Rack and pinion
A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a circular gear engaging a linear gear, which operate to translate rotational motion into linear motion. Driving the pinion into rotation causes the rack to be driven linearly. Driving the rack linearly will cause the pinion to be driven into a rotation. For example, in a rack railway, the rotation of a pinion mounted on a locomotive or a railcar engages a rack between the rails and forces a train up a steep slope. For every pair of conjugate involute profile, there is a basic rack; this basic rack is the profile of the conjugate gear of infinite pitch radius. A generating rack is a rack outline used to indicate tooth details and dimensions for the design of a generating tool, such as a hob or a gear shaper cutter. Rack and pinion combinations are used as part of a simple linear actuator, where the rotation of a shaft powered by hand or by a motor is converted to linear motion; the rack carries the full load of the actuator directly and so the driving pinion is small, so that the gear ratio reduces the torque required.
This force, thus torque, may still be substantial and so it is common for there to be a reduction gear before this by either a gear or worm gear reduction. Rack gears have a higher ratio, thus require a greater driving torque, than screw actuators. Most stairlifts today operate using the pinion system. A rack and pinion is found in the steering mechanism of cars or other wheeled, steered vehicles. Rack and pinion provides less mechanical advantage than other mechanisms such as recirculating ball, but less backlash and greater feedback, or steering "feel"; the mechanism may be power-assisted by hydraulic or electrical means. The use of a variable rack was invented by Arthur Ernest Bishop in the 1970s, so as to improve vehicle response and steering "feel," at high speeds, he created a low cost press forging process to manufacture the racks, eliminating the need to machine the gear teeth. Rack railways are mountain railways that use a rack built into the center of the track and a pinion on their locomotives.
This allows them to work on steep gradients, up to 45 degrees, as opposed to conventional railways which rely on friction alone for locomotion. Additionally, the rack and pinion addition provides these trains with controlled brakes, reduces the effects of snow or ice on the rails. A rack and pinion with two racks and one pinion is used in actuators. An example is pneumatic rack and pinion actuators that can be used to control valves in pipeline transport; the actuators in the picture on the right are used to control the valves of large water pipeline. In the top actuator, a gray control signal line can be seen connecting to a solenoid valve, used as the pilot for the actuator; the solenoid valve controls the air pressure coming from the input air line. The output air from the solenoid valve is fed to the chamber in the middle of the actuator, increasing the pressure; the pressure in the actuator's chamber pushes the pistons away. While the pistons are moving apart from each other, the attached racks are moved along the pistons in the opposite directions of the two racks.
The two racks are meshed to a pinion at the direct opposite teeth of the pinion. When the two racks move, the pinion is turned, causing the attached main valve of the water pipe to turn. A rack gear, curved is called an arcuate rack; the term appears in many patent applications. List of gear nomenclature Sprocket
A roadster is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. An American term for a two-seat car with no weather protection, usage has spread internationally and has evolved to include two-seat convertibles; the roadster was a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500, in the 1950s and 1960s. This type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars; the term "roadster" originates in the United States, where it was used in the nineteenth century to describe a horse suitable for travelling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include tricycles. In 1916, the United States Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as: "an open car seating two or three, it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck." Due to it having a single row of seats, the main seat for the driver and passenger was further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car. Roadsters had a hooded dashboard.
In the United Kingdom the preferred terms were "open two-seater" and "two-seat tourer". Since the 1950s, the term "roadster" has been used in the United Kingdom, it is noted that the optional 4-seat variant of the Morgan Roadster would not be technically considered a roadster. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, or other weather protection. By the 1920s they were appointed to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, side curtains. Roadster bodies were offered on automobiles of all sizes and classes, from mass-produced cars like the Ford Model T and the Austin 7 to expensive cars like the Cadillac V-16, the Duesenberg Model J and Bugatti Royale. 1920s to 1950s roadsters By the 1970s "roadster" could be applied to any two-seater car of sporting appearance or character. In response to market demand they were manufactured as well-equipped as convertibles with side windows that retracted into the doors. Popular models through the 1960s and 1970s were the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB and Triumph TR4.
1950s to 1980s roadsters The highest selling roadster is the Mazda MX-5, introduced in 1989. The early style of roadster with minimal weather protection is still in production by several low-volume manufacturers and fabricators, including the windowless Morgan Roadster, the doorless Caterham 7 and the bodyless Ariel Atom. 1990s to present day roadsters The term roadster was used to describe a style of racing cars competing in the AAA/USAC Championship Cars series from 1952 to 1969. The roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car; this allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset, beneficial on oval tracks. One story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a "roadster" is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500, they had it covered in a corner of their shop. If they were asked about their car they would try and obscure its importance by saying that it was just their "roadster". After the Indianapolis racer was made public, the "roadster" name was still attached to it.
Frank Kurtis built the first roadster to race and entered it in the 1952 Indianapolis 500. It was driven by Bill Vukovich; the Howard Keck owned team with Vukovich driving went on to win the 1953 and 1954 contests with the same car. Bob Sweikert won the 1955 500 in a Kurtis. A. J. Watson, George Salih and Quinn Epperly were other notable roadster constructors. Watson-built roadsters won in 1956, 1959 - 1964 though the 1961 and 1963 winners were close copies built from Watson designs; the 1957 and 1958 winner was the same car built by Salih with help by Epperly built with a unique placement of the engine in a'lay down' mounting so the cylinders were nearly horizontal instead of vertical as traditional design dictated. This gave a lower center of gravity and a lower profile. Roadsters had disappeared from competition by the end of the 1960s, after the introduction, subsequent domination, of rear-engined machines. In 1965 Gordon Johncock brought the Wienberger Homes Watson to the finish in fifth place, the last top-ten roadster finish and the final time that a roadster finished the full distance of the race.
The last roadster to make the race was built and driven by Jim Hurtubise in the 1968 race and dropped out early. Hurtubise attempted to run the same car in 1969 but, while making his qualifying run at a good speed, the engine failed on the last of the four laps. Other classes of racing cars were built with the offset drive train and were referred to as roadsters; some pavement midgets roadsters raced into the early 1970s but never were dominant. Barchetta, a related two-seater body style designed for racing Convertible, the general term to describe vehicles with retractable roofs and retractable side windows Roadster utility Tonneau cover, a protective cover for the seats in an open car Media related to Roadsters at Wikimedia Commons
Ercole Spada is an Italian automobile designer. His most notable designs were produced in the 1960s, for the Zagato design studio house, where Spada was chief stylist. During this period some of the most notable sports cars by Aston Martin, Maserati, as well as Alfa Romeo, Abarth and Lancia were clothed by Spada's designs. Spada earned a degree in industrial engineering from Istituto tecnico Feltrinelli in 1956. Following a military service, he joined Zagato in February 1960; the first design created by Spada for Zagato was the Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato. Many avant-garde yet instantly-classic designs followed, soon becoming cornerstones of automotive design. Spada's designs were acknowledged as seminal by his fellow designers as well as by generations of new designers. One example of the attraction of Spada's work was the Mazda MX-3, which aimed to capture the magic of the Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ design, according to its creators. Shortly before leaving Zagato, Spada designed one of the most modern looking cars of the era, the Alfa Romeo Junior Z, as well as the popular and dramatic Lancia Fulvia Sport.
Spada joined Ford in 1970 to become chief designer at the Italian Ghia design house. This led to the creation of the ill-fated Ford GT70, which did not enter production at the last moment. After leaving Ford and following a short stay at Audi, Spada joined BMW's design center as chief stylist in 1976. During his stay with BMW, Spada created two major all-new designs with Claus Luthe, the BMW E32 7-series, the BMW E34 5-series. Both embraced similar classic yet progressive lines, contributing to the success of the German company. In 1983 Spada returned to lead an Italian design house, this time I. DE. A Institute, where he designed a string of compact and luxury cars, for Fiat – the groundbreaking Tipo and Tempra siblings, the Lancia Dedra and Delta II, the Kappa. Other projects included the Daihatsu Move. During his stay in I. DE. A Institute, Spada competed and won over major design contracts from Fiat, putting him in direct competition with his fellow Italian designer, Giorgetto Giugiaro. Returning to Zagato in 1992, Spada brought with him new creative energy, which led to the introduction of the Ferrari FZ93, based on a regular 512 TR mechanics, as well as other notable designs.
Spada continues to work as a designer. He has joined his son, Paulo Spada, to create Spadaconcept, a new design house aimed at automotive and industrial design. Notable designs: 1960 – Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato 1960 – Alfa Romeo Giulietta SZ 1960 – O. S. C. A 1600 GTZ 1962 – Alfa Romeo 2600 SZ 1962 – Lancia Flavia Sport 1963 – Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ 1963 – Lancia Flaminia Super Sport 1965 – Lancia Fulvia Sport 1967 – Rover 2000 TCZ 1969 – Alfa Romeo Junior Z 1969 – Volvo GTZ 2000 1970 – Ford GT70 1972 – Iso Varedo 1987 – BMW 7 Series 1988 – BMW 5 Series 1988 – Fiat Tipo 1989 – Lancia Dedra 1990 – Fiat Tempra 1992 – Alfa Romeo 155 1993 - Ferrari FZ93, renamed ES1 1993 – Lancia Delta II 1993 – Nissan Terrano II 1994 – Lancia Kappa 2001 - OSCA 2500 GT Dromos 2008 – Spada Codatronca Ercole Spada himself ERCOLE SPADA – 40 Years Devoted to Car Design, Car Styling Magazine, Volume 131 Penny Sparke, A Century of Car Design Paolo Tumminelli, Car Design Robert Edwards Aston Martin: Ever the Thoroughbred Michele Marchianò, Le Zagato – Fulvia Sport / Junior Z Carlo Stella and Bruno Vettore, Zagato Fulvia Sport Competizione Hilton Holloway and Martin Buckley, A–Z of Cars Winston Scott Goodfellow, Iso Rivolta: The Men, the Machines http://www.austin-rover.co.uk/index.htm?zagatoprotof.htm http://www.lanciaflavia.it/archivio_carrozzieri/zagato.php http://www.classicdriver.com/uk/magazine/3300.asp?id=13351 http://www.spadaconcept.com/ http://www.zagato.it/ http://www.zagato-cars.com/ https://web.archive.org/web/20080414182755/http://www.idea.institute.it/eng/ http://www.conceptcars.it/stilisti/spada.htm http://www.bmwism.com/bmws_designers.htm Ercole Spada on the page BMW Designers
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia is the name of three not directly related models by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. The first is a line of sporty four-door compact executive cars produced from 1962 to 1978, the second is an updated up-engined Spider and Sprint Speciale Giuliettas, the third Giulia is a compact executive car unveiled in 2015. Alfa Romeo was one of the first mainstream manufacturers to put a powerful engine in a light-weight 1 tonne four-door car for mass production; the Type 105 Giulia was equipped with a light alloy twin overhead camshaft four-cylinder engine similar to that of the earlier Giulietta range, available in 1.3-litre and 1.6-litre versions. Various configurations of carburetors and tuning produced power outputs from about 80 to about 110 bhp, coupled in most cases to 5-speed manual transmission. Giulia sedans were noted for lively handling and impressive acceleration among small European four-door sedans of their era considering modest engine sizes offered; the popular Super version with the twin carburettor 1.6 litre engine had a top speed of 170 km/h and accelerated from 0 to 100 km/h in about 12 seconds, better than many sports cars of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
When leaving the factory all variations of the Giulia fitted either Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres or Pirelli Cinturato 155HR15 tyres. The styling of the boxy four-door notchback saloon was somewhat wanting; the engine bay and boot were all square shaped, buffered somewhat by details on the grill, roofline and boot. Use of a wind tunnel during development led to a aerodynamic shape that produced a drag coefficient of Cd=0.34 low for a saloon of the era. The Giulia Spider was succeeded by the Alfa Romeo Spider in 1966. Note: chassis and engine type numbers displayed in italic for each model are sourced from Fusi 1978, pages 841–848. Tipo: 105.14, 105.08, 105.09. Engine: 00514. Unveiled on 27 June 1962 at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI was the first of the Giulia family of cars to be introduced, its 1,570 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was fitted with a single Solex 33 PAIA 7 twin-choke down-draft carburettor, produced 92 DIN-rated PS or 106 SAE-rated PS at 6,200 rpm. The "TI" nomenclature referred to a class of Italian saloon car racing known as "Turismo Internazionale", had been applied to higher-performance versions of the 1900 and Giulietta saloons in the 1950s.
However, for the Giulia saloon, the TI was at first the only version available, with the introduction of the TI Super and Super, the TI became the base version in the 1.6-litre engine class. A distinguishing feature of the original Giulia were drum brakes on all corners, the front ones of the three-shoe type like on late Giuliettas; the car was marketed as a six-seater, thanks to a standard column-mounted shifter and a split bench front seat—though Italian car magazine Quattroruote found it rather a comfortable four-seater. Other notable interior features of the early models were mottled cloth and vinyl upholstery, a grey, trapezoid instrument panel including a strip speedometer, a black steering wheel with two ivory-coloured spokes and a chrome half horn ring. In May 1964 a floor shifter became available, to be ordered in conjunction with the newly introduced separate front seats. Around the same time a right hand drive model variant entered production, with floor shifter only. In February 1966 several changes were made.
The floor shifter became standard. From outside these TIs can be recognized by L-shaped chrome strips around the tail lights which supplanted the previous C-shaped ones. Production of the Giulia TI ceased during 1967. Tipo: 105.16. Engine: 00516; the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI Super was a special road-going sports model produced in limited numbers, fitted with a more powerful engine and a number of weight saving components, intended for racing use. It was introduced to the press at the Monza race track on 24 April 1963. In total only 501 were made, 178 in 1963 and 323 1964. On 2 May 1964 the TI Super received international FIA and Italian CSAI homologation for racing, was extensively campaigned in the European Touring Car Challenge. Today the Giulia TI Super is rare and considered desirable by collectors; the TI Super's 1,570 cc engine was the same installed on the Giulia Sprint Speciale coupé—though bearing a different type code. It was fitted with two twin-choke horizontal Weber 45 DCOE 14 carburettors and, as on the Sprint Speciale, produced 112 DIN-rated PS or 129 SAE-rated PS at 6,500 rpm, pushing top speed to over 185 km/h.
Dry weight was 910 kilograms compared to 1,000 kg of the standard Giulia TI. Parts contributing to the weight reduction were mesh grilles replacing the inner pair of head lamps, bumpers without overriders, fixed front quarter windows, Plexiglas rear windows, magnesium alloy wheels with hubcaps similar in appearance to the standard steel wheels of the TI. Braking was by discs all around. Cars built from August 1964 used the bodyshell of the TI with mounting points for the brake servo, but wer
Alfa Romeo Alfasud
The Alfa Romeo Alfasud was a small family car, manufactured from 1971 to 1989 by Industria Napoletana Costruzioni Autoveicoli Alfa Romeo-Alfasud S.p. A of Italy, a new company owned by Alfa Finmeccanica; the company was based in the southern region of Italy as a part of the labour policy of the government. It is considered one of Alfa Romeo's most successful models, with 893,719 examples sold between 1972 and 1983, plus 121,434 Sprint coupé versions between 1976 and 1989. A common nickname for the car is ’Sud; the car went through two facelifts, the first in 1977 and the second one in 1980. Alfa Romeo had explored building a smaller front wheel drive car in the 1950s but it was not until 1967 that firm plans were laid down for an all-new model to fit in below the existing Alfa Romeo range, it was developed by Austrian Rudolf Hruska, who created a unique engineering package, clothed in a body styled by Giorgetto Giugiaro of ItalDesign. The car was built at a new factory at Pomigliano d'Arco in southern Italy, hence the car's name, Alfa Sud.
January 18, 1968, saw the registration at Naples of a new company named "Industria Napoletana Costruzioni Autoveicoli Alfa Romeo-Alfasud S.p. A.". 90% of the share capital was subscribed by Alfa Romeo and 10% by Finmeccanica, at that time the financial arm of the government controlled IRI. Construction work on the company's new state-sponsored plant at nearby Pomigliano d'Arco began in April 1968, on the site of an aircraft engine factory used by Alfa Romeo during the Second World War; the Alfasud was shown at the Turin Motor Show three years in 1971 and was praised by journalists for its styling. The four-door saloon featured a cutting-edge technology, following the technical scheme experimented in Lancia since 1960 on the Lancia Flavia, that is: a front wheel drive with Boxer of 1,186 cc water-cooled engine with a belt-driven overhead camshaft on each cylinder head, it featured an elaborate suspension setup for a car in its class:. Other unusual features for this size of car were four-wheel disc brakes, rack and pinion steering.
The engine design allowed the Alfasud to have a low bonnet line, making it aerodynamic for its day giving it a low centre of gravity. As a result of these design features, the car had excellent performance for its engine size, levels of road-holding and handling that would not be equalled in its class for another ten years. Despite its two-box shape, a hatchback was not part of the range; some of the controls were unorthodox, the lights, turn indicators, horn and heater fan all being operated by pulling, turning or pushing the two column stalks. In November 1973 the first Alfasud sport model joined the range, the two-door Alfasud ti—. Along with a 5-speed gearbox, it featured a more powerful version of the 1.2 litre engine, brought to 68 PS by adopting a Weber twin-choke carburettor, allowing the small saloon to reach 160 km/h. Quad round halogen headlamps, special wheels, a front body-colour spoiler beneath the bumper and rear black one around the tail distinguished the "ti", while inside there was a three-spoke steering wheel, auxiliary gauges, leatherette/cloth seats, carpets in place of rubber mats.
In 1974, Alfa Romeo launched a more upscale model, the Alfasud SE. The SE was replaced by the Alfasud L model introduced at the Bruxelles Motor Show in January 1975. Recognizable by its bumper overriders and chrome strips on the door sills and on the tail, the Lusso was better appointed than the standard Alfasud, with such features as cloth upholstery, padded dashboard with glove compartment and optional tachometer. A three-door estate model called the Alfasud Giardinetta was introduced in May 1975, with the same equipment of the Alfasud "L"; the Lusso model was produced until 1976, was replaced by the new Alfasud 5m model, the first four-door Alfasud with a five-speed gearbox. Presented at the March 1976 Geneva Motor Show, it was equipped like the Lusso. In September 1976, the Alfasud Sprint coupé was launched. Built on the same platform of the saloon, it featured lower, more angular bodywork, again by Giorgetto Giugiaro, featured a hatchback; the Sprint was powered by a new, more powerful Boxer, stroked from the 1.2 to displace 1,286 cc and develop 76 PS, was paired the five-speed gearbox.
The same 1286 cc engine was fitted into the 2-door saloon, creating the Alfasud ti 1.3, put on sale alongside the "ti" 1.2 in July 1977. In late 1977 the Alfasud Super replaced the range-topping four-door "5m", it was available with both the 1.2- and 1.3-litre engines from the "ti", though both were equipped with a single-choke carburettor. The Super introduced improvements both outside, with new bumpers including large plastic strips, inside, with a revised dashboard, new door cards and two-tone cloth seats. Similar upgrades were applied to the Giardinetta. In May 1978 the Sprint and "ti" got new engines, a 79 PS 1.3 and a 85 PS 1.5, both with a twin-choke carburettor. At the same time the Alfasud ti received cosmetic updates: bumpers from the Super, new rear spoiler on the boot lid, black wheel arch extensions and black front spoiler, was upgraded to the revised interior of the Super; the 1.3 and 1.5 engines were soon made available alongside the 1.2 on the Giardinetta and Super, with a lower output compared to the sport models, due to having a single-choke carburettor.
In 1979 the Sprint was given a double twin-choke carbur
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
Alfa Romeo Giulietta (940)
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta is a small family car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo. Giulietta production started towards the end of 2009 and the model was introduced at the March 2010 Geneva Motor Show. In a viability plan forwarded to the US Government in February 2009, Chrysler reported that the 147 replacement would come to market as the Milano and that it could be built in the USA. However, as of early 2010 Fiat was instead planning to concentrate on bringing larger models to the US, such as the Giulia; the Giulietta came in second place in the 2011 European Car of the Year awards. Between 2010 and 2019 over 400,000 Giuliettas were built, it is current top Alfa sales with about 32,000 cars per year. The 2010 Giulietta is available only as a 5-door hatchback; the Giulietta got its Italian dealer presentation on 22 and 23 May 2010. The Giulietta advertising campaign is made with Hollywood actress Uma Thurman; the end of the advert features the car's mottos -'I am Giulietta, I am such stuff as dreams are made on' and'Without heart, we would be mere machines'.
The platform used is Fiat Group’s Compact called as "C-Evo" during the planning stage. This is an all new platform. Fiat Group used around 100 million euros to re-engineer the C-platform used for the Fiat Stilo, Fiat Bravo and Lancia Delta, into C-Evo, it has a longer wheelbase, shorter overhangs and an advanced new type of MacPherson strut front suspension and multi-link rear suspension. Depending on the market and trim level, 16, 17, or 18 inch wheels are available. Available tire sizes are 205/55 R16, 225/45 R17, 225/40 R18; the wheels use a 5-hole pattern with a 110 mm bolt circle. The length of the Giulietta is around 4.3 metres. Only a five-door body is available for sale. At the 2013 Frankfurt International Motor Show Alfa Romeo presented an updated Giulietta. Trim changes include a new Uconnect infotainment system with 5" or 6.5" Radionav touchscreen, a new front grille, a chrome-plated frame for the fog lights, a new and more supportive seat design, new wheels, as well as new exterior colours: Moonlight Pearl, Anodizzato Blue and Bronze.
A new diesel engine variant has arrived, the two-litre JTDM 2, developing 150 PS and 380 N⋅m. In the 2014 range, all engines comply with Euro 5+ emission standards. Debuting at 2016 Geneva Motor Show, New Giulietta with facelifted front resembling Giulia and with new updated brand logo and new lettering. Trim line up will be changed to Giulietta Super and Giulietta Veloce. New body colour, new rims designs. Previous Giulietta QV will now be changed into sporty Veloce trim available with 240 PS engine and TCT transmission. Debuting will be a new 1.6 JTDm 120 PS TCT diesel engine. For 2019 Giulietta has updated engines, all Euro 6 D: a 1.4-litre 120 PS turbo petrol, a 1.6-litre 120 PS Multijet with manual or Alfa TCT automatic transmission, a 2.0-litre 170 PS Multijet with Alfa TCT. The top of the range model is a version with 1.75 L turbocharged TBi engine rated 235 PS, lowered ride height, 18-inch Spoke design alloy wheels with dark titanium finish and 225/40 R18 tires plus 18-inch 5 hole design alloy wheels as an option.
1750 is an engine size which has its roots in Alfa Romeo's history, with 1.75 L engines being used to power some of Alfa Romeo's first cars. The UK version is sold as the Giulietta Cloverleaf. In Geneva Motor Show Alfa Romeo introduced a new Quadrifoglio Verde, it has new 1,742 cc Turbo gasoline direct injection aluminium-block Inline-four engine now upgraded to 240 PS at 5750 rpm and 340 N⋅m at 2000 rpm of torque and Alfa TCT 6-speed twin dry clutch transmission borrowed from the Alfa Romeo 4C. With new engine the Giulietta's flagship can exceed 240 km/h and accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in only 6.0 seconds. This new facelifted version was premiered with a limited'Launch Edition', recognizable by the black-finish on the sills all round. Available in new matt Grigio Magnesio Opaco along with Rosso Alfa and Rosso Competizione; each car has its own numbered plaque. Around 700 units were made; the GTS Q2 is a version of Hong Kong market version GT Q2 with Sport Package. It includes the engine from 1.4 L TB MultiAir TCT, with a 6-speed TCT transmission.
It is a version using petrol fuel types. It includes Euro 5-compliant 1.4-litre turbo engine rated 120 PS at 5000 rpm and 206 N⋅m at 1750 rpm, three different trim levels for all European markets, 38-litre toroid type LPG tank at spare wheel housing, 6-speed manual transmission. The LPG version was unveiled in 2011 Bologna Motor Show. At Centro Sperimentale di Balocco in October 2014, Alfa Romeo launched a 60th anniversary edition of the Giulietta; the Giulietta Sprint pays homage to the 1954 Giulietta which promised good performance at an affordable price. The 2014 Giulietta Sprint features a unique 1.4-litre MultiAir petrol engine rated 152 PS at 5500 rpm and 250 N⋅m at 1750 rpm. Other changes include a carbon fibre effect interior trim, sporty exterior styling including side skirts, rear diffuser and oversized exhaust; the Squadra Corse TCT is a limited edition version of the Giulietta Quadrifoglio Verde made for