12 engine throughout the season and abandoned the Cosworth V8. Lotus would be without team founder Colin Chapman in 1983 after the legendary team boss's sudden death from a heart attack on 16 December 1982 at the age of 54. Chapman's right-hand man Peter Warr took over as team manager. Lotus would change from using the Cosworth DFV engine to the turbocharged Renault engine during the season after Chapman had secured use of the French engines in late 1982. Although Chapman had given both de Angelis and Mansell equal number one status in the team, never a fan of Mansell, installed the Italian as the number one driver based on the results of 1982 where he had out-performed Mansell.
Renault held on to team leader Alain Prost but lost René Arnoux to Ferrari, poached Cheever from Ligier to replace him. Alfa Romeo kept their team leader, Andrea de Cesaris, but replaced Bruno Giacomelli with Mauro Baldi, signed from Arrows. Alfa had moved into turbocharging with the 890T V8 engine replacing the V12 it had used for the previous four seasons. Arrows replaced Baldi with Chico Serra, signed from the remnants of the now defunct Fittipaldi team, while Marc Surer remained as the lead driver. Serra was replaced by 1980 World Champion Alan Jones in Long Beach. Serra lasted only three more races. Serra was replaced by Belgian driver Thierry Boutsen who made his F1 début in front of his home crowd at Spa for the Belgian Grand Prix. Ferrari retained Patrick Tambay, who had replaced Gilles Villeneuve after his death in Belgium, but Mario Andretti as a replacement for the injured Didier Pironi was never a permanent soluti
The axle track in automobiles and other wheeled vehicles which have two or more wheels on an axle, is the distance between the centerline of two roadwheels on the same axle. In a case of the axle with dual wheels, the centerline in the middle of the dual wheel is used for the axle track specification. In a vehicle with two axles, this is expressed as "front track" and "rear track"; however the front wheels and/or rear wheels on either side of a vehicle do not have to be mounted on the same axle for the distance that they are apart to be called the "track". In the case of a rail wheelset the "track" is called "wheel gauge" and is measured from wheel flange reference line to wheel flange reference line wheels of any rail car or tram. Continuous track. Wheelbase – the distance between the front and rear axles Brauer, K.: "All Lined Up Retrieved on 2009-06-04
The BMW M12/13 turbo 1500 cc 4-cylinder turbocharged Formula One engine, based on the standard BMW M10 engine introduced in 1961, powered the F1 cars of Brabham and Benetton. Nelson Piquet won the FIA Formula One Drivers' Championship in 1983 driving a Brabham powered by the BMW M12/13 turbo, it was the first Drivers' Championship to be won using a turbocharged engine. The engine powered the BMW GTP and in the 2.0 litre aspirated form, the successful March Engineering Formula Two cars. As BMW M12, the engine design since the 1960s became one of the most successful engines in racing. Starting with the European Touring Car Championship, it was used in Formula 2, expanded to two litre and fitted with four-valve heads, producing over 300 hp. In the Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft, a 1400 cc variant was turbocharged by Paul Rosche according to FIA Group 5 rules. At well over 350 hp from the beginning, it rendered the aspirated engines in the two litre category useless. After some development, power and reliability improved in the IMSA car, BMW began to think about entering F1, where a handicap factor of 2.0 required 1500 cc engines.
During the 1982 season, the Brabham team owned by former F1 boss Bernie Ecclestone, used both the older Cosworth DFV V8 engine as well as the turbocharged BMW M12 in selected races in a development program. The BMW proved to be fast in its first year in Formula One, though its reliability with turbocharging still in its infancy was lacking. Reigning World Champion Nelson Piquet recorded the first win for the engine in F1 when he led home Brabham teammate Riccardo Patrese in the crash marred 1982 Canadian Grand Prix. In 1983, Brazilian driver Piquet won his second Formula One World Championship driving a Brabham BT52 powered by the turbocharged BMW M12 engine, which in 1983 was producing 850 bhp in qualifying trim and 640 bhp for the races. Piquet, who won the Brazilian and European Grands Prix in 1983, won the championship by just two points in front of Renault's Alain Prost. Piquet's win was the first time a car powered by a turbocharged engine had won the World Championship; the main advantages of the inline 4 M12 over its V6 Ferrari and Renault opposition was with one less turbo, two fewer cylinders and eight fewer valves, the BMW engine had lower frictional losses and therefore thermal discharge than its competitors, allowing Gordon Murray the luxury of designing the Brabham BT52 with smaller radiators, which meant better aerodynamic efficiency and therefore better straightline speed.
The BT52 was notable for its skinny, short sidepods compared to the Renault, giving it better penetration through the air on circuits with long straights. 1984 and 1985 were lean years for the BMW engines in Formula One. Piquet scored the Brabham team's last three wins over the two seasons, winning the 1984 Canadian and Detroit races, the 1985 French Grand Prix, though the engine was regarded as the most powerful in F1 at the time, producing a maximum output of 1,100 hp in qualifying trim by 1985. While the engine's potential was never in question with Piquet taking nine pole positions in 1984, however the engine's mechanical reliability and durability under full work load suffered with regular engine blow ups and turbo failures becoming a common feature. With FISA imposing a maximum fuel limit of 220 litres per race, the 4 cylinder BMW suffered from high fuel consumption which led to drivers running out of fuel. In the years 1986 and 1987, the version M12/13/1 was tilted sideways by 72° for use in the low Brabham BT55 and more conventional Brabham BT56.
The design was not successful due to cooling issues in the tight compartment. The BMW GTP IMSA series car was powered by the 2.0 liter M12 turbo engine, with more than 850 hp in race trim. The 1986 engine was claimed to have produced a maximum output of 1,400 hp in qualifying trim, which would make it the most powerful engine of all the turbo-charged engines, as well as non-turbo charged engines used in Formula-1 racing; however it should be noted that, at the time, there was no actual technical way of measuring horsepower figures over 1,000 to verify such claims made by engineers and racing teams at the time. Claimed output figures were accepted from the engineers` theoretical calculations, which were as follows: i.e. 0.1 Bar of turbo boost was rated to be worth 20 hp ). During 1986 however it was the Benetton team using the conventional upright BMW M12 who would be the leading BMW runner in Formula One, with Gerhard Berger scoring his and the team's first win by winning the 1986 Mexican Grand Prix.
Benetton would not continue with the BMW engines in 1987 after the Bavarian company had announced they were pulling out of Formula One, instead they became the de facto factory Ford team using their V6 Ford TEC turbo in the BMW's place. During the 1986 Italian Grand Prix at Monza, Gerhard Berger's BMW powered Benetton B186 recorded the highest straight line speed by a turbocharged Formula One car when he was timed at 352.22 km/h. In fact, the top five cars through the speed trap at Monza were all powered by the BMW M12; as BMW announced to pull out at the end of 1986 (though they would continue to
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
A turbocharger, colloquially known as a turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion chamber. This improvement over a aspirated engine's power output is due to the fact that the compressor can force more air—and proportionately more fuel—into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone. Turbochargers were known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Today the term "supercharger" is applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices; the key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that a supercharger is mechanically driven by the engine through a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's exhaust gas. Compared with a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive.
Twincharger refers to an engine with a turbocharger. Turbochargers are used on truck, train and construction equipment engines, they are most used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a gear-driven pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885; the turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi, the head of diesel engine research at Gebrüder Sulzer, engine manufacturing company in Winterthur, who received a patent in 1905 for using a compressor driven by exhaust gases to force air into an internal combustion engine to increase power output, but it took another 20 years for the idea to come to fruition. The first use of turbocharging technology based on his design was for large marine engines, when the German Ministry of Transport commissioned the construction of the "Preussen" and "Hansestadt Danzig" passenger liners in 1923. Both ships featured twin ten-cylinder diesel engines with output boosted from 1750 to 2500 horsepower by turbochargers designed by Büchi and built under his supervision by Brown Boveri.
During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success. In 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine; the engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14,000 ft to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power loss experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s, although they were less common than engine-driven centrifugal superchargers. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s. Turbochargers were used in aviation, most used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U. S. aircraft with turbochargers—which included mass-produced ones designed by General Electric for American aviation use—include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38 Lightning, P-47 Thunderbolt.
The technology was used in experimental fittings by a number of other manufacturers, notably a variety of experimental inline engine-powered Focke-Wulf Fw 190 prototype models, with some developments for their design coming from the DVL, a predecessor of today's DLR agency, but the need for advanced high-temperature metals in the turbine, that were not available for production purposes during wartime, kept them out of widespread use. Turbochargers are used in car and commercial vehicles because they allow smaller-capacity engines to have improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, higher power and higher torque. In contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, chains and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, placing a mechanical load on the engine. For example, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger uses about 150 horsepower, yet the benefits outweigh the costs. This is. Another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency when compared with turbochargers.
Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of a compressor's ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air. Under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated output temperature. Roots superchargers impart more heat to the air than turbochargers. Thus, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. In practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers producing 15% to 30% more power based on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, increasing pumping losses; this is more ef