Alfa Romeo 164
The Alfa Romeo 164 is a four-door executive saloon, manufactured by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo from 1987 to 1998 and designed by Pininfarina. The predecessors of the 164 were the Alfetta, its Alfa 6 derivative, it was superseded after a total of 273,857 domestic and export 164 units. In October 1978, Alfa Romeo, Fiat and Saab jointly agreed to each develop an executive saloon based on their shared Type Four platform, to compete against the likes of the Ford Granada and Opel Rekord as well as more premium saloons by BMW and Mercedes-Benz in the form of the 5 Series and E-Class, respectively. Project 164 started life as Project 156 and was completed in 1981 still under Alfa Romeo. A year that project morphed into the 164 based on the Type Four platform; this new model was designed by Enrico Fumia of Pininfarina, with a wedge shape that afforded it a leading drag coefficient of Cd=0.30. The design would influence the rest of the Alfa Romeo range. Below is a chronology of the key milestones in the development of this new vehicle: Initial testing of the 164's dynamic elements began in 1984, where mules based on the contemporary Giulietta were used.
Initial handling characteristics were honed on the factory's "Balocco" test track in Arese. In 1985, the first pre-production 164s were put through their paces on the road. Disguised, with many false panels and a false nose design sporting four round headlamps, these vehicle mules served to test the 164 for the gruelling 1 million kilometre static and road testing demanded of the design. In 1986 and 1987, the first 150 164s were given their pre-production testing. In terms of engineering demands, these exceeded every Alfa before, by quite a substantial margin. In Morocco, desert testing saw five grey 164 Twinsparks and V6s undergo the equivalent of the Paris-Dakar rally. Road conditions varied from good tarmac to off-road conditions, accelerometers confirmed the superiority of the 164 in terms of passenger comfort; this data was cross-confirmed in the engineering laboratory with a sophisticated dummy in the driver's seat, with accelerometers both in its seat, in its ears to mimic that of the semi-circular canals of the ear.
The Twinspark and the V6 underwent handling trials at Arese. The Twinspark displayed mature driving manners at the limit, with minimal skid; the V6 displayed a 25% increase in at-the-limit skid, a natural consequence of its greater nose weight. ABS testing confirmed that the Twinspark has superior braking to the V6. Brake linings of the 164s were run at maximum braking until they glowed with heat, displayed no deviation in form; the 164 was the first Alfa to feature slotted double-walled disc brakes. At no point were the discs drilled to release excess heat, the original design being demonstrated to be excellent. Sound production was tested in an anechoic chamber, the car being subjected to stress and road noise testing, with instruments and with live subjects at the wheel, on a specially designed rig. Electromagnetic stability of the complex electronic system was tested, in an anechoic chamber equipped with EM emitters; the 164 engines were run to destruction, the Twinspark proving to be the most robust, with the longest possible engine life.
The V6 displayed only 10% shorter overall engine life. Unvelied at the 1987 Frankfurt Motor Show, the 164 was the last model to be developed while the Alfa Romeo was still a independent company, was formally launched a few months after the takeover by Fiat. Enrico Fumia of Pininfarina was responsible for the 164 design, with the first 1:1 scale model produced in 1982. Design cues were publicly revealed on the Alfa Romeo Vivace concept car, exhibited at the 1986 Turin Motorshow that went on to influence the design of the Alfa Romeo GTV and Spider launched in 1994; the 164 became the first Alfa to benefit from extensive use of computer aided design, used to calculate structural stresses that resulted in a rigid but still lightweight chassis. Although sharing the same platform as that of the Lancia Thema, Fiat Croma and Saab 9000, by virtue of the fact that it was the last of the four to enter production, it featured unique front suspension geometry and the most distinctive styling of the lot.
In fact, for example, the other cars all shared identical side door panels. Though still voluminous, the 164 had the tightest aperture to the rear boot, which had a 510-Litre capacity. Overall, the 164 benefitted from improved build quality relative to previous Alfas, thanks to the extensive use of galvanised steel for the frame and various body panels for the first time in the brand's history. Moreover, the car featured advanced electronics thanks to the most complex wiring harness fitted to any Alfa Romeo. For example: it had three onboard computers; the instrumentation included a full range of gauges including an advanced check-panel. Its interior was spacious and modern, available with standard velour seating or leather trim depending on the model, its dashboard continued the avantgarde design of the exterior with a centre dashboard, dominated by a large number of identical buttons arr
Alfa Romeo Giulietta (750/101)
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta was a family of automobiles made by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1954 to 1965 which included a 2+2 coupé, four-door saloon, spider and Sprint Speciale. The 2+2 was Alfa Romeo's first successful foray into the 1.3-litre class. From 1954 to 1965 a total of 177,690 Giuliettas were made, the great majority in saloon, Sprint coupé, or Spider body styles, but as Sprint Speciale and Sprint Zagato coupés, the rare Promiscua estate; the Giulietta series was succeeded by the Giulia in 1962. The first Giulietta to be introduced was the Giulietta Sprint 2+2 coupé at the 1954 Turin Motor Show. Designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone, it was produced at the coachbuilder's Grugliasco plant near Turin. A year at the Turin Motor Show in April 1955, the Sprint was joined by the 4-door saloon Berlina. In mid 1955, the open two-seat Giulietta Spider. In 1957, a more powerful Berlina version, called Giulietta T. I. was presented with minor cosmetic changes to the dial lights and rear lamps.
Carrozzeria Colli made the Giulietta station wagon variant called Giulietta Promiscua. Ninety-one examples of this version were built. Carrozzeria Boneschi made a few station wagon examples called Weekendina. A new version of the Giulietta Berlina debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1959. Mechanical changes were limited to shifting the fuel pump from the cylinder head to a lower position below the distributor, moving the exposed fuel filler cap from the tail to the right rear wing, under a flap; the bodywork showed a revised front end, with more rounded wings, recessed head lights, new grilles with chrome frames and two horizontal bars. The rear showed changes, with new larger tail lights on vestigial fins, which replaced the earlier rounded rear wings; the interior was much more upholstered in new cloth material. I. housed water temperature gauges. The T. I. received a front side repeater mounted in a small spear, unlike the Normale which kept the earlier small round lamp with no decorations.
During 1959 the type designation for all models was changed from 750 and 753 to 101. In February 1961 the 100,001st Giulietta rolled off the Portello factory, with a celebration sponsored by Italian actress Giulietta Masina. In Autumn 1961 the Giulietta was updated a second time. Both Normale and T. I. had new exhaust systems. With this new engine the car could reach a speed of 160 km/h. At the front of the car square mesh side grilles were now pieced together with the centre shield, at the rear there were larger tail lights. Inside the T. I. had individual instead of bench seats, with storage nets on the seatbacks. June 1962 saw the introduction of the Alfa Romeo Giulia, which would replace the Giulietta; as until 1964 the Giulia only had a larger 1.6-litre engine, production of the standard Berlina ended with 1963, whilst the T. I. continued for a full year more. A last T. I. was completed in 1965. The Giulietta sport models had a different fate: Sprint, Sprint Speciale and Spider were fitted with the new 1.6-litre engine, received some updates and continued to be sold under the Giulia name until they were replaced by all-new Giulia-based models during 1965.
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta used a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. Front suspension was with coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers. At the rear there was a solid axle on hydraulic dampers; the axle was located by a longitudinal link on each side, by a wishbone-shaped arm linking the top of the aluminium differential housing to the chassis. All Giuliettas had hydraulic drum brakes on all four corners; when leaving the Portello factory it fitted Pirelli Cinturato 155 HR15 tyres. The Giulietta used an Alfa Romeo Twin Cam straight-four of 1290 cc, with an aluminium alloy engine block and cast iron inserted sleeves. Bore and stroke measured 75.0 mm. The aluminium alloy cylinder head was of a crossflow design and featured hemispherical combustion chambers; the double overhead camshafts were driven by two timing chains, acted on two valves per cylinder, angled 80°. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale was an aerodynamic 2-door, 2-seat coupé designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone. 1.366 were made from 1957 to 1962.
The car had a steel body, was based on a short-wheelbase Giulietta chassis. It used a 1.3-litre engine brought to 100 PS thanks to double twin-choke carburettors and a high compression ratio. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta SZ was an aluminium-bodied 2-seater berlinetta, built by Zagato for competition use on the chassis and mechanicals of the Sprint Speciale. A crashed Sprint Veloce was rebodied by Zagato in late 1956, was successful in competition. Zagato ended up building 18 rebodied Veloces, called the SVZ and the version gave rise to a full production version; the SVZ was about 120 kg lighter than the Coupé on which it was based, had the highest tuned, 118 CV version of the Giulietta engine. A production competition version of the Giulietta, with lightened bodywork designed by Franco Scaglione for Bertone was premiered at the 1960 Geneve Salon. Handbuilt by Zagato in aluminium and with p
Alfa Romeo GTA
The Alfa Romeo GTA is a coupé automobile manufactured by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1965 to 1971. It was made for road use. In 1962, the successor for the popular Giulietta series was introduced; this car was the Alfa Romeo Giulia, internally called the "Series 105". The coupé of the 105 series, used the shortened floorpan from the Giulia Berlina and was designed by Bertone; the name of the car evolved from Giulia Sprint GT to Giulia Sprint and to GTJ and GTV in the late 1960s. At the time, Alfa Romeo was active in motorsport. Autodelta, the racing division of Alfa, developed a car for competition that resembled to the roadgoing model; these cars were named the'A' standing for "Alleggerita", Italian for lightweight. The GTA was produced first in 1965 as a 1.6 L and as a 1300 Junior version. The GTA automobiles were manufactured in either street or pure race trim; the GTA had aluminium outer body panels instead of steel, magnesium alloy wheels, clear plastic side windows, an aluminium rear upper control arm, different door handles and quarter window mechanisms, lightweight interior trim.
The engine had a new double ignition cylinder head cylinder head with a Marelli distributor from a Ferrari Dino, 2-barrel 45 mm Weber carburetors instead of 40 mm and magnesium camshaft cover, timing cover and bell housing. The transmission gear ratios were closer than standard and the gears were machined for lightness and quicker shifting. Dry weight of the 1600 was 1,640 pounds. In stradale form this car boasted 115 PS and a maximum torque of 142 N⋅m at 3,000 rpm. In full race form this engine could produce up to 170 PS; the 1600 GTA had a thicker radiator than the standard vehicle. For homologation 500 cars were made for road use. According to Maurizio Tabucchi; the GTA 2000 was a kind of test mule for the GTAm engine. That is the GTAm motor with Lucas injection developing 208 bhp at 6,500 rpm, fitted to a GTA 1300 Junior chassis. Tabucchi states that the first outing of these car was at the Tour de Corse in 1969 - this took place November 8–9, 1969. Wheels were 14x7 with TA3 tires. Cars were entered by Autodelta and drivers were Pinto/Santonacci who suffered a puncture and suspension breakage at Guitera.
The other team was Barayller/Fayel. Tony Adriaensens reports GTA 2000 race results, albeit later. Circuit of Benguela, Angola April 10, 1970, Peixinho GTA2000 - 1st overall Circuit of Cabinda, Angola April 26, 1970, Peixinho - 1st and Bandeira/Viera - 2nd both cars are described as GTA2000 São Paulo, May 1–3, 1970, Zambello/Fernandez - 2nd, GTA2000 Interlagos, August 9, 1970, Catapani - 1st overall, GTA2000 Nova Lisboa, August 9–10, 1970 - 6h Intercacionais do Huamba, Fraga/Resende - 2nd place, Santos "Peras"/Flavio Santos car# 8 - 3rd place, both cars are described as GTA 1300 Juniors with 2 liter motor There are some doubts whether the Brazilian cars were 2000cc, as both Zambello and Fernandez are reported to have won events in 1969 with a GTA1900, a different 1,840 cc engine, though it can not be ruled out that their car was upgraded to 2000cc for 1970. Regardless, given the dates of the events in Brazil, the Angolan and Brazilian cars are different; the GTA 1300 Junior had a 1300 cc engine, based on the 1600 engine but with a short stroke crankshaft.
The GTA Junior in stradale form did not have many of the light weight features of the 1600 GTA, such as the plastic windows, magnesium engine components and alloy wheels. At the start the engine produced 96 PS but was soon raised to 110 PS. Autodelta prepared fuel injected racing cars had 165 PS. 450 GTA Juniors were produced. The GTAm could produce up to 240 PS in the 2000 cc car—a car related to the GTA, but unlike the GTA derived from the GTV 1750; the 1750 GTAm was created in 1969. There are two schools of thought about the "Am" moniker, neither one having been confirmed by Alfa Romeo: one expands Am to Alleggerita Maggiorata, the other America Maggiorata; the car had a full steel body modified with / or plastic parts. Because of an increased minimum weight in 1971, up from 920 to 940 kg, the GTAm's had less need for aluminium and / or plastic parts; the base for the GTAm was the 1750 GTV with a SPICA mechanical fuel injection system. The majority of the genuine GTAm's built by Autodelta have a chassis number starting with 105.51.
XXXXXX. The European market 1750 GTV with dual carburettors from Dell'Orto or Weber carburetor and chassisnumbers starting with 105.44. XXXXXX was used as a base; the same goes for the 2000 GTV and the 1300 GT Junior bodyshell, lighter. Note that some racing teams and private workshops ordered the parts from Autodelta and other tuners and assembled the cars themselves on a new or existing bodyshell; the original 1750 engine block was used and by inserting a monosleeve instead of four individual cylinderliners, received 1,985 cc and to 1,999 cc (2.0
Alfa Romeo GTV and Spider
The Alfa Romeo GTV and Alfa Romeo Spider were two sports cars produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1993 to 2004. The GTV is a 2+2 coupé, the Spider is a two-seater roadster version of the GTV. Around 39,000 Spiders and 41,700 GTVs were built; the GTV's name placed it as the successor to the long-discontinued Alfetta GTV coupé, whereas the Spider was the replacement for the 30-year-old 105-series Giulia Spider. The GTV was available until the launch of the Brera in 2005, while the Spider lasted another year until the launch of its Brera-based successor in 2006. Alfa Romeo GTV is claimed as the best sport car by Jeremy Clarkson in 1998 and is listed at no. 29 in Top 100 Cars from 2001. Both cars were designed by Enrico Fumia at Pininfarina; the GTV was planned to re-establish the sporty coupe tradition of Alfa Romeo for the 1990s. The design dates back to initial renderings of September 1987 and first clay models to complete 1:1 scale model in July 1988. After Vittorio Ghidella accepted the design, Centro Stile Alfa Romeo under Walter de Silva was responsible for the completion of the detail work and for the design of the interiors, as Pininfarina's proposal was not accepted.
The Spider and GTV were based on the then-current Fiat Group compact car platform, called "Tipo Due", in this case a modified version with an all new multilink rear suspension. The front suspension and drivetrain was based on the 1992 Alfa Romeo 155 saloon. Chief engineer at that time was Bruno Cena. Drag coefficient was 0.38 for the Spider. It is a typical Italian design, with the Alfa Romeo grille with dual round headlights, it is low-slung, wedge-shaped with a low nose and high kicked up tail; the back of the car is "cut-off" with a "Kamm tail" giving improved aerodynamics. The Spider shares these traits with the GTV; the Spider featured a folding soft-top with five hoop frame, which disappears from sight under a flush fitting cover. An electric folding mechanism was fitted as an option. Details included a one-piece rear lamp/foglamp/indicator strip across the rear of the body, the minor instruments in the centre console angled towards the driver. At its launch, many journalists commented that Alfa had improved overall build quality and that it came close to equalling its German rivals.
1995: Autocar Magazine: "1995 Car of the Year". 1995: Car Magazine: "Best Designed Car". 1995: Car Magazine: Best Design Detail in production. 1995: "The World's most Beautiful Automobile" award. 1995. Bild: "Goldenes Lenkrad". 1995. Automobilia: "Auto più bella del mondo". 1995. Autocar Magazine: "Best Sport Car". 1995. Auto Zeitung: "Best car to drive". 1995. "Engineer of the Year" for chief Alfa Romeo engineer, Bruno Cena. 1995 Trofeu do Automovel Categoria "Deportivo di Ano" *At San Giorgio Canavese, stated by Pininfarina production records The GTV was offered with 2.0 TS or 2.0 V6 Turbo, while Spider with 2.0 TS or 3.0 V6 12V. The exterior design was finished in July 1988. Production began in late 1993 with four cars, all 3.0 V6 Spiders, assembled at the Alfa Romeo Arese Plant in Milan. In early 1994 the first GTV was produced, with 2.0 Twin Spark engine. The first premiere was held at the Paris Motor Show in 1994; the GTV and Spider were launched at the Geneva Motor Show in March 1995 and sales began the same year.
V6 Turbo GTVs had one for oil cooler and other for intercooler. Early V6 Spiders lacked any additional intakes as the oil cooler was mounted in front of the radiator; the car was produced in three distinct phases. The Phase 1 cars had a black plastic grille in the nose of the bonnet, without the chrome edging and black-painted sills all round. In 1997 a new engine, a 24-valve 3.0 litre V6, was available for the GTV, The new 24V car came equipped with a new 16" 5 hole'teledial' wheel design to provide extra clearance for the larger,305 mm brakes and red four-pot calipers from Brembo. Further exterior changes were new rear badging'V6 24V' denoting the fitment of the new engine, V6 Turbo-sourced front bumper lip with just one intake on the right hand side to allow air flow to front mounted oil cooler; some versions were upgraded with different front bumper mesh to bring the wind noise down to 74 dBA. On the interior, pleated leather seats from MOMO were offered in White and Tan; these seats came with respective matching colored carpet, pleated leather door card inserts as well as optional color coded stitching around, hand brake, gear lever and the stitching of an all new three-spoke steering wheel.
First RHD cars from this generation retained the four-spoke, steering wheel. In May 1998 the cars were revamped for the first time the interior was changed with new center console, painted letters on skirt seals, changed controls and switches arrangement and different instrument cluster. On the exterior main changes included chrome frame around the grille and color-coded side skirts and bumpers. A new engine was introduced, the 144 PS 1.8 Twin Spark, others were changed: the 2.0 Twin Spark was updated with a modular intake manifold with different length intakes and a different plastic cover. Power output of the 2.0 TS was raised to 155 PS. Engines changed engine management units and have a nomenclature of CF2; the dashboard was available in two new colours in addition to the standard black: Red Style and Blue Style, with it new colour-coded upholstery and carpets. 3.0 24V got a six-speed manual gearbox as an optional extra. The 2.0 V6 TB engine was now available for the Spider. From this generation every
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Aermacchi was an Italian aircraft manufacturer. Known as Aeronautica Macchi, the company was founded in 1912 by Giulio Macchi at Varese in north-western Lombardy as Nieuport-Macchi, to build Nieuport monoplanes under licence for the Italian military. With a factory located on the shores of Lake Varese, the firm manufactured a series of Nieuport designs, as well as seaplanes. After World War II, the company began producing motorcycles as a way to fill the post-war need for cheap, efficient transportation; the company specialised in civil and military pilot training aircraft. In July 2003, Aermacchi was integrated into the Finmeccanica Group as Alenia Aermacchi, which increased its shareholding to 99%. Since the beginning, the design and production of military trainers have been the core business of Alenia Aermacchi; the products include: SF-260, piston-engined or turboprop-powered screener/primary trainer MB-326, turbofan engined trainer and light attack aircraft M-311, basic turbofan trainer MB-339CD, advanced and lead-in fighter trainer M-346, advanced and lead-in fighter trainer of the new generation Alenia Aermacchi has cooperated in international military programs: AMX Program:Alenia Aermacchi takes part in the AMX program with Alenia Aeronautica and Embraer of Brazil with a total share of 24%.
Alenia Aermacchi develops and manufactures the fuselage forward and rear sections and installs some avionic equipment in the aircraft. A Mid-Life Updating program is required by the Italian Air Force to upgrade the aircraft capabilities. Panavia Tornado program:Alenia Aermacchi designs and produces wing pylons and wing tips, trailing edges and flaps, which represents a 5% share in the overall program. Eurofighter program:Alenia Aermacchi has a share of more than 4% in the Eurofighter program, for the design and development of wing pylons, twin missile and twin store carriers, ECM pods, carbon fiber structures and titanium engine cowlings. C-27J program:After participating in the G-222 transport aircraft program, the company is involved in the new Military Transport Aircraft C-27J Spartan, for the production of outer wings. Since the mid-1990s, Alenia Aermacchi has participated in programs for the supply of engine nacelles for civil aircraft, it produces cold parts for engine nacelles: inlets, fan cowls and EBU, the systems-to-engine interface.
In 1999, the company established a joint venture with Hurel-Dubois, a French company specializing in the development and manufacture of thrust reversers, to obtain the full responsibility for the development of nacelles installed on maximum 100-seat aircraft. Macchi L.1 – reconnaissance flying boat Macchi L.2 – flying boat biplane Nieuport-Macchi N. VI – reconnaissance monoplane Nieuport-Macchi parasol monoplane – reconnaissance monoplane Nieuport-Macchi N.10 – fighter/reconnaissance sesquiplane Nieuport-Macchi N.11 – fighter sesquiplane Nieuport-Macchi N.17 – fighter sesquiplane Macchi M.3 – flying boat biplane Macchi M.5 – flying boat fighter Macchi M.6 – flying boat fighter prototype Macchi M.7 – flying boat fighter Macchi M.8 – reconnaissance, bomber flying boat Macchi M.9 – flying boat bomber Macchi M.12 – flying boat bomber Macchi M.14 – sesquiplane fighter Nieuport-Macchi N.29 – biplane fighter Macchi M.7bis – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane Macchi M.15 – reconnaissance and trainer aircraft Macchi M.16 – sports aircraft Macchi M.17bis – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane Macchi M.18 – passenger and reconnaissance flying boat Macchi M.19 – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane Macchi M7ter – flying boat fighter, major redesign of M.7 Macchi M.24 – flying boat bomber Macchi M.26 – flying boat fighter prototype Macchi M.33 – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane Macchi M.39 – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane Macchi M.40 – reconnaissance seaplane Macchi M.41 – flying boat fighter Macchi M.52 – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane Macchi M.52R – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane Macchi M.53 – reconnaissance floatplane Macchi M.67 – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane Macchi M.70 – light biplane landplane/floatplane Macchi M.71 – flying boat fighter Macchi M.
C.72 – Schneider Trophy racing seaplane Macchi M. C.73- two-seat tourism plane Macchi M. C.94 – flying boat airliner Macchi M. C.100 – passenger flying boat Macchi M. C.200 Saetta – fighter Macchi M. C.202 Folgore – fighter Macchi M. C.205 Veltro – fighter Macchi M. B.308 – utility aircraft Macchi M. B.320 – light civil utility aircraft Macchi M. B.323 – trainer Aermacchi MB-326 – trainer and light attack aircraft Aermacchi AL-60 – light civil utility aircraft Aermacchi SF.260 – aerobatics aircraft and military trainer Aermacchi MB-335 – initial designation of the AM.3 Aermacchi AM.3 – military utility aircraft Aermacchi MB-338 – trainer Aermacchi MB-340 – light ground-attack aircraft Aermacchi MB-339 – trainer Aermacchi S-211 – trainer Aermacchi M-290 RediGO – trainer Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master – trainer Alenia Aermacchi M-311 – trainer Aermacchi began producing motorcycles in c. 1951.
Darracq and Company London
A Darracq and Company Limited owned a French manufacturer of motor vehicles and aero engines in Suresnes, near Paris. The French enterprise, known at first as A. Darracq et Cie, was founded in 1896 by Alexandre Darracq after he sold his Gladiator Bicycle business. In 1902, it took effect in 1903, he sold his new business to a held English company named A Darracq and Company Limited, taking a substantial shareholding and a directorship himself. Alexandre Darracq continued to run the business from Paris but was obliged to retire to the Côte d'Azur in 1913 following years of difficulties that brought Darracq & Co into hazardous financial circumstances, he had introduced an unproven unorthodox engine in 1911 which proved a complete failure yet he neglected Suresnes' popular conventional products. France entered the first World War, he died in 1931 but long before that, in 1920, the name of A Darracq & Co 1905 was changed to S T D Motors Limited. In 1922 Darracq's name was dropped from all products, the Suresnes business was renamed Automobiles Talbot and the Suresnes products were branded just Talbot.
His Suresnes business was to continue, still under British control, under the name Talbot until 1935 when it was acquired by investors led by the Suresnes factory's managing director, Antonio Lago. S T D Motors Limited known until 1920 as A Darracq and Company Limited became insolvent and was liquidated during 1935 and 1936. Alexandre Darracq, using part of the substantial profit he had made from selling his Gladiator bicycle factory to Adolpe Clément, set up a plant in 1897 in the Paris suburb of Suresnes; the company to own the business was formed in 1897 and named A Darracq et Cie. Production began with a Millet motorcycle powered by a five-cylinder rotary engine, it was supplemented shortly after by an electric brougham. In 1898 Darracq et Cie made a Léon Bollée-designed voiturette tricar; the voiturette proved a débâcle: the steering was problematic, the five-speed belt drive "a masterpiece of bad design", the hot tube ignition crude, proving the £10,000 Darracq et Cie had paid for the design a mistake.
Darracq et Cie produced its first vehicle with an internal combustion engine in 1900. Designed by Ribeyrolles this was a 6.5 hp voiture legére powered by a single-cylinder engine of 785 cc and it featured shaft drive and three speed column gear change. While not as successful as hoped, one hundred were sold. In 1902 Darracq & Co signed a contract with Adam Opel to jointly produce, under licence, vehicles in the German Empire with the brand name "Opel Darracq". Opel soon moved on to building their own vehicles. A Darracq et Cie was sold as of 30 September 1902 to an English company, A Darracq and Company Limited; the attraction for the British venture capitalists was that French automobile technology and industry experience led the world. It was incorporated in England because French law made the necessary flotation processes more difficult than English law; the perception from across the Atlantic in USA was that French industry was "offloading" on British investors. The English financial group was headed by W B Avery of W & T Avery Limited, a Birmingham scales manufacturer, J S Smith-Winby a London lawyer and a retired army officer, Colonel A Rawlinson.
They bought A Darracq et Cie and sold it again to other investors for five times their purchase price. Darracq received less than 50 percent of the shares in the new company. There was no public offering, eight other investors took up the rest of the shares. Further capital was raised and large sums were spent on factory expansion; the Suresnes site was expanded to some four acres in extent, in England extensive premises were bought. The Darracq & Co automobile company prospered, such that, by 1903, four models were offered: a 1.1-litre single, a 1.3 l and 1.9 l twin, a 3.8 l four. The 1904 models abandoned flitch-plated wood chassis for pressed steel, the new Flying Fifteen, powered by a 3-litre four, had its chassis made from a single sheet of steel; this car was Alexandre Darracq's chef d'oeuvre. There was nothing outstanding in its design but "every part was in such perfect balance and harmony" it became an outstanding model, its exceptional quality helped the company capture a ten percent share of the French auto market.
In late 1904 the chairman reported sales were up by 20 per cent though increased costs meant the profit had risen more slowly. But what was more important was they had many more orders than they could fill and the only solution was to enlarge the factory by as much as 50 per cent. 75 per cent of 1904 output was exported. At the following Annual meeting, twelve months the chairman was able to tell shareholders all the six speed records of the automobile world were held by Darracq cars and they had all been held more than twelve months and yet another had been added by K Lee Guinness, he reported that during 1905 a large property had been bought in Lambeth for examining adjusting and stocking new cars ready for the peak sales period. An announcement followed two days of a scheme of reconstitution of the company to raise more capital for further expansion; the reconstituted company was named Company Limited. Paris resident Alexander Darracq remained managing director, Rawlinson was appointed managing director of the London branch.
The "reconstitution" was to circumvent some holders of the company's shares who were unwilling to share the prosperity and blocked proposed new issues. So the company was sold, they were obliged to buy new shares like anyone else. J S Smith-Winby continued as chairman. After this "reconstitution" over 80 per cent of the shares were held in England. Meanwhile th