Alfa Romeo Sprint
The Alfa Romeo Alfasud Sprint is a boxer-engined coupé produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1976 to 1989, based on the Alfa Romeo Alfasud. 116,552 units of the Alfasud Sprint and Sprint were built in total. The Sprint was sold in Europe, South Africa and New Zealand; the Alfasud Sprint was presented to the press in September 1976 in Baia Domizia, shown at the Turin Motor Show in November. Designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro like the Alfasud, whose mechanicals it was based on, it had a lower, more angular design, featuring a hatchback; the Alfasud Sprint was assembled together with the Alfasud in the Pomigliano d'Arco plant, located in southern Italy—hence the original "Sud" moniker, which means south in Italian. Under the Alfasud Sprint's bonnet there was a new version of the Alfasud's 1186 cc four-cylinder boxer engine, stroked to displace 1,286 cc, fed by a twin-choke carburator and developing 76 PS at 6,000 rpm. Mated to the flat-four was a five-speed, all-synchromesh gearbox; the interior was upholstered in dark brown Texalfa tartan cloth.
Options were limited to a quartz clock and metallic paint. In May 1978 the Alfasud Sprint underwent its first updates, both technical. Engine choice was enlarged to two boxers, shared with the renewed Alfasud ti, a 79 PS 1.3 and a 85 PS 1.5. Outside many exterior details were changed from chrome to matte black stainless steel or plastic, such as the wing mirrors, window surrounds and C-pillar ornaments. In the cabin the seats had more pronounced bolsters and were upholstered in a new camel-coloured fabric. Just one year in June 1979, another engine update arrived and the Alfasud Sprint became the Alfasud Sprint Veloce. Thanks to double twin-choke carburetors and a higher compression ratio engine output increased to 86 PS and 95 PS for the 1.3 and 1.5. In February 1983 Alfa Romeo updated all of its sports cars. Thereafter the Alfasud prefix and Veloce suffix were abandoned, the car was known as Alfa Romeo Sprint; the Sprint kept the platform of the earlier Sprint with inboard brakes, but updated body details described below.
This model was sold from 1983 in its markets & in Australia only until late 1984. It received a platform upgrade, now the same as that of the Alfa Romeo 33. Three models made up the Sprint range: 1.3 and 1.5, with engines and performance unchanged from the Alfasud Sprint Veloce, the new 1.5 Quadrifoglio Verde—1.5 Cloverleaf in the UK. The Australian market received the green striped 105 BHP model at the end of 1984 and the 95 BHP model was dropped. A multitude of changes were involved in the stylistic refresh. Bumpers went from chrome to plastic, large plastic protective strips were added to the body sides. At the rear new trapezoidal tail light assemblies were pieced together with the license plate holder by a black plastic fascia, topped by an Alfa Romeo badge—never present on the Alfasud Sprint. In the cabin there were new seats with cloth seating surfaces and Texalfa backs, a new steering wheel and changes to elements of the dashboard and door panels. Sprint 1.3 and 1.5 came with steel wheels with black hubcaps from the Alfasud ti.
The newly introduced 1.5 Quadrifoglio Verde sport variant was shown at the March 1983 Geneva Motor Show. Its engine was the 1,490 cc carburated boxer, revised to put out 105 PS at 6,000 rpm. In addition to the green bumper piping specific to the Quadrifoglio were a green instead of chrome scudetto in the front grille, a rear spoiler and 8-hole grey painted alloy wheels with metric Michelin TRX 190/55 tyres. Inside a three-spoke leather-covered steering wheel, green carpets and sport seats in black cloth with green embroidery. In November 1987 the Sprint was updated for the last time; the 1,286 cc engine was directly derived from the 33 1.7 Quadrifoglio Verde, could propel the Sprint from 0 to 100 km/h in 9.3 seconds. The coloured piping and side plastic strips were deleted, the Quadrifoglio had alloy wheels of a new design. A fuel injected and 3-way Catalytic converter-equipped 1.7 variant, with an engine again derived from a 33, was added for dale on specific markets. There were a total of 116,552 Sprints produced during its lifespan, which lasted from 1976 to 1989.
15 of these formed the basis of the Australian-built Giocattolo sports car, which used a mid-mounted Holden 5.0 group A V8 engine. The Sprint had successor. In more recent times it found an heir in the Alfa Romeo GT, a coupé derived from the Alfa Romeo 156 and 147 - t
Alfa Romeo Giulietta (940)
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta is a small family car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo. Giulietta production started towards the end of 2009 and the model was introduced at the March 2010 Geneva Motor Show. In a viability plan forwarded to the US Government in February 2009, Chrysler reported that the 147 replacement would come to market as the Milano and that it could be built in the USA. However, as of early 2010 Fiat was instead planning to concentrate on bringing larger models to the US, such as the Giulia; the Giulietta came in second place in the 2011 European Car of the Year awards. Between 2010 and 2019 over 400,000 Giuliettas were built, it is current top Alfa sales with about 32,000 cars per year. The 2010 Giulietta is available only as a 5-door hatchback; the Giulietta got its Italian dealer presentation on 22 and 23 May 2010. The Giulietta advertising campaign is made with Hollywood actress Uma Thurman; the end of the advert features the car's mottos -'I am Giulietta, I am such stuff as dreams are made on' and'Without heart, we would be mere machines'.
The platform used is Fiat Group’s Compact called as "C-Evo" during the planning stage. This is an all new platform. Fiat Group used around 100 million euros to re-engineer the C-platform used for the Fiat Stilo, Fiat Bravo and Lancia Delta, into C-Evo, it has a longer wheelbase, shorter overhangs and an advanced new type of MacPherson strut front suspension and multi-link rear suspension. Depending on the market and trim level, 16, 17, or 18 inch wheels are available. Available tire sizes are 205/55 R16, 225/45 R17, 225/40 R18; the wheels use a 5-hole pattern with a 110 mm bolt circle. The length of the Giulietta is around 4.3 metres. Only a five-door body is available for sale. At the 2013 Frankfurt International Motor Show Alfa Romeo presented an updated Giulietta. Trim changes include a new Uconnect infotainment system with 5" or 6.5" Radionav touchscreen, a new front grille, a chrome-plated frame for the fog lights, a new and more supportive seat design, new wheels, as well as new exterior colours: Moonlight Pearl, Anodizzato Blue and Bronze.
A new diesel engine variant has arrived, the two-litre JTDM 2, developing 150 PS and 380 N⋅m. In the 2014 range, all engines comply with Euro 5+ emission standards. Debuting at 2016 Geneva Motor Show, New Giulietta with facelifted front resembling Giulia and with new updated brand logo and new lettering. Trim line up will be changed to Giulietta Super and Giulietta Veloce. New body colour, new rims designs. Previous Giulietta QV will now be changed into sporty Veloce trim available with 240 PS engine and TCT transmission. Debuting will be a new 1.6 JTDm 120 PS TCT diesel engine. For 2019 Giulietta has updated engines, all Euro 6 D: a 1.4-litre 120 PS turbo petrol, a 1.6-litre 120 PS Multijet with manual or Alfa TCT automatic transmission, a 2.0-litre 170 PS Multijet with Alfa TCT. The top of the range model is a version with 1.75 L turbocharged TBi engine rated 235 PS, lowered ride height, 18-inch Spoke design alloy wheels with dark titanium finish and 225/40 R18 tires plus 18-inch 5 hole design alloy wheels as an option.
1750 is an engine size which has its roots in Alfa Romeo's history, with 1.75 L engines being used to power some of Alfa Romeo's first cars. The UK version is sold as the Giulietta Cloverleaf. In Geneva Motor Show Alfa Romeo introduced a new Quadrifoglio Verde, it has new 1,742 cc Turbo gasoline direct injection aluminium-block Inline-four engine now upgraded to 240 PS at 5750 rpm and 340 N⋅m at 2000 rpm of torque and Alfa TCT 6-speed twin dry clutch transmission borrowed from the Alfa Romeo 4C. With new engine the Giulietta's flagship can exceed 240 km/h and accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in only 6.0 seconds. This new facelifted version was premiered with a limited'Launch Edition', recognizable by the black-finish on the sills all round. Available in new matt Grigio Magnesio Opaco along with Rosso Alfa and Rosso Competizione; each car has its own numbered plaque. Around 700 units were made; the GTS Q2 is a version of Hong Kong market version GT Q2 with Sport Package. It includes the engine from 1.4 L TB MultiAir TCT, with a 6-speed TCT transmission.
It is a version using petrol fuel types. It includes Euro 5-compliant 1.4-litre turbo engine rated 120 PS at 5000 rpm and 206 N⋅m at 1750 rpm, three different trim levels for all European markets, 38-litre toroid type LPG tank at spare wheel housing, 6-speed manual transmission. The LPG version was unveiled in 2011 Bologna Motor Show. At Centro Sperimentale di Balocco in October 2014, Alfa Romeo launched a 60th anniversary edition of the Giulietta; the Giulietta Sprint pays homage to the 1954 Giulietta which promised good performance at an affordable price. The 2014 Giulietta Sprint features a unique 1.4-litre MultiAir petrol engine rated 152 PS at 5500 rpm and 250 N⋅m at 1750 rpm. Other changes include a carbon fibre effect interior trim, sporty exterior styling including side skirts, rear diffuser and oversized exhaust; the Squadra Corse TCT is a limited edition version of the Giulietta Quadrifoglio Verde made for
Alfa Romeo MiTo
The Alfa Romeo MiTo is a front-wheel drive, three-door supermini designed by Centro Stile Alfa Romeo that debuted in 2008 at Castello Sforzesco in Milan with an international introduction at the British Motor Show in 2008. The Mio was marketed across a single generation from 2008–2018, sharing the Fiat Small platform with the Fiat Grande Punto with a production total 250,000 assembled at FCA's Mirafiori plant; the Mito nameplate is a portmanteau of Milano where it was designed and Torino where it was manufactured. The new car was provisionally named the "Junior". In November 2007, a European competition was launched in which the public had a chance to name the car; the winner from each country could win an Alfa Romeo mountain bike. The winning name was "Furiosa", which scored well in Italy, United Kingdom and Germany, but not in Spain. In 2008, Alfa Romeo announced the name would instead be "MiTo", a portmonteau of Milano & Torino, because it was designed in the former and was to be assembled in the latter.
The MiTo is front-wheel drive. The car has a new "Alfa DNA" system which allows the driver to choose between three different driving settings: Dynamic and All-Weather; this system controls the behavior of the engine, steering and gearbox. The MiTo features LED tail lights and 250-litre of luggage space; the MiTo features a Q2 electronic differential on the front wheels, active with the DNA switch in Dynamic position, allows for faster and tighter cornering without loss of traction. In 2010 a new transmission for the MiTo was unveiled at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show, the six-speed TCT, produced by Fiat Powertrain Technologies in Verrone. Magneti Marelli delivers the control system which integrates BorgWarner's hydraulic actuation module into its own power and transmission control units, it can handle torque inputs of up to 350 N⋅m In Geneva was unveiled Blue&Me–TomTom, this new system integrates TomTom navigation to the Blue&Me infotelematic system. For model year 2014, the MiTo gets a new 105 PS 0.9 L Turbo TwinAir engine, new chrome-plated grille, new Anthracite grey colour and new burnished front light clusters.
The car interior is updated with new upholsteries, three new dashboards looks, as well as the new Uconnect 5.0 infotainment systems. The engine range now consists two turbo diesel engines and five petrol engines: the 70 PS 1.4, the 78 PS 1.4, the 135 PS 1.4 MultiAir Turbo and the 170 PS 1.4 MultiAir Turbo. The range has 120 HP 1.4 LPG Turbo option. Debuting at the 2016 2016 Geneva Motor Show, the revised Mito featured a facelifted front fascia with a new updated brand logo and new lettering. Trim line up was changed to Mito and Veloce. A new body colour and new rims designs became available; the previous MiTo QV became available with 170 PS engine and TCT transmission. The Quadrifoglio Verde has traditionally been the highest line of Alfa Romeo models; the car version of Mito was presented at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. The QV version has the new 1.4 litres Turbo Multiair inline-four engine 170 PS at 5500 rpm and 250 N⋅m of torque at 2500 rpm, with newly engineered suspension and new six-speed C635 gearbox developed by Fiat Powertrain Technologies.
Its specific output of 124 PS per litre was highest in its segment at that time. The new multiair technology allows fuel consumption of 6 litres per 100 kilometres in EU combined driving and CO2 emissions of 139 g/km. QV had bigger 305 mm front brake discs and exclusive 18" alloy wheels as standard and Sabelt carbon fibre backed bucket seats as an option. From 2014 QV was now available with TCT robotised gearbox which brought down the 0-100 km/h time to 7.3 s. With 2016 facelift QV was renamed as Veloce. At its launch the MiTo will feature low-displacement turbocharged diesel engines. A power limited 79 PS aspirated engine variant is produced to meet the new Italian legislation for young people. MiTo got new electro-hydraulic valve control system Multiair engines from September 2009. MultiAir engines will increase power and torque, as well as a considerable reduction in consumption levels and CO2 emissions, of particulates and NOx; this new engine is available with 170 PS power ratings. All multiair versions have start-stop system as standard.
In October 2009 was unveiled a dual fuel MiTo version, this version can run with LPG or petrol, with this engine MiTo has range of 1,200 kilometres. The LPG version is made in collaboration with Landi Renzo. In Summer 2010 Alfa introduced the Dual Dry Clutch Transmission called Alfa TCT. From model year 2011 the start-stop system came as standard on all versions. At the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show, AR introduced two new engines for the MiTo – The 0.9 L I2 TwinAir and a new low emission 85 PS version of 1.3 JTD diesel engine. The MiTo has seven airbags as standard, received a'good' or green result from the first Euro NCAP rear impact test; the MiTo received the following ratings: Edizione Sprint: Limited to 250 examples, only for Belgian market. Available only with 1.3 JTDM 95 PS diesel e
Büssing AG was a German bus and truck manufacturer, established in 1903 by Heinrich Büssing in Braunschweig. It evolved to one of the largest European producers, whose utility vehicles with the Brunswick Lion emblem were distributed from the 1930s onwards; the company was taken over by MAN AG in 1971. At the age of 60, the inventor and businessman Heinrich Büssing together with his two sons founded the Heinrich-Büssing-Spezialfabrik für Motorwagen und Motoromnibusse. Büssing, the son of a blacksmith dynasty at Nordsteimke, had studied engineering at the Collegium Carolinum in Braunschweig and had founded several bicycle and railway signal works with varying degrees of success, his first truck was a 2-ton payload machine powered by a 2-cylinder gasoline engine and featuring worm drive. That successful design was built under license by other companies in Germany, Hungary and by Straker-Squire in England. One year he debuted a first 20 HP omnibus model carrying up to twelve passengers on the route from Braunschweig to Wendeburg, operated by his own Automobil-Omnibus-Betriebs-Gesellschaft.
Büssing busses soon served public transport in European cities like Berlin and Prague, or London. Before World War I Büssing started to build heavy-duty trucks for the time; these trucks featured 4- and 6-cylinder engines. In 1914 the Büssing A5P armored car was developed at the behest of the German Oberste Heeresleitung. After the war, Heinrich Büssing had to enter a Kommanditgesellschaft limited partnership, converted into the Büssing AG joint-stock company in 1922. In 1923, Büssing introduced the first rigid three-axle chassis, used in upcoming models and allowed Büssing to lead the market share in Germany in commercial vehicles. Büssing NAG used inmates of several Nazi concentration camps in Braunschweig from 1944 to March 1945 for slave labor; these camps were subcamps to the Neuengamme concentration camp. After World War II civilian production resumed with 5-tonne and 7-tonne trucks. In 1950, the company name became Büssing Nutzkraftwagen GmbH and production was concentrated on underfloor-engined trucks which were to become the firm's speciality.
Most tractor units and all normal-control trucks had vertical engines, but in the mid 1960s there was a version of their Commodore maximum-weight tractor unit, the 16-210, which had a horizontal diesel mounted under the cab ahead of the front axle, the gearbox being mounted halfway along the truck's chassis. In 1969, Büssing started strong ties with MAN AG. MAN was a customer to some Büssing's innovative trucks and parts while they were promoting their own line-up. In 1971, an MAN takeover of Büssing was announced. MAN started to use the lion logo on its newly named "MAN-Büssing" trucks. Büssing's unique underfloor-engined truck range continued in production under the MAN AG through to the late 1980s. First acquisition for Büssing was Mannesmann-Mulag Motoren und Lastwagen AG of Aachen. Elbing plant of Automobil Fabrik Kornnick AG. In 1934, Neue Automobil Gesellschaft. After the takeover Büssing used the brand Büssing-NAG until 1950. Büssing took over the Borgward plant at Osterholz-Scharmbeck in 1962.
This plant used for building military 4-tonne 4x4. 1923: The Büssing III GL 6 is the world's first full-size bus 1930s: Büssing began building heavy duty trucks with diesel engines 1936: Büssing pioneered the horizontal "underfloor" diesel engines During World War II Büssing once again supplied military vehicles including 6x4 armoured cars and an 8x8 with all-wheel steering. Büssing manufactured trolleybuses between 1933 and 1966, producing 71 models. Most were for German cities, but production included three trolleybuses for Chernyakhovsk, Russia, in 1939. In Turkey, ESHOT converted 21 Büssing motorbuses into trolleybuses in 1962 and 1968. At least four Büssing trolleybuses have been preserved, including ones at the Frankfurt Transport Museum,DE at the Hannoversches Straßenbahn-Museum and at the Historama transport museum in Ferlach, Austria. Borgward Magirus MAN SE Henschel
Alfa Romeo Montreal
The Alfa Romeo Montreal is a 2+2 coupé sports car produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1970 to 1977. The Alfa Romeo Montreal was introduced as a concept car in 1967 at Expo 67, held in Montreal, Canada; the concept cars were displayed without any model name, but the public took to calling it The Montreal. It was a 2+2 coupe using the 1.6-litre engine of the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI and the short wheelbase chassis of the Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint GT, with a body designed by Marcello Gandini at Bertone. One of the two concept cars built for Expo 67 is displayed in the Alfa Romeo Historical Museum in Arese, while the other is in museum storage; the first production car, Tipo 105.64, was shown at the 1970 Geneva Motor Show and was quite different from the original, using a 2593 cc 90° dry-sump lubricated, cross-plane V8 engine with SPICA fuel injection that produced around 200 PS, coupled to a five-speed ZF manual gearbox and a limited-slip differential. This engine was derived from the 2-litre V8 used in the 33 Stradale and in the Tipo 33 sports prototype racer.
The chassis and running gear of the production Montreal were taken from the Giulia GTV coupé and comprised double wishbone suspension with coil springs and dampers at the front and a live axle with limited slip differential at the rear. Since the concept car was unofficially known as The Montreal, Alfa Romeo kept the model name in production. Stylistically, the most eye catching feature is the car's front end with four headlamps covered by unusual "grilles", that retract when the lights are switched on. Another stylistic element is the NACA duct on the bonnet; the duct is blocked off since its purpose is not to draw air into the engine, but to optically hide the power bulge. The slats behind the doors contain the cabin vents, but apart from that only serve cosmetic purposes. Paolo Martin is credited for the prototype instrument cluster; the Montreal was more expensive to buy than the Jaguar E-Type or the Porsche 911. When launched in the UK it was priced at GB£5,077, rising to GB£5,549 in August 1972 and to GB£6,999 by mid-1976.
Production was split between the Alfa Romeo plant in Arese and Carrozzeria Bertone's plants in Caselle and Grugliasco outside Turin. Alfa Romeo produced the chassis and engine and mechanicals and sent the chassis to Caselle where Bertone fitted the body. After body fitment, the car was sent to Grugliasco to be degreased zinc coated, manually spray painted and have the interior fitted; the car was returned to Arese to have the engine and mechanicals installed. It is worth noting that because of this production method, there is not any correspondence between chassis number, engine number and production date; the Montreal remained unchanged until it was discontinued in 1977. By production had long ceased as Alfa were struggling to sell their remaining stock; the total number built was around 3900. None of them were sold in Montreal since Alfa did not develop a North American version to meet the emission control requirements in the United States & Canada. A Montreal can be seen in the 1974 movie The Marseille Contract where Michael Caine drives a metallic dark brown example.
A careful observer can find a red Montreal in the beginning of the James Cameron movie True Lies prior to the lead character saying "Here is my invitation." A Montreal is featured in the 2017 movie Atomic Blonde. Autodelta completed late in 1972 a Group 4 Montreal, it was launched at the London Racing Car Show in January 1973, it was sold to Alfa Romeo Germany to be used in the DRM series for GT cars. Ready to race in May 1973, the car was entrusted to specialist racing team of Dieter Gleich, the principle driver; the Autodelta version had 2997 cc engine with maximum power of 370 hp at 9000 rpm. Without any further development the car was outdated soon. A Montreal was campaigned in the United States but without success. Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale The Alfa Romeo Montreal Website Classic Motorsports magazine Alfa Romeo Montreal buyer's guide
Alfa Romeo 75
The Alfa Romeo 75, sold in North America as the Milano, is a compact executive car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo between 1985 and 1992. The Alfa 75 was commercially quite successful: in only three years, 236,907 cars were produced, by the end of production in 1992, around 386,767 had been built; the Alfa Romeo 75 was the last model released. The 75 was introduced in May 1985 to replace the Giulietta, was named to celebrate Alfa's 75th year of production; the body, designed by head of Centro Stile Alfa Romeo Ermanno Cressoni, was styled in a striking wedge shape, tapering at the front with square headlights and a matching grille. At the 1986 Turin Auto Show, a prototype 75 estate was to be seen, an attractive forerunner of the 156 Sportwagon; this version was, never listed for sale, being cancelled after Fiat took control of Alfa Romeo. The car, dubbed the 75 Turbo Wagon, was made by Italian coachbuilder Rayton Fissore using a 75 Turbo as the basis. Two estate versions were to be found at the 1987 Geneva Motor Show.
The 75 featured some unusual technical features, most notably the fact that it was perfectly balanced from front to rear. This was achieved by using transaxle schema — mounting the standard five-speed gearbox in the rear connected to the rear differential; the front suspension was a torsion bar and shock absorber combination and the rear an expensive de Dion tube assembled with shock absorbers. The engine crankshaft was bolted directly to the two-segment driveshaft, which ran the length of the underside from the engine block to the gearbox and rotated at the speed of the engine; the shaft segments were joined with elastomeric'doughnuts' to prevent vibration and engine/gearbox damage. The 2.0 L Twin Spark and the 3.0 Litre V6 were equipped with a limited slip differential. The 75 featured a then-advanced dashboard-mounted diagnostic computer, called Alfa Romeo Control, capable of monitoring the engine systems and alerting the drivers of potential faults; the 75 engine range at launch featured four-cylinder 1.6-, 1.8- and 2.0-litre petrol carbureted engines, a 2.0-litre intercooled turbodiesel made by VM Motori, a 2.5-litre fuel injected V6.
In 1986, the 75 Turbo was introduced, which featured a fuel-injected 1,779 cc twin-cam engine using Garrett T3 turbocharger and oil cooler. In 1987, a 3.0-litre V6 was added to the range and the 2.0 L Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was redesigned to have now two spark plugs per cylinder, the engine was named as Twin Spark. With fuel injection and variable valve timing this engine produced 148 PS; this was an early example of a production engine using variable valve timing, though the first to do so was in Alfa Romeo's own Spider in 1980. In North America, where the car was known as the Milano, only the 2.5 and 3.0 V6 engines were available, from 1987 to 1989. The North American 2.5-litres were fundamentally different from their European counterparts. Due to federal regulations, some modifications were required. Most noticeable from the outside were the'America' bumpers, with the typical rubber accordions in them. Furthermore, these bumpers had thick shock-absorbing material inside them and in addition, they were mounted to the vehicle on shock absorbers.
To accommodate these shock absorbers, the'America'-bodies were different from the European ones. Other changes relative to the European model were: A 67-litre fuel tank, located behind the rear seats, reducing the boot capacity from 500 L to 300 L. Side-markers in the bumpers Exhaust silencer sticking out from under the bumper at the r/h side of the vehicle instead of the centre Reinforcements in the doors and boot lid Hooks underneath the bonnet, to keep the bonnet in position in a crashThe North American cars had different equipment levels. L/h and r/h electrically adjustable outside mirrors, electrically reclining seats and cruise control were optional in Europe; the car was available with a 3-speed ZF automatic gearbox option for the 2.5 V6. Other, more common options such as electrically operated rear windows and an A/C system were standard in the USA; the USA-cars had different upholstery styles and of course different dashboard panels indicating speed in mph, oil pressure in psi and coolant temperature in degrees F, as a final touch the AR control was different, including a seat belt warning light.
The European-spec 2.5 V6 was sold only between 1985 and 1987, although some of them were not registered until 1989. Few of them were sold when the 155 PS 1.8 Turbo got launched, which in some countries was cheaper in taxes because of its lower displacement. To create a bigger space between the V6 and the inline fours, the 2.5 was bored out to 2,959 cc's to deliver 188 PS and this new engine was introduced as the 3.0 America in 1987. As its type designation suggests, the 3.0 only came in the US-specification, with the impact-bumpers and in-boot fuel tank. However, the European'America's' were not equipped with side-markers or the door and boot lid fortifications. Depending on the country of delivery, the 3.0 America could be equipped with a catalyt
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary in size and configuration. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks, concrete mixers, suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles, those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s; the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to short hauls from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. That year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing built their own versions; the first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting followed; the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923. The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough Autocar launched the "DC" model in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s. Truck is used in American English, is common in Canada, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Malaysia and India; the word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from trekhein; the first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages.
In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901."Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck a large flat wagon. It derives from the verb lurry of uncertain origin, its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911. Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon. In the United States and the Philippines "truck" is reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is reserved for larger vehicles. In the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
Produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle. Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that have narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these smal