Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
Alfa Romeo 105/115 Series Coupés
The Alfa Romeo 105 and 115 series coupés were a range of cars made by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1963 until 1977, based on a shortened floorpan from the Giulia saloon. They were the successors to the Giulietta Sprint coupé; the basic body shape shared by all models was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro for Bertone. It was one of his first major projects for Bertone, borrowed from his earlier design for the Alfa Romeo 2000 Sprint/2600 Sprint; the balance of glass and metal, the influence of the shape of the front and rear glass on the shape of the cabin, the flat grille with incorporated headlamps were groundbreaking styling features for the era. A limited production convertible was a modification from the standard car by Touring of Milan, offered as a catalogue model by Alfa Romeo called the Giulia Sprint GTC. A small number of the GT Junior Zagato were built with a different, aerodynamic two-seater coupé body designed by Ercole Spada for Zagato of Milan; these too were offered by Alfa Romeo as catalogue models, as the GT 1300 Junior Zagato and GT 1600 Junior Zagato.
All models feature the four cylinder, all-light-alloy Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine in various cubic capacities from 1290 cc to 1962 cc, all with two valves per cylinder. All versions of this engine fitted to the 105 series coupés featured twin carburettors, except for US market 1750 GTV and 2000 GTV cars which were fitted with mechanical port fuel injection by SPICA. Competition models featured cylinder heads with twin spark plugs. Common to all models was a 5-speed manual transmission and solid disc brakes on all four wheels, although in South Africa at the Brits plant a few Auto 2000 GTV were made for the local market; these featured the 3 speed ZF auto box. The rear suspension uses a solid axle with coil springs. Air conditioning and a limited slip rear differential were optional on the models. A limited slip differential was standard on the GTV 2000 for North America 1972-1974. Factory air conditioning was available on the 1973-1974 only in the USA; the 105 series coupés featured the GT model description, common to all models in one form or another.
The various models in this range can be considered in two broad categories. On one hand were Gran Turismo Veloces; these were meant to be the most sporting cars in the Alfa Romeo range and sold well to enthusiastic motorists around the world. The first model available was the Giulia Sprint GT which evolved into the Giulia Sprint GT Veloce, the 1750 GTV and the 2000 GTV, with engines increasing in cubic capacity from 1570 cc through 1779 cc to 1962 cc. A limited production convertible, the Giulia Sprint GTC, was based on the Giulia Sprint GT, modified by Touring of Milan, it was only made over two years from 1964 to 1966. On the other hand, was the GT Junior range, which featured engines with smaller cubic capacities. GT Juniors sold in great numbers to people who wanted a sporting, stylish car that handled well, but either did not require the maximum in engine power, or could not afford the taxation on larger engine capacities in some markets - most notably, Alfa Romeo's home Italian market. Junior models began with the first GT 1300 Junior in 1966.
The GT 1300 Junior continued until 1976 with the 1290 cc engine and various modifications incorporating features from the evolution of the GT's and GTV's. From 1972 a GT 1600 Junior model was available, with the 1570 cc engine; the 1300 Junior and 1600 Junior became available with a different, aerodynamic two-seater coupé body designed by Ercole Spada for Zagato of Milan. These models were GT 1600 Junior Zagato. Both categories were used to derive GTA models, which were intended for competition homologation in their respective engine size classes; the GTA's featured extensive modifications for racing, so they were priced much higher than the standard models and sold in much smaller numbers. All GTA's made were used in competition, where they had a long and successful history in various classes and category; these models included the Giulia Sprint GTA, GTA 1300 Junior, GTAm. Although not thought of as a 105 Series coupé variant, the Alfa Romeo Montreal used a strengthened and modified 105 series floorpan and suspension.
Tipo: 105.02, 105.04. Engine: 00502; the Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint GT was the first Giulia sport model introduced, was manufactured from 1963 to 1965. It was revealed at a press event held at the newly opened Arese plant on 9 September 1963, displayed the same month at the Frankfurt Motor Show. In its original form the Bertone body is known as scalino or "step front", because of the leading edge of the engine compartment lid which sat 1/4 an inch above the nose of the car; the Giulia Sprint GT can be distinguished from the models by the following features: Exterior badging: Alfa Romeo logo on the front grille, a chrome script reading "Giulia Sprint GT" on the boot lid, rectangular "Disegno di Bertone" badges aft of the front wheel arches. Flat, chrome grille in plain, wide rectangular mesh without additional chrome bars. Single-piece chrome bumpers. Inside the cabin the padded vinyl dashboard was characterised by a concave horizontal fascia, finished in grey anti-glare crackle-effect paint. Four round instruments were inset in the fascia in front of the driver.
The larger diameter inner pair were speedometer.
Alfa Romeo Giulietta (750/101)
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta was a family of automobiles made by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1954 to 1965 which included a 2+2 coupé, four-door saloon, spider and Sprint Speciale. The 2+2 was Alfa Romeo's first successful foray into the 1.3-litre class. From 1954 to 1965 a total of 177,690 Giuliettas were made, the great majority in saloon, Sprint coupé, or Spider body styles, but as Sprint Speciale and Sprint Zagato coupés, the rare Promiscua estate; the Giulietta series was succeeded by the Giulia in 1962. The first Giulietta to be introduced was the Giulietta Sprint 2+2 coupé at the 1954 Turin Motor Show. Designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone, it was produced at the coachbuilder's Grugliasco plant near Turin. A year at the Turin Motor Show in April 1955, the Sprint was joined by the 4-door saloon Berlina. In mid 1955, the open two-seat Giulietta Spider. In 1957, a more powerful Berlina version, called Giulietta T. I. was presented with minor cosmetic changes to the dial lights and rear lamps.
Carrozzeria Colli made the Giulietta station wagon variant called Giulietta Promiscua. Ninety-one examples of this version were built. Carrozzeria Boneschi made a few station wagon examples called Weekendina. A new version of the Giulietta Berlina debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1959. Mechanical changes were limited to shifting the fuel pump from the cylinder head to a lower position below the distributor, moving the exposed fuel filler cap from the tail to the right rear wing, under a flap; the bodywork showed a revised front end, with more rounded wings, recessed head lights, new grilles with chrome frames and two horizontal bars. The rear showed changes, with new larger tail lights on vestigial fins, which replaced the earlier rounded rear wings; the interior was much more upholstered in new cloth material. I. housed water temperature gauges. The T. I. received a front side repeater mounted in a small spear, unlike the Normale which kept the earlier small round lamp with no decorations.
During 1959 the type designation for all models was changed from 750 and 753 to 101. In February 1961 the 100,001st Giulietta rolled off the Portello factory, with a celebration sponsored by Italian actress Giulietta Masina. In Autumn 1961 the Giulietta was updated a second time. Both Normale and T. I. had new exhaust systems. With this new engine the car could reach a speed of 160 km/h. At the front of the car square mesh side grilles were now pieced together with the centre shield, at the rear there were larger tail lights. Inside the T. I. had individual instead of bench seats, with storage nets on the seatbacks. June 1962 saw the introduction of the Alfa Romeo Giulia, which would replace the Giulietta; as until 1964 the Giulia only had a larger 1.6-litre engine, production of the standard Berlina ended with 1963, whilst the T. I. continued for a full year more. A last T. I. was completed in 1965. The Giulietta sport models had a different fate: Sprint, Sprint Speciale and Spider were fitted with the new 1.6-litre engine, received some updates and continued to be sold under the Giulia name until they were replaced by all-new Giulia-based models during 1965.
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta used a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. Front suspension was with coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers. At the rear there was a solid axle on hydraulic dampers; the axle was located by a longitudinal link on each side, by a wishbone-shaped arm linking the top of the aluminium differential housing to the chassis. All Giuliettas had hydraulic drum brakes on all four corners; when leaving the Portello factory it fitted Pirelli Cinturato 155 HR15 tyres. The Giulietta used an Alfa Romeo Twin Cam straight-four of 1290 cc, with an aluminium alloy engine block and cast iron inserted sleeves. Bore and stroke measured 75.0 mm. The aluminium alloy cylinder head was of a crossflow design and featured hemispherical combustion chambers; the double overhead camshafts were driven by two timing chains, acted on two valves per cylinder, angled 80°. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale was an aerodynamic 2-door, 2-seat coupé designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone. 1.366 were made from 1957 to 1962.
The car had a steel body, was based on a short-wheelbase Giulietta chassis. It used a 1.3-litre engine brought to 100 PS thanks to double twin-choke carburettors and a high compression ratio. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta SZ was an aluminium-bodied 2-seater berlinetta, built by Zagato for competition use on the chassis and mechanicals of the Sprint Speciale. A crashed Sprint Veloce was rebodied by Zagato in late 1956, was successful in competition. Zagato ended up building 18 rebodied Veloces, called the SVZ and the version gave rise to a full production version; the SVZ was about 120 kg lighter than the Coupé on which it was based, had the highest tuned, 118 CV version of the Giulietta engine. A production competition version of the Giulietta, with lightened bodywork designed by Franco Scaglione for Bertone was premiered at the 1960 Geneve Salon. Handbuilt by Zagato in aluminium and with p
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Alfa Romeo Giulia (952)
The Alfa Romeo Giulia is a compact executive car produced by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. It was unveiled in June 2015, with market launch scheduled for February 2016, it is the first saloon offered by Alfa Romeo after the production of the 159 ended in 2011; the Giulia is the first mass-market Alfa Romeo vehicle in over two decades to use a longitudinal rear-wheel drive platform, since the 75, discontinued in 1992. The Giulia was second in 2017 European Car of the Year voting and was named Motor Trend Car of the Year for 2018; the car was designed at the Centro Stile Alfa Romeo, by a team headed by Marco Tencone and including Senior Exterior Designer, Andrea Loi. along with Interior Chief Designer, Inna Kondakova and Senior Interior Designer, Manuele Amprimo. The Giulia has been the subject of a long gestation and delayed launch dates due to the design being sent back to the drawing board by Sergio Marchionne, CEO of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the parent company of Alfa Romeo at the time.
The new Giulia was unveiled to the press at the Museo Storico Alfa Romeo in Arese, on 24 June 2015, at an event which involved only the top-of-the-range Quadrifoglio variant and a rendition of "Nessun dorma" by Italian tenor Andrea Bocelli. The occasion coincided with the company's 105th anniversary, saw the company debut a restyled logo for all future Alfa Romeo models; the Giulia was presented under the new La meccanica delle emozioni slogan. The Giulia is the first model in the company's relaunch plan, which involves a €5 billion investment for an eight car line-up and a worldwide sales target of 400,000 by 2018—up from 74,000 in 2013, it is underpinned by an all-new, longitudinal-engine, rear-wheel drive platform developed for Alfa Romeo—codenamed "Giorgio". Development of the Giulia, along with development of the entire "Giorgio" project, has been overseen by the technical director of Ferrari, Philippe Krief; the Giulia uses a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, featuring an 50% front and 50% rear weight distribution.
Suspension is independent all-around, of the double wishbone type at the front and multilink at the rear. All Giulia models employ a carbon-fibre drive shaft made by Hitachi Automotive Systems, as well as aluminium alloy shock towers, suspension components, front wings and doors. Four-wheel drive models will be offered. Depending on trim level it has a 6.5-inch or 8.8-inch colour display, optional Sport and Luxury Packs are available. The sport package includes sports steering wheel with added grip, aluminium inserts on the dashboard, centre console and door panels, Xenon headlights; the luxury package offers premium leather wood trim. The performance package includes mechanical limited-slip differential along with electronic suspension and paddle shifters on the steering column in the cars equipped with an automatic transmission; the base model Giulia, mid-level Super, loaded Speciale are powered by a 200 PS gasoline engine, or the choice of 150 PS or 180 PS turbo diesel engine. The base model comes with 16 inch alloys, the Super can be distinguished with 17 inch alloys and dual chrome exhaust tip for the diesel model.
The Speciale has 18 inch alloys, black brake calipers, leather sports seats from the Veloce. The Giulia Veloce was presented at the 2016 Paris International Motor Show held in October; the Veloce offers the choice of two engines: the 2.0-litre turbo petrol and the 2.2-litre diesel inline-4 engines, both equipped with an 8-speed automatic transmission and Alfa Q4 all-wheel drive system. The Veloce has a glossy black door trim. On the interior, it has black, red or tan leather sport seats and a sports steering wheel with a suede grip, aluminium inserts on the dashboard, central tunnel, door panels and Xenon headlights; the new petrol straight-4 engine produces a maximum power output of 280 PS at 5,250 rpm and a maximum torque of 400 N⋅m at 2,250 rpm. It has MultiAir electro-hydraulic valve activation system along with "2-in-1" " turbocharger system and direct injection with a 200-bar high pressure system; the 210 PS diesel all aluminum straight-4 engine comes with MultiJet II technology and electrically operated variable geometry turbocharger.
The Alfa Q4 all wheel drive system behaves like a rear-wheel drive vehicle: 100% of torque is distributed to the rear axle. As it reaches the wheel adherence limit, the system transfers up to 60% of the torque to the front axle. To ensure maximum speed of response in re-distributing torque, the system exploits a high mechanical over slippage between the two axles, which translates into segment-beating vehicle control in terms of traction and directional stability on bends; the new trim level between Veloce and Quadrifoglio was introduced at the 2018 Goodwood Festival of Speed, sitting between the standard Veloce and the high-powered Quadrifoglio models. Its exterior design is inspired by the Quadrifoglio with an optional carbon fibre pack; the high-performance Giulia Quadrifoglio was the first model in the new Giulia range. It was unveiled at Italy in June 2015, it made its official international debut at the 2015 Frankfurt Motorshow. The Quadrifoglio's main competitors are cars such as the Mercedes-AMG C63, BMW M3 and Cadillac ATS-V.
The Quadrifoglio is powered by an all-aluminium alloy, twin-turbocharged gasoline direct injection 90° V6 engine, with a single-cylinder displacement of just under half a litre, for a total of 2,891 cc (176.4 cu
Alfa Romeo 1900
The Alfa Romeo 1900 is an automobile produced by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1950 to 1959. Designed by Orazio Satta, it was an important development for Alfa Romeo as the marque's first car built on a production line and first production car without a separate chassis, it was the first Alfa Romeo offered with left-hand drive. The car was introduced at the 1950 Paris Motor Show; the 1900 was offered in two-door or four-door models, with a new 1,884 cc, 90 bhp, 4-cylinder twin cam engine. It was quick and sporty; the slogan Alfa used when selling it was "The family car that wins races", not-so-subtly alluding to the car's success in the Targa Florio, Stella Alpina, other competitions. In 1951, the short wheelbase 1900C version was introduced, it had a wheelbase of 2,500 mm. In the same year the 1900TI with a more powerful 100 bhp engine was introduced, it had bigger valves, a higher compression ratio and it was equipped with a double carburetor. Two years the 1900 Super and 1900 TI Super with 1975 cc engine were introduced.
The TI Super had 115 bhp. Transmission was a 4-speed manual on basic versions and 5-speed manual in Super Sprint version, the brakes were drum brakes; the 1900 live rear axle. Production at the company's Milan plant continued until 1959: a total of 21,304 were built, including 17,390 of the saloons; the chassis was designed to allow coachbuilders to rebody it, the most notable of, the Zagato designed, 1900 Super Sprint coupé, with an improved engine and custom body design. The Alfa Romeo 1900M AR51 is a four-wheel drive off-road vehicle based on the 1900-series. Iginio Alessio general manager of Alfa Romeo, was concerned for the viability of the independent Italian Coachbuilding industry–the advent of the unibody chassis design was threatening to put the carrozzerie out of business. Alessio was a personal friend of Gaetano Ponzoni co-owner of Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera, thus from 1951-1958 Alfa Romeo built five different variations of the 1900 unibody chassis for independent coachbuilders.
Alfa Romeo gave official contracts to Touring to build the sporty 1900 Sprint coupé and to Pinin Farina to build an elegant four seat Cabriolet and Coupé. The availability of a suitable chassis led to many other coachbiulders to build versions of the 1900. Carrozzeria Zagato built a small series of coupés with the unofficial designation of 1900 SSZ, designed for racing with an aerodynamic lightweight aluminium body and Zagato's trademark double bubble roof. One-off specials where numerous from the famous Bertone BAT series of aerodynamic studies, to an infamous sci-fi like Astral spider designed by Carrozzeria Boneschi for Rafael Trujillo the dictator of the Dominican Republic. There was a Barchetta or "Boat Car" made by Ghia-Aigle in Lugano Switzerland designed by Giovanni Michelotti at the request of a wealthy Italian who had two passions: the'Riva' boats and a woman, his mistress, the car has no doors or windscreen wipers. Below is a sortable list of coachbuilt Alfa Romeo 1900s. In 1954, Alfa Romeo made two coupés using similar chassis as the C52 Disco Volante.
In Bertone, Franco Scaglione penned a coupé and a spider. The coupé was known as 2000 Sportiva, it has 138 horsepower. The acceleration is on par with most contemporary exotics and top speed is around 137 mph. Industrias Kaiser Argentina produced between 1960 and 1962 a car named IKA Bergantin in Argentina, the body and suspension was from the 1900 Berlina and engines were from the Willys line, the 4-L 151 cu in and the 6-L 226 cu in. Alfa Romeo 1900 Register
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia is the name of three not directly related models by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. The first is a line of sporty four-door compact executive cars produced from 1962 to 1978, the second is an updated up-engined Spider and Sprint Speciale Giuliettas, the third Giulia is a compact executive car unveiled in 2015. Alfa Romeo was one of the first mainstream manufacturers to put a powerful engine in a light-weight 1 tonne four-door car for mass production; the Type 105 Giulia was equipped with a light alloy twin overhead camshaft four-cylinder engine similar to that of the earlier Giulietta range, available in 1.3-litre and 1.6-litre versions. Various configurations of carburetors and tuning produced power outputs from about 80 to about 110 bhp, coupled in most cases to 5-speed manual transmission. Giulia sedans were noted for lively handling and impressive acceleration among small European four-door sedans of their era considering modest engine sizes offered; the popular Super version with the twin carburettor 1.6 litre engine had a top speed of 170 km/h and accelerated from 0 to 100 km/h in about 12 seconds, better than many sports cars of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
When leaving the factory all variations of the Giulia fitted either Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres or Pirelli Cinturato 155HR15 tyres. The styling of the boxy four-door notchback saloon was somewhat wanting; the engine bay and boot were all square shaped, buffered somewhat by details on the grill, roofline and boot. Use of a wind tunnel during development led to a aerodynamic shape that produced a drag coefficient of Cd=0.34 low for a saloon of the era. The Giulia Spider was succeeded by the Alfa Romeo Spider in 1966. Note: chassis and engine type numbers displayed in italic for each model are sourced from Fusi 1978, pages 841–848. Tipo: 105.14, 105.08, 105.09. Engine: 00514. Unveiled on 27 June 1962 at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI was the first of the Giulia family of cars to be introduced, its 1,570 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was fitted with a single Solex 33 PAIA 7 twin-choke down-draft carburettor, produced 92 DIN-rated PS or 106 SAE-rated PS at 6,200 rpm. The "TI" nomenclature referred to a class of Italian saloon car racing known as "Turismo Internazionale", had been applied to higher-performance versions of the 1900 and Giulietta saloons in the 1950s.
However, for the Giulia saloon, the TI was at first the only version available, with the introduction of the TI Super and Super, the TI became the base version in the 1.6-litre engine class. A distinguishing feature of the original Giulia were drum brakes on all corners, the front ones of the three-shoe type like on late Giuliettas; the car was marketed as a six-seater, thanks to a standard column-mounted shifter and a split bench front seat—though Italian car magazine Quattroruote found it rather a comfortable four-seater. Other notable interior features of the early models were mottled cloth and vinyl upholstery, a grey, trapezoid instrument panel including a strip speedometer, a black steering wheel with two ivory-coloured spokes and a chrome half horn ring. In May 1964 a floor shifter became available, to be ordered in conjunction with the newly introduced separate front seats. Around the same time a right hand drive model variant entered production, with floor shifter only. In February 1966 several changes were made.
The floor shifter became standard. From outside these TIs can be recognized by L-shaped chrome strips around the tail lights which supplanted the previous C-shaped ones. Production of the Giulia TI ceased during 1967. Tipo: 105.16. Engine: 00516; the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI Super was a special road-going sports model produced in limited numbers, fitted with a more powerful engine and a number of weight saving components, intended for racing use. It was introduced to the press at the Monza race track on 24 April 1963. In total only 501 were made, 178 in 1963 and 323 1964. On 2 May 1964 the TI Super received international FIA and Italian CSAI homologation for racing, was extensively campaigned in the European Touring Car Challenge. Today the Giulia TI Super is rare and considered desirable by collectors; the TI Super's 1,570 cc engine was the same installed on the Giulia Sprint Speciale coupé—though bearing a different type code. It was fitted with two twin-choke horizontal Weber 45 DCOE 14 carburettors and, as on the Sprint Speciale, produced 112 DIN-rated PS or 129 SAE-rated PS at 6,500 rpm, pushing top speed to over 185 km/h.
Dry weight was 910 kilograms compared to 1,000 kg of the standard Giulia TI. Parts contributing to the weight reduction were mesh grilles replacing the inner pair of head lamps, bumpers without overriders, fixed front quarter windows, Plexiglas rear windows, magnesium alloy wheels with hubcaps similar in appearance to the standard steel wheels of the TI. Braking was by discs all around. Cars built from August 1964 used the bodyshell of the TI with mounting points for the brake servo, but wer