Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout. In automotive design, a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one that places the engine in the front, with the rear wheels of vehicle being driven. In contrast to the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, the engine is pushed back far enough that its center of mass is to the rear of the front axle; this aids in weight distribution and reduces the moment of inertia, improving the vehicle's handling. The mechanical layout of an FMR is the same as an FR car; some models of the same vehicle can be classified as either FR or FMR depending on the length of the installed engine and its centre of mass in relation to the front axle. FMR cars are characterized by a long hood and front wheels that are pushed forward to the corners of the vehicle, close to the front bumper.
Grand tourers have FMR layouts, as a rear engine would not leave much space for the rear seats. FMR should not be confused with a "front midships" location of the engine, referring to the engine being located behind the front axle centerline, in which case a car meeting the above FMR center of mass definition could be classified as a FR layout instead; the v35 Nissan Skyline / Infiniti G35 / Nissan 350Z are FM cars. FMR layout came standard in most pre–World War II, front-engine / rear-wheel-drive cars
Saviem Super Galion
The Saviem Super Galion is a truck under 6 tonnes gross vehicle weight produced by the French manufacturer Saviem between 1965 and 1982. It was marketed as the Renault Super Galion. In 1957, Saviem introduced the Galion, a small commercial vehicle based on previous Renault models with a 2.5-tonne payload and related to the smaller Goélette. In 1965, as part of a renovation of the company's small vehicle range, the Saviem Super Galion was introduced along with the lighter Super Goélette; the new truck had a 5.950-tonne GVW, right under the limit after which the acquisition would have been required special permits in France. At the 1968 Paris Show was unveiled a new version of the Super Galion called the SG5, with changes to the suspension and gearbox; the design was revised in 1969 and 1979, in-line with the Super Goélette revisions. From 21 April 1980 onwards, the truck was sold under the RVI badge. Through a partnership agreement, the Super Galion was assembled by the Czech manufacturer Avia and marketed as the Avia A30.
It was assembled under licence by Alfa Romeo, which sold it as the Alfa Romeos A38 and F20. MAN marketed the model badging it as 475 and 7-90. By 1970, the most common engine for the SG4 was the 3.32-litre straight-four Renault-Saviem 712-01 diesel, using a MAN-sourced direct injection system and with a maximum power output of 85 bhp at 3,200 rpm and a torque of 149 lb⋅ft at 2,000 rpm. The first diesel engine used for the model was the 3-litre straight-four Renault-Saviem 591-01, with a Ricardo fuel injection system and a maximum power output of 75 PS at 3,200 rpm and a torque of 180 N⋅m at 2,000 rpm; the 591-01 was followed in 1968 by the similar 599-01, which changed the Ricardo's fuel injection for a direct fuel injection sourced by MAN. It was replaced shortly after by the 712-01; the petrol engines were, at launch, the 2.1-litre Renault Étendard 671, with a maximum power output of 70 PS. In 1968, it was replaced by the 2.6-litre 817 with a power output of 78 PS at 3,600 rpm and a torque of 20.5 kg⋅m at 2,000 rpm.
By 1970, the Super Galion was offered for sale with three options: bare metal chassis, cabin with only lateral panels and with complete bodywork. The wheelbases offered are between 2,680 mm and 3,640 mm, the length is between 5,177 mm and 6,967 mm; the width is the height 90 in. The truck has an independent front suspension with coil wishbones. At the rear it mounts a beam axle with leaf springs instead of the coil springs used by the designed Super Goélette, it has telescopic dampers on both axles. The transmission is a rear-wheel drive system with a synchronised 4-speed gearbox; the drivetain has a double universal joint on the normal chassis and a triple universal joint with relay shaft on the long and extra long. Brakes are drums on both axles; the steering system is roller. The entry incorporates text translated from the corresponding French Wikipedia entry as of 30 July 2016
Alfa Romeo Pomigliano d'Arco plant
The Alfa Romeo Pomigliano d'Arco plant known as the Alfasud Pomigliano and renamed in 2008 as "Giambattista Vico" in memory of the Neapolitan philosopher, is a car factory, situated in the town of Pomigliano d'Arco, in Acerra. The factory is nowadays owned by the Fiat S.p. A. Designed in 1968 by Alfa Romeo, the factory began car production in 1972. Today the plant has about 6,000 employees; the last Alfa Romeo model produced in Pomigliano was the Alfa Romeo 159 on 28 October 2011, the factory was converted to build the new Fiat Panda. In 1938 the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale commissioned the Alfa Romeo to build a large plant for the production of aircraft engines coupled with a small airport; the choice fell on Pomigliano d'Arco, thanks to the work of the engineer Ugo Gobbato it gave birth to a technologically advanced Aeronautical Center, able to produce engines for the technologically advanced era. The industrial complex completed just before the outbreak of World War II was one of the largest and most modern in Europe.
To improve the living conditions of employees, residents in the area, there was built from scratch an entire neighborhood with about six hundred homes each of which had a small garden, while for foreigners it was built a hotel about seven hundred people. See Alfa Romeo AvioIn 1942 began series production of Daimler engines, the most used by German companies. In 1943 the complex was completed with two other aerospace centers of production, for "complete structures" and "light alloys". Shortly after, two bombs destroyed the cities along the Alfa Romeo factory; the production of aircraft engines did not start until 1952, when the reconstruction and establishment of the city was done. Meanwhile, Finmeccanica had founded, in part of the Aeronautical Center, the Officine di Costruzioni Aeronautiche e Ferroviarie Aerfer. There was produced railway vehicles and trolleybuses the'"Aerfer" worked on commission for the production of parts for fighter jets for the Air Force and NATO. Just the experience of construction of these parts, since the second half of the fifties, the Pomigliano began to be based development and construction of new prototypes for fighter aircraft, whose projects were financially supported by the United States.
At the end of the sixties Alfa Romeo had two factories in Italy: the first built in 1910 in Portello, a suburb of Milan, the second was the Alfa Romeo factory in Arese opened in 1963, in the province of Milan. In this period the Italian Government, the owner of IRI and of Alfa Romeo decided to implement some measures to encourage the development of southern Italy and stem the emigration of many young people who moved to the north in search of work. So, with the opposition of the President of Alfa Giuseppe Luraghi, it financed the construction of a new factory for the production of cars next to the existing facility "Alfa Romeo Avio" Pomigliano d'Arco, thus was born the great project called "Alfasud". The plant for car manufacturing was made quickly. In 1967 was started the design of the plant and the new car model, both under the technical responsibility by engineer Rudolf Hruska, one of the most important engineers of the era, former "right hand" of Ferdinand Porsche and consultant to Fiat and Abarth.
The management of the operation, led by Hruska, was made independent by creating Alfasud S.p. A. based in Pomigliano d'Arco, which operated in the establishment and completion of the design of the new model, in a formally independent from the so-called "Alfanord" in Arese. On 15 January 1968, after dozens of projects proposed and discussed, the general plan was submitted on for building the plant Alfasud Pomigliano d'Arco, which included the construction of new plants and beginning production in January 1972. The'Construction Industry Neapolitan Vehicles Alfa Romeo - Alfasud S.p. A. was born on 17 January 1968 with shareholders Alfa Romeo, Finmeccanica and IRI. For the project were allocated just over 300 billion lire funded by the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno and Banco di Napoli; the laying of the cornerstone took place on 28 April 1968, in the presence of Prime Minister Aldo Moro. Despite several delays, due to the many strikes by organized workers, Hruska was able to complete the work and begin production, with only three months late, in April 1972.
In 1982 the' Alfasud S.p. A. changed its name to "INCA Investments." In 1986, Finmeccanica was forced to sell Alfa Romeo shares to Fiat for financial reasons and therefore the plant became part of Fiat Group. Under new management, following the merger between Lancia and Alfa Romeo, the factory was renamed "Plant Alfa-Lancia Pomigliano d'Arco". Following the corporate restructuring of 2007 the Fiat Group auto business become Fiat Group Automobiles S.p. A. Alfa turned into Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. as a result, in 2008, the factory was renamed to "Fiat Group Automobiles - Giambattista Vico plant." On July 19 of 2010 Fiat sells ownership of the factory and its workers' contractual relationship to the subsidiary factory Pomigliano Italy. The first car produced at the plant, was the Alfasud; that was the first front wheel drive Alfa Romeo production car, until all the cars produced by Alfa were rear-wheel drive. The Alfasud was presented in 1971 at the Turin Motor Show, it was a hatchback with a tail fastback four-door.
The commercialization of the first series gave enormous fruits, because sales in those years amounted to about seventy thousand vehicles
Turin Auto Show
The Turin Motor Show was an auto show held annually in Turin, Italy. The first official show took place between 21 and 24 April 1900, at the Castle of Valentino, becoming a permanent fixture in Turin from 1938 having shared it with Milan and Rome until that time. From 1972, the show was held biannually and in 1984, it moved into Fiat's shuttered Lingotto factory; the event was last held in Turin in June 2000, cancelled from 2002, resulting in the Bologna Motor Show taking over the role of Italy's International Motor Show. Since 2015, Turin again now holds a Motor Show, albeit as an open air festival to keep exhibitors' costs down and provide free access to the public, it is held in the precinct of the Parco del Valentino. Adami Rondini Motoruota Garavaglia Aquila Italiana Cappa SPA 28/40HP Lancia Alfa-12HP Fiat Zero Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8 Fiat 501 OM 665 "Superba" Fiat 519 Itala 56 Chiribiri Monza Lancia Lambda Itala 61 Alfa Romeo 6C Fiat 509 Grand Prix racing car prototype designed by Porsche Ferrari 166 MM Lancia Ardea Maserati A6 cabriolet Fiat 500 Giardinetta Belvedere Porsche-Cisitalia racing cars Lancia Aurelia Alfa Romeo 1900 Fiat 1400 Panhard Dyna X86 Berlinetta Abarth 1500 Biposto Coupé Siata 208 CS Alfa Romeo BAT 5 concept Lancia Appia The 1954 36th Salone dell'Automobile was inaugurated by Italian President Luigi Einaudi on 21 April and closed on 2 May.
The exhibitors were 450 from 11 countries, including 66 car manufacturers and 22 coachbuilders. Alfa Romeo 1900 Super Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Fiat 1100 Familiare Fiat 1400 A Fiat 1900 A Lancia Aurelia series II Alfa Romeo BAT 7 by Bertone Fiat Turbina Fibreglass-bodied Fiat 8V At least 30 vehicle models from different manufacturers designed by Michelotti Abarth 750 Zagato Alfa Romeo BAT 9 concept Alfa Romeo Giulietta Lancia Florida I Italian President Giovanni Gronchi, escorted by a troop of Corazzieri, inaugurated the 38th Salone Internazionale dell'Automobile on 21 April 1956; the motor show closed on 2 May. The exhibitors were 450 from 13 countries, including 64 car manufacturers, 35 truck and bus manufacturers, 18 coachbuilders. Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Veloce Fiat 1400 B Fiat 1900 B Fiat 600 Taxi Lancia Flaminia Berlina Alfa Romeo 2000 Sportiva Alfa Romeo Superflow by Pininfarina Lancia Appia Cammello Alfa Romeo 2000 Berlina Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale by Bertone Alfa Romeo Mille Fiat 1200 Granluce Abarth 750 Zagato Spyder Lancia Appia Convertibile Lancia Florida II by Pininfarina Ferrari 4.9-Litre Superfast by Pininfarina Abarth 750 GT Bialbero Lancia Appia GTE Lancia Appia Lusso The 1959 41st Salone dell'Automobile was inaugurated by President of the Italian Republic Giovanni Gronchi on 31 October and closed on 11 November.
There were 490 exhibitors including 65 car manufacturers. Abarth 700S Fiat Abarth 2200 Coupé and Spider Allemano Chrysler Valiant Lancia Appia Giardinetta Viotti Maserati 5000 GT "Shah of Persia" BMW 3200 Michelotti Vignale Ghia Selene Pininfarina X concept Lancia Flavia Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ 1 Iso Rivolta IR 300 The 1963 45th Salone dell'Automobile was inaugurated by Italian President Antonio Segni on 30 October and closed on 10 November; the exhibitors were 524 from 13 countries, including 21 coachbuilders. Autobianchi Stellina Iso Grifo Lancia Superjolly Maserati Quattroporte Simca-Abarth 1150 Ghia-Fiat G230S Due Posti Daihatsu Sport Vignale De Tomaso Vallelunga Fiat 2300 S Lausanne Lamborghini 350GTV Lancia Flaminia Coupé Speciale OSI 1200 S Spider Fiat Moretti Sportiva Fiat 124 Spider Fiat 500 Ferves Ranger Ferrari Dino concept Lamborghini Flying Star II concept Maserati Ghibli prototype The 49th Salone dell'Automobile was held between 1 and 12 November 1967, it saw the presence of 580 exhibitors from 15 countries, including 70 car manufacturers and 13 coachbuilders.
Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale Lamborghini Marzal concept Fiat Dino Coupé The 50th Salone dell'Automobile was held between 30 October and 10 November 1968. Lancia Fulvia Berlina GTE, Coupé 1.3 S, Sport 1.3 S and Coupé 1.6 HF Fiat 124 Special and 125 Special Lamborghini Miura S Autobianchi coupé prototype Alfa Romeo P33 Roadster Pininfarina Bandini Saloncino Bizzarrini Manta Ferrari P6 Berlinetta Speciale Pininfarina Fiat 850 City Taxi LMX Sirex Maserati Simun by Ghia Maserati Indy prototype by Vignale The 51st Salone dell'Automobile was held between 29 October and 9 November 1969. Autobianchi A112 Alfa Romeo Spider series II Alfa Romeo Junior Z Fiat 124 Sport Coupé and Sport Spider 1600 Fiat 128 Familiare Fiat Dino 2400 Coupé and Spider Lancia Fulvia Berlina series II Alfa Romeo Iguana by Italdesign Autobianchi Runabout by Bertone Caprera LEM Ferrari 512 S Speciale by Pininfarina Fiat 128 Coupé by Bertone Fiat 128 coupé and roadster by Moretti Fiat 128 Teenager by Pininfarina Fissore Mongo Ikenga MK III McLaren Lancia Marica by Ghia Volvo GTZ by Zagato The 52nd Salone dell'Automobile was held between 28 October and 8 November 1970.
Front-engine, four-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an F4, or Front-engine, Four-wheel drive layout places the internal combustion engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels. This layout is chosen for better control on many surfaces, is an important part of rally racing as well as off-road driving. Most four-wheel-drive layouts are front-engined and are derivatives of earlier front-engine, rear-wheel-drive designs; this layout is the drive train of choice for off-road pickup trucks and SUVs. It allows these vehicles to get the most traction without sacrificing precious cargo or passenger room; the center differential is not present in these vehicles, meaning the 4WD system does not allow any difference in front and rear axle speeds. For normal road driving, these vehicles are shifted into 2WD mode, preventing damage to the transfer case.
The Renault 4 known as the 4L, is a hatchback economy car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1961 and 1994. It was the first front-wheel drive family car produced by Renault; the car was launched at a time when several decades of economic stagnation were giving way to growing prosperity and surging car ownership in France. The first million cars were produced by 1 February 1966, less than four and a half years after launch. Although marketed as a small estate car, it is now regarded as the first mass production hatchback car; the Renault 4 was Renault's response to the 1948 Citroën 2CV. Renault was able to review the advantages and disadvantages of the 2CV design and come up with a larger, more urban vehicle. In early 1956, Renault Chairman Pierre Dreyfus launched this new project: designing a new model to replace the rear engined 4CV that would become an everyman's car, capable of satisfying the needs of most consumers, it would be a woman's car, a farmer's car, or a city car. Renault launched the Renault 3 and the Renault 4 in July 1961.
The cars shared the same body and most mechanical components, but the R3 was powered by a 603 cc version of the engine while the R4 featured a 747 cc engine. This placed the R3 in the 3CV taxation class. Actual maximum power output was claimed by Renault as 22.5 hp for the R3, 26.5 or 32 hp for the R4, depending on price level and the type of carburettor fitted. The base versions of the R3 and R4 came with a thick C-pillar behind each of the rear doors. Quarter glass was a 400 francs option for the basic R4; the extra visibility increased the weight of the vehicle, but these windows soon became standard for all R4s. The R3 and R4 were targeted at the Citroen 2CV that employed soft springs and long wheel travel to absorb bumps on poorly maintained roads; the Renault 3 & 4 applied the same approach and two models appeared at the Paris Motor Show in 1961 on a specialized demonstration display that incorporated an irregular rolling road. Visitors could sit inside a car, which remained undisturbed while the suspension absorbed the erratic bumps of the rolling road.
In 1962 Renault employed the same display at the Turin Motor Show. The basic version of the R3 was priced 40 francs below the lowest priced version of the Citroen 2CV in 1961 and featured painted bumpers and grill, a simplified instrument panel, a single sun visor, no windshield washer, no interior door panels; this trim was offered in the more powerful R4. The R4L with six side windows, chrome coloured bumper and grill, as well as a less spartan interior cost 400 francs more than the R4 with its four side windows. However, as with the Renault 4CV “Service” in 1953, customers shunned the basic model and in October 1962, the Renault R3 was discontinued, along with the most basic version of the Renault 4. A "super" version with opening rear quarter-light windows and extra trim was offered; the de luxe and super versions of the R4L received a version of the engine from the Renault Dauphine giving them a four-cylinder engine capacity of 845 cc. After the withdrawal of the 603 cc engined R3, the 747 cc R4 model continued to be listed with an entry level recommended retail price, but the larger-engined L versions were more popular.
By 1965, Renault had removed the extra "R" from their model names: the Renault R4L had become the Renault 4L. Early versions of the Renault R4 used engines and transmissions from the Renault 4CV; the original design brief called for an engine size between 600 cc and 700 cc, but there was no consensus as to whether to use a four-cylinder unit or to follow Citroen with a two-cylinder unit. With Volkswagen growing market share across Europe and North America, Renault gave serious consideration to an air-cooled boxer motor option for the forthcoming R3/R4. However, using the existing water-cooled unit from the 4CV was a solution in view of the extended period of teething troubles encountered by the Renault Fregate, Renault's most recent attempt to develop an innovative powerplant; the existing engines were larger than that specified by management for the new 4CV, but the automaker addressed this by reducing the bore so that the overall capacity of the base engine for the new R3 worked out to be 603 cc, comfortably at the lower end of the required 600–700 cc range.
However, since Renault produced the 747 cc version of the engine, well proven in the 4CV, it made sense to use this as well in what would in many respects be the older car's successor. Therefore, in 1961, the R3 had a 49 mm bore and 80 mm stroke, while the R4 received the 54.5 mm × 80 mm existing engine. Moving the engine from the rear of the 4CV to the front of the new model involved significant planning: design changes to the unit were introduced as part of the process; the inlet manifold was now a steel casting whereas on the 4CV it had been constructed of a light-weight alloy: this was driven by cost considerations now that aluminium was not so inexpensive as it had been fifteen years earlier. Renault took the opportunity to introduce a feature which subsequently became mainstream. Renault designed a “sealed-for-life” cooling system, supported by a small expansion tank on the right side of the engine bay; the cooling system contained antifreeze intended to enable operation without topping up or other intervention throughout a car's life provided ambient temperatures below minus 40 degrees were avoided.
The engines were larger than the small 425 cc, engines in the 2CV. T