An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Gruppo Bertone known as Bertone, was an Italian automobile company, which specialized in car styling and manufacturing. Bertone styling is distinctive, with most cars having a strong "family resemblance" if they are badged by different manufacturers. Bertone has styled cars for Abarth, Alfa Romeo, Aston Martin, Citroën, Ferrari, FIAT, Lancia, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo, among others. In addition, the Bertone studio was responsible for two of the designs of the Lambretta motorscooter. In the late 1980s, Bertone styled the K20 motorcycle helmet for Swiss bicycle and motorcycle helmet manufacturer Kiwi; the company was based in Grugliasco in northern Italy. Gruppo Bertone was founded as Carrozzeria Bertone in 1912 by Giovanni Bertone. Designer Nuccio Bertone took charge of the company after World War II and the company was divided into two units: Carrozzeria for manufacturing and Stile Bertone for styling; until its bankruptcy in 2014, the company was headed by the widow of Lilli Bertone. After its bankruptcy, the Bertone name was retained by some of its former employees who continued as a Milan-based design company, Bertone Design.
Giovanni Bertone started a carriage manufacturing business in Turin, at the age of 28. Along with three workers, he built horse-drawn vehicles. In the first decades of the 20th century, cars were not common; the road traffic was dominated by horse-drawn carriages and the coaches built by the young Bertone were regarded for their accuracy and solidity. In 1914, Giuseppe Bertone, nicknamed "Nuccio", the second son of Giovanni Bertone, was born; this nickname became known as the signature to Nuccio, one of the greatest Italian style masters in the world. The outbreak of the first world war triggered a major crisis of the young Italian industrial sector and affected Giovanni Bertone, forced to close his company. At the end of the First World War, Bertone's business restarted and expanded its activities, began focusing on the automotive sector. In 1920, a new plant was opened near the Monginevro 119 in Turin. Twenty people were on the payroll. One year the first important contract was signed to the company.
This was a torpedo styled body based on the SPA 23S chassis. The FIAT "501 Sport Siluro Corsa," the first of a family of models that would characterize the brand in the years to come, was designed. With that, the high performance sport car was born. During the 1920s, Turin was represented as one of the worldwide centers of excellence of the car industry. Bertone was sitting on the hub of it and formed partnerships with all the manufacturers of the day. Giovanni Bertone began doing bodywork on the Fast, Aurea, SCAT and Diatto chassis; the most important and long lasting relationships were those with the two biggest Turin manufacturers: FIAT and Lancia. Vincenzo Lancia realised straight away that Giovanni Bertone was an outstanding skilled craftsman with a great future ahead of him. Affectionately nicknaming him "Bertunot", he commissioned Bertone to create complete car bodies, above all for the limited series that the companies of the day were not always equipped to manufacture; this was Bertone's first opportunity to carry out limited production of special cars on standard mechanical bases, was the beginning of a great industrial experience.
These are exciting years for Bertone himself, for the evolution of industrial style and design. The car body shapes are but continuously changing, angular shapes begin to fade, wings start to be joined together. Giovanni Bertone produced torpedo and saloon bodies for FIAT and Lancia, for Itala, Diatto and SPA, he worked on commissions for private customers eager for exclusivity. Alongside sports models like the 1928 Ansaldo 6BS, Giovanni Bertone designed luxury cars like the Fiat 505 limousine and the Itala 51S, both in 1924, he designed the Lancia Lambda VIII Series in 1928. Despite the fact that the depression of 1929 had brought many Turin carmakers to their knees, Giovanni Bertone's shrewd management allowed the company to carry on creating cars with great appeal. In 1932, Giovanni designed the imposingly elegant Lancia Artena, produced until 1936. In 1933; this was that Nuccio Bertone, nineteen at the time began working in his father's company. In the same period, Bertone began working on commercial vehicles, as the business grew, new premises were needed.
The company moved to Corso Peschiera 225. Gruppo Bertone now had fifty members of staff. In 1934, Bertone created the Fiat 527S Ardita 2500, a turning point in car design, with some incredible new details such as the stunning front headlights with fairing along the bonnet. With the Ardita a new kind of style was created, destined to take off towards the end of the decade, with FIAT and Lancia models astounding for their day. Examples were the'six window' FIAT 1500 Aerodinamica, the opulent Lancia Aprilia Cabriolet and the novel Fiat 1500 Torpedo, with structural features that had never been seen before, such as the fold-away hood which stowed away inside the car. With Giovanni's bold innovations and elegant creations, he was appreciated by car experts and fans. With the outbreak of the Second World War, the car market experienced a drastic downturn. All the bodywork manufacturers, including Bertone, reacted to the crisis by turning to military vehicles of various kinds; the company created vehicles such as the Bertone ambulance on a Lancia Artena base.
It was a hard time. The demand was scarce. Raw materials and labour was lacking. Military orders where difficult to fulfill, but production did not stop in the Corso Peschier
The SSZ Stradale is an automobile developed by Tom Zatloukal, an Alfa Romeo racer and restorer, produced between 1984 and 1999. SSZ stands for Sprint Speciale Zatloukal. Based on the Giulietta SS, the aim was to produce a high performance version with a lightweight and wider body than the standard production SS; the original intent had been to produce a one-off vehicle for personal use. The car was well received at Alfa club events and Alfa historian Pat Braden nicknamed the car "The Zatmobile" and published photos in Alfa Owner magazine. A second car was built for author of the Alfa Romeo Buyers Guide. After several other people expressed interest in purchasing a car, SSZ Motorcars was born. A total of four prototypes were produced on Alfa 101 Sprint Speciale chassis. SSZ P1 has a steel body, 3" wider and 4" lower than a standard SS, with a traditional hood and trunk. P2 incorporated a one piece, fiberglass tilt front, perplex windows, other lightweight components; the third prototype had tilt front and rear, side air outlets, a new taillight configuration and an elongated greenhouse.
P4 added wider wheel wells and a mono wiper. Only P1 and P2 still exist as P3 was destroyed during testing and P4 was disassembled to pattern parts for the production cars; the first production SSZ Stradale featured an all new tubular chassis combined with a Kevlar reinforced fiberglass body. These cars were powered by an Alfa Romeo 3.0 V6 engine with a 5-speed overdrive transmission coupled to an adjustable ratio live axle. Four wheel 12" driver adjustable brakes, adjustable coil over suspension and pinion steering and rear adjustable sway bars, fuel cell and fire system were standard features. Although the chassis and suspension were the same, as the Mark 1 cars, the power was increased to over 500 hp by utilizing a Nissan 3.0, four valve, turbo charged engine. The transmission and rear axle were upgraded; the body was widened, a front spoiler added and a new rear clip was incorporated to increase downforce. Five Mark 2 cars are known to have been produced. Mark 3 cars were prepared in competition version only.
The Electromotive 3.0 twin turbo engine developed 1000 horsepower. The cars had independent rear suspension and inboard disc brakes. A full flat bottom with rear diffuser, air jacks and data acquisition were fitted; the body was wider and was delivered with adjustable front and rear wings. The car weighed 2000 pounds in FIA GT2 trim. Mark 3.1 autos had the same body as the 3.0 sans wings. The engines were Chevrolet LS6 aluminum V8s coupled to a Richmond 5-speed; the wheels were changed to a traditional 5-bolt pattern. Like the 3.0, the auto was available without engine. Several cars have been converted street use; these cars were mechanically the same as the 3.1. The body and chassis were 4 inches longer for high speed stability. Racing development was discontinued at the end of the 1999 season due to upheaval within the sanctioning bodies. Stradales were campaigned in SCCA, USRRC, FIA GT, World Challenge, Sports Car. Mark 1 and 2 cars won numerous events in SCCA club racing including the Continental Challenge and 5 track records.
Elvira, the first Mk 3 auto, set three track records, had seven wins and placed fifth in the United States Road Racing Championship. Stradales have competed in oval track, drag race, rally racing and hill climb events with some success. Years produced: 1984 - 1999; the Motorama Auto Museum features over fifty vintage Alfa Romeos, several SSZ Stradales, rare Prototypes, other unique cars from around the world
A classic car is an older automobile. The common theme is of an older car with enough historical interest to be collectable and worth preserving or restoring rather than scrapping. Cars 20 years and older fall into the classic class. Organizations such as the Classic Car Club of America and the Antique Automobile Club of America maintain a list of eligible unmodified cars that are called "classic"; these are described as "fine" or "distinctive" automobile, either American or foreign built, produced between 1915 and 1948. Post–World War II "classic cars" are not defined and the term is applied to any older vehicle. Cars 100 years and older fall into the antique class and this includes the "Brass Era car" that are defined by the Horseless Carriage Club of America as "any pioneer gas and electric motor vehicle built or manufactured prior to January 1, 1916."The "classic" term is applied loosely by owners to any car. Most states have time-based rules for the definition of "historic" or "classic" for purposes such as antique vehicle registration.
For example, Maryland defines historic vehicles as 20 calendar years old or older and they "must not have been altered, remodeled or remanufactured from the manufacturers original design" while West Virginia defines motor vehicles manufactured at least 25 years prior to the current year as eligible for "classic" car license plates. Despite this, at many American classic car shows, automobiles range from the 1920s to the 1970s. Many 1980s and early 1990s cars are considered being "classic automobiles". Examples of cars at such shows include the Chevrolet Bel-Air, Ford Model T, Dodge Charger, Ford Deuce Coupe, 1949 Ford. Meanwhile, the Concours d'Elegance car shows feature prestigious automobiles such as the Cadillac V16 or pre-1940 Rolls-Royce models. There are terms as "modern customs", "exotics", or "collectibles" that cover cars such as the AMC Gremlin or Ford Pinto. There are differences in the exact identification of a "classic car". Division by separate eras include: horseless carriages, antique cars, classic cars.
Some include muscle cars, with the 1974 model year as the cutoff. The Classic Car Club of America describes a CCCA Classic as a "fine" or "distinctive" automobile, either American or foreign built, produced between 1915 and 1948; the CCCA is dedicated to the preservation and enjoyment of select cars that "are distinguished by their respective fine design, high engineering standards and superior workmanship." Other differentiating factors - including engine displacement, custom coachwork, luxury accessories such as power brakes, power clutch, "one-shot" or automatic lubrication systems - help determine whether a car is considered a CCCA Classic. The cars on their list "represent the pinnacle of engineering and design for their era."Any CCCA member may petition for a vehicle to join the list. Such applications are scrutinized, but is a new vehicle type admitted. Moreover, no commercial vehicles such as hearses, ambulances, or race cars are accepted as a Full Classic; the CCCA maintains this definition of "classic car" and uses terms such as CCCA Classic or the trademarked Full Classic.
The CCCA has estimated. The Antique Automobile Club of America recognizes "motorized vehicles 25 years old or older, which were built in factories and designed and manufactured for transportation use on public roadways and highways." Judging by the AACA evaluates such vehicles to be in historic or that have "been restored to the same state as the dealer could have prepared the vehicle for delivery to the customer." Specified AACA classic vehicles include "fine or unusual domestic or foreign automobiles built between and including the years 1925 and 1942." There is no fixed definition of a classic car. Two taxation issues do impact however. All cars built over 40 years ago are exempted from paying the annual road tax vehicle excise duty. HM Revenue and Customs define a classic car for company taxation purposes as being over 15 years old and having a value in excess of £15,000. Additionally, popular acclaim through classic car magazines can play an important role in whether a car comes to be regarded as a classic but the definition remains subjective and a matter of opinion.
The elimination of depreciation can be a reason for buying a classic car and picking'future classics' that are current'bangers' can result in a profit for the buyer as well as providing transport. An immaculate well cared for prestige model with high running costs that impacts its value, but is not yet old enough to be regarded as a classic, could be a good buy, for example. Classic cars are subject to various types of fraud, most notably provenance fraud, where owners falsify documentation and serial numbers in order to make a car's history seem more colorful and historic. Fraud assumes the form of knowingly inflating a car's estimated resale value, as was referenced in court proceedings relating to JD Classics, hitherto one of the UK's largest and best-known classic car dealers prior to its collapse in 2018. There was a worldwide change in styling trends in the immediate years after the end of World War II; the 1946 Crosley and Kaiser-Frazer, for example, changed the traditional discrete replaceable-fender treatment.
From this point on, automobiles of all kinds became envelope bodies in basic plan. The CCCA term, "antique car" has been confined to "the functionally traditional desig
Alfa Romeo Tonale Concept
The Alfa Romeo Tonale Concept is a 2+2 seat concept car from the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo, unveiled in March 2019 at the Geneva Motor Show. The Tonale Concept is a C-segment compact SUV, featuring a plug in hybrid drivetrain from the Jeep Renegade, with a front mounted petrol engine and a rear-mounted electric motor; the Tonale has D. N. A Alfa Romeo driving selector with modes: Dual Power mode for maximum performance, Natural mode for everyday use and Advanced Efficiency setting will only use electric propulsion. E-mozione button on the touchscreen further tailors throttle settings, braking response, steering feel; the Tonale Concept is named after a Tonale Pass mountain in Northern Italy. The front of the car has three-plus-three LED headlights evocative of those on the SZ and Brera
A coupé or coupe is a two-door car with a fixed roof. In the 21st century there are four-door cars with a coupé-like roofline sold as "four door coupés" or "quad coupés". Coupé was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats; the coupé name is a French language word, the past participle of the verb couper, translating as cut. There are two common pronunciations in English: koo-PAY, the anglicized version of the French pronunciation of coupé. KOOP in American English, due to people spelling the word without the acute accent, which resulted in them pronouncing it as one syllable; this change occurred and before World War II. This pronunciation is more common in the United States, for example the hot rodders' term Deuce Coupe used to refer to a 1932 Ford; the origin of the coupé body style come from the berline horse-drawn carriage. In the 18th century, the coupé version of the berline was introduced, a shortened version with no rear-facing seat. A coupé had a fixed glass window in the front of the passenger compartment.
The term "berline coupé" was shortened to "coupé". The coupé was considered to be an ideal vehicle for women to use to go shopping or to make social visits; the early coupé automobile's passenger compartment followed in general conception the design of horse-drawn coupés, with the driver in the open at the front and an enclosure behind him for two passengers on one bench seat. The French variant for this word thus denoted a car with a small passenger compartment. By the 1910s, the term had evolved to denote a two-door car with the driver and up to two passengers in an enclosure with a single bench seat; the coupé de ville, or coupé chauffeur, was an exception, retaining the open driver's section at front. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers suggested nomenclature for car bodies that included the following: Coupe: An enclosed car operated from the inside with seats for two or three and sometimes a backward-facing fourth seat. Coupelet: A small car seating two or three with a folding top and full height doors with retractable windows.
Convertible coupe: A roadster with a removable coupé roof. During the 20th century, the term coupé was applied to various close-coupled cars. Since the 1960s the term coupé has referred to a two-door car with a fixed roof. Since 2005, several models with four doors have been marketed as "four-door coupés", however reactions are mixed about whether these models are sedans instead of coupés. According to Edmunds, the American online resource for automotive information, "the four-door coupe category doesn't exist." A coupé is a two-door fixed roof car but some manufacturers manage to fit four doors beneath coupe roofs and now describe these cars as four-door coupes. In 1977, International Standard ISO 3833-1977 defined a coupé as having a closed body with limited rear volume, a fixed roof of which a portion may be openable, at least two seats in at least one row, two side doors and a rear opening, at least two side windows. Coupés have been described as "any two-door other than a two-door sedan, smaller than a related four-door in the same model line", "shorter than a sedan of the same model" and that "all two-door two-seaters with a solid roof are coupes."Today, coupé is sometimes used by manufacturers as a marketing term, rather than a technical description of a body style.
This is because coupés in general are seen as more streamlined and sportier overall lines than those of comparable four-door sedans. Automobile manufacturers have therefore begun to use the term loosely, marketing sporty four-door models that feature sloping rooflines as coupés. Manufacturers have used the term "coupé" with reference to several varieties, including: A Berlinetta is a lightweight sporty two-door car with two-seats but including 2+2 cars. A two-door car with no rear seat or with a removable rear seat intended for travelling salespeople and other vendors carrying their wares with them. American manufacturers developed this style of coupe in the late 1930s. A two-door car with a larger rear-seat passenger area, compared with the smaller rear-seat area in a 2+2 body style. Saab uses the term combi coupé for a car body similar to the liftback. A four-door car with a coupé-like roofline at the rear; the low-roof design reduces headroom. The designation, first applied to a low-roof model of the Rover P5 from 1962 until 1973, was revived with the 1985 Toyota Carina ED, the 1992 Infiniti J30 and most with the first model 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS.
The term originated for marketing reasons. The German press accepted the concept of a four-door coupé and applied it to similar models from other manufacturers such as the 2009 Jaguar XJ. Other manufacturers accepted it, producing recent competing models like Volkswagen Passat CC, BMW F06 and a five-door coupé, the Audi A7; the German automobile club ADAC on its website adopted this concept. In Germany, the definition of the coupé was divided into the classic coupé and 4-door coupé. A two-door designed for driving to the opera with easy access to the rear seats. Features sometimes included a folding front seat next to the driver or a compartment to store top hats, they would have solid rear-quarter panels, with small, circular windows, to enable the occupants to see out without being seen. These opera windows were revived on many U. S. automobiles during the 1970s and early 1980s. A quad coupé is two small rear doors and no B pillar; the three window coupé (commonly jus