A hydraulic cylinder is a mechanical actuator, used to give a unidirectional force through a unidirectional stroke. It has many applications, notably in construction equipment, manufacturing machinery, civil engineering. Hydraulic cylinders get their power from pressurized hydraulic fluid, oil; the hydraulic cylinder consists of a cylinder barrel, in which a piston connected to a piston rod moves back and forth. The barrel is closed on one end by the cylinder bottom and the other end by the cylinder head where the piston rod comes out of the cylinder; the piston has sliding seals. The piston divides the inside of the cylinder into two chambers, the bottom chamber and the piston rod side chamber. Flanges, trunnions and lugs are common cylinder mounting options; the piston rod has mounting attachments to connect the cylinder to the object or machine component that it is pushing or pulling. A hydraulic cylinder is the actuator or "motor" side of this system; the "generator" side of the hydraulic system is the hydraulic pump which delivers a fixed or regulated flow of oil to the hydraulic cylinder, to move the piston.
The piston pushes the oil in the other chamber back to the reservoir. If we assume that the oil enters from cap end, during extension stroke, the oil pressure in the rod end / head end is zero, the force F on the piston rod equals the pressure P in the cylinder times the piston area A: F = P ⋅ A For double-acting single-rod cylinders, when the input and output pressures are reversed, there is a force difference between the two sides of the piston due to one side of the piston being covered by the rod attached to it; the cylinder rod reduces the surface area of the piston and reduces the force that can be applied for the retraction stroke. During the retraction stroke, if oil is pumped into the head at the rod end and the oil from the cap end flows back to the reservoir without pressure, the fluid pressure in the rod end is /: P = F p A p − A r where P is the fluid pressure, Fp is the pulling force, Ap is the piston face area and Ar is the rod cross-section area. For double-acting, double-rod cylinders, when the piston surface area is covered by a rod of equal size on both sides of the head, there is no force difference.
Such cylinders have their cylinder body affixed to a stationary mount. A hydraulic cylinder has the following parts: The main function of the cylinder body is to hold cylinder pressure; the cylinder barrel is made from a seamless tube. The cylinder barrel is ground and/or honed internally with a typical surface finish of 4 to 16 microinch,honing process and Skiving & Roller burnishing process are the two main types of processes for manufacturing cylinder tube; the piston reciprocates in the cylinder. The main function of the cap is to enclose the pressure chamber at one end; the cap is connected to the body by means of welding, bolts, or tie rod. Caps perform as cylinder mounting components. Cap size is determined based on the bending stress. A static seal / o-ring is used in between cap and barrel; the main function of the head is to enclose the pressure chamber from the other end. The head contains an integrated rod sealing the option to accept a seal gland; the head is connected to the body by means of bolts, or tie rod.
A static seal / o-ring is used in between head and barrel. The main function of the piston is to separate the pressure zones inside the barrel; the piston is machined with bearing elements. These seals can be single acting or double acting; the difference in pressure between the two sides of the piston causes the cylinder to extend and retract. The piston is attached with the piston rod by means of threads, bolts, or nuts to transfer the linear motion; the piston rod is a hard chrome-plated piece of cold-rolled steel which attaches to the piston and extends from the cylinder through the rod-end head. In double rod-end cylinders, the actuator has a rod extending from both sides of the piston and out both ends of the barrel; the piston rod connects the hydraulic actuator to the machine component doing the work. This connection can be in the form of a mounting attachment; the piston rod is ground and polished so as to provide a reliable seal and prevent leakage. The cylinder head is fitted with seals to prevent the pressurized oil from leaking past the interface between the rod and the head.
This area is called the seal gland. The advantage of a seal gland is easy seal replacement; the seal gland contains a primary seal, a secondary seal / buffer seal, bearing elements, wiper / scraper and static seal. In some cases in small hydraulic cylinders, the rod gland and the bearing elements are made from a single integral machined part; the seals are considered / designed as per the cylinder working pressure, cylinder speed, operating temperature, working medium and application. Piston seals are dynamic seals, they can be single acting or double acting. Speaking, Elastomer seals made from nitrile rubber, Polyurethane or other materials are best in lower temperature environments, while seals made of Fluorocarbon Viton are better for higher temperatures. Metallic seals are availab
Alfa Romeo Giulia (952)
The Alfa Romeo Giulia is a compact executive car produced by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. It was unveiled in June 2015, with market launch scheduled for February 2016, it is the first saloon offered by Alfa Romeo after the production of the 159 ended in 2011; the Giulia is the first mass-market Alfa Romeo vehicle in over two decades to use a longitudinal rear-wheel drive platform, since the 75, discontinued in 1992. The Giulia was second in 2017 European Car of the Year voting and was named Motor Trend Car of the Year for 2018; the car was designed at the Centro Stile Alfa Romeo, by a team headed by Marco Tencone and including Senior Exterior Designer, Andrea Loi. along with Interior Chief Designer, Inna Kondakova and Senior Interior Designer, Manuele Amprimo. The Giulia has been the subject of a long gestation and delayed launch dates due to the design being sent back to the drawing board by Sergio Marchionne, CEO of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the parent company of Alfa Romeo at the time.
The new Giulia was unveiled to the press at the Museo Storico Alfa Romeo in Arese, on 24 June 2015, at an event which involved only the top-of-the-range Quadrifoglio variant and a rendition of "Nessun dorma" by Italian tenor Andrea Bocelli. The occasion coincided with the company's 105th anniversary, saw the company debut a restyled logo for all future Alfa Romeo models; the Giulia was presented under the new La meccanica delle emozioni slogan. The Giulia is the first model in the company's relaunch plan, which involves a €5 billion investment for an eight car line-up and a worldwide sales target of 400,000 by 2018—up from 74,000 in 2013, it is underpinned by an all-new, longitudinal-engine, rear-wheel drive platform developed for Alfa Romeo—codenamed "Giorgio". Development of the Giulia, along with development of the entire "Giorgio" project, has been overseen by the technical director of Ferrari, Philippe Krief; the Giulia uses a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, featuring an 50% front and 50% rear weight distribution.
Suspension is independent all-around, of the double wishbone type at the front and multilink at the rear. All Giulia models employ a carbon-fibre drive shaft made by Hitachi Automotive Systems, as well as aluminium alloy shock towers, suspension components, front wings and doors. Four-wheel drive models will be offered. Depending on trim level it has a 6.5-inch or 8.8-inch colour display, optional Sport and Luxury Packs are available. The sport package includes sports steering wheel with added grip, aluminium inserts on the dashboard, centre console and door panels, Xenon headlights; the luxury package offers premium leather wood trim. The performance package includes mechanical limited-slip differential along with electronic suspension and paddle shifters on the steering column in the cars equipped with an automatic transmission; the base model Giulia, mid-level Super, loaded Speciale are powered by a 200 PS gasoline engine, or the choice of 150 PS or 180 PS turbo diesel engine. The base model comes with 16 inch alloys, the Super can be distinguished with 17 inch alloys and dual chrome exhaust tip for the diesel model.
The Speciale has 18 inch alloys, black brake calipers, leather sports seats from the Veloce. The Giulia Veloce was presented at the 2016 Paris International Motor Show held in October; the Veloce offers the choice of two engines: the 2.0-litre turbo petrol and the 2.2-litre diesel inline-4 engines, both equipped with an 8-speed automatic transmission and Alfa Q4 all-wheel drive system. The Veloce has a glossy black door trim. On the interior, it has black, red or tan leather sport seats and a sports steering wheel with a suede grip, aluminium inserts on the dashboard, central tunnel, door panels and Xenon headlights; the new petrol straight-4 engine produces a maximum power output of 280 PS at 5,250 rpm and a maximum torque of 400 N⋅m at 2,250 rpm. It has MultiAir electro-hydraulic valve activation system along with "2-in-1" " turbocharger system and direct injection with a 200-bar high pressure system; the 210 PS diesel all aluminum straight-4 engine comes with MultiJet II technology and electrically operated variable geometry turbocharger.
The Alfa Q4 all wheel drive system behaves like a rear-wheel drive vehicle: 100% of torque is distributed to the rear axle. As it reaches the wheel adherence limit, the system transfers up to 60% of the torque to the front axle. To ensure maximum speed of response in re-distributing torque, the system exploits a high mechanical over slippage between the two axles, which translates into segment-beating vehicle control in terms of traction and directional stability on bends; the new trim level between Veloce and Quadrifoglio was introduced at the 2018 Goodwood Festival of Speed, sitting between the standard Veloce and the high-powered Quadrifoglio models. Its exterior design is inspired by the Quadrifoglio with an optional carbon fibre pack; the high-performance Giulia Quadrifoglio was the first model in the new Giulia range. It was unveiled at Italy in June 2015, it made its official international debut at the 2015 Frankfurt Motorshow. The Quadrifoglio's main competitors are cars such as the Mercedes-AMG C63, BMW M3 and Cadillac ATS-V.
The Quadrifoglio is powered by an all-aluminium alloy, twin-turbocharged gasoline direct injection 90° V6 engine, with a single-cylinder displacement of just under half a litre, for a total of 2,891 cc (176.4 cu
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian luxury car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has been involved in car racing since 1911; the company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group. In February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy; the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and the Italian partners of the company hired Giuseppe Merosi to design new cars. On 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Merosi.
A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto. Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among, Alfa Romeo, through the "Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali". In 1925, the railway activities were separated from the Romeo company, in 1928, Nicola Romeo left. In 1933, the state ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolini's government, which had effective control; the company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models.
In 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. During the 1960s and 1970s, Alfa Romeo produced a number of sporty cars, but struggled to make a profit, so Istituto per la Reconstruzione, the state conglomerate that controls Finmeccanica sold the marque to the Fiat Group in 1986. Alfa Romeo has competed in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing, rallies, it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, Alfa Romeo won the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925; the race victories gave a sporty image to the marque, Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team, before becoming independent in 1939. It has had the most wins of any marque in the world; the company's name is a combination of the original name, "A. L. F.
A.", the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who took control of the company in 1915. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909; the firm's initial location was in Naples, but before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late in 1906 that Milan would be more suitable and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres was erected. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suited to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.
L. F. A. Cars, with more powerful engines. A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built, the GP1914, with a four-cylinder engine, double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder, twin ignition. However, the onset of the First World War halted automobile production at A. L. F. A. for three years. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft engines and other components and generators based on the company's existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. After the war, Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railway carriage plants in Saronno and Naples, which were added to his A. L. F. A. Ownership. Car production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars had remained at the A.
L. F. A. Factory since 1915. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged, their first success came in 1920 whe
Sponsoring something is the act of supporting an event, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services. The individual or group that provides the support, similar to a benefactor, is known as sponsor. Sponsorship is a cash and/or in-kind fee paid to a property in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that property. While the sponsoree may be nonprofit, unlike philanthropy, sponsorship is done with the expectation of a commercial return. While sponsorship can deliver increased awareness, brand building and propensity to purchase, it is different from advertising. Unlike advertising, sponsorship can not communicate specific product attributes. Nor can it stand alone, as sponsorship requires support elements. A range of psychological and communications theories have been used to explain how commercial sponsorship works to impact consumer audiences. Most use the notion that a brand and event become linked in memory through the sponsorship and as a result, thinking of the brand can trigger event-linked associations.
Cornwell and Roy have published an extensive review of the theories so far used to explain commercial sponsorship effects. One of the most pervasive findings in sponsorship is that the best effects are achieved where there is a logical match between the sponsor and sponsoree, such as a sports brand sponsoring a sports event. Work by Cornwell and colleagues however, has shown that brands that don't have a logical match can still benefit, at least in terms of memory effects, if the sponsor articulates some rationale for the sponsorship to the audience. Series sponsor is the highest status of sponsorship; the name and the logo of the sponsor is incorporated into the title of the series. This status allows companies to have a decisive voice on the issue of presence among sponsors other companies operating in the same business, the priority right to use teams, team members, players and the sanctioning body for conducting joint promotions, right of presence at all official events dedicated to a sports event, mandatory mentioning in all activities conducted on behalf of the team, highlighting the name of title sponsor in film credits, television programs which were created with its financial support, placement of logos and banners.
A patch or sticker is required to placed or worn on a visible item of every competitor if their personal sponsor is in direct competition with the series sponsor. Title sponsor characterizes the most significant contribution to a company in organizing and hosting an event; the name of such sponsor is placed next to the name of competition, individual athletes and is associated with it. In case of title sponsor's presence, the general sponsor position may remain free. General sponsor is a sponsor that makes one of the largest contributions and that receives for it the right to use the image of competition as well as extensive media coverage. If necessary, the status of the general sponsor may be supplemented by the general sponsors for certain categories, as well as the main sponsor. Team sponsor provides funds for individual teams; the more money provided, the larger area and more visible location are allocated. In some instances, the team sponsor may be rotated between the secondary sponsor roles.
This occurs with auto racing teams that travel over a vast area. A team sponsor may take the primary sponsorship role at a race in an area where they are present, such as a store chain; that sponsor may take a secondary sponsorship role, or not be on the car, in an area they have little or no presence, or are prohibited by law to sell, such as alcohol or tobacco products. Official sponsor is a sponsor; the given status may be granted by category. Technical sponsor is a sponsor which promotes organization of sporting events through the partial or full payment of goods and services. Participating sponsor is a company, the sponsorship fee size of which does not exceed 10% of total raised funds.. Informational sponsor is an organization that provides informational support through media coverage, conducting PR-actions, joint actions, etc. All sponsorship should be based on contractual obligations between the sponsor and the sponsored party. Sponsors and sponsored parties should set out clear terms and conditions with all other partners involved, to define their expectations regarding all aspects of the sponsorship deal.
Sponsorship should be recognisable as such. The terms and conduct of sponsorship should be based upon the principle of good faith between all parties to the sponsorship. There should be clarity regarding the specific rights being sold and confirmation that these are available for sponsorship from the rights holder. Sponsored parties should have the absolute right to decide on the value of the sponsorship rights that they are offering and the appropriateness of the sponsor with whom they contract; the sa
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and rear surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blade, a fluid is accelerated behind the blade. Propeller dynamics, like those of aircraft wings, can be modelled by Bernoulli's principle and Newton's third law. Most marine propellers are screw propellers with fixed helical blades rotating around a horizontal axis or propeller shaft; the principle employed in using a screw propeller is used in sculling. It is part of the skill of propelling a Venetian gondola but was used in a less refined way in other parts of Europe and elsewhere. For example, propelling a canoe with a single paddle using a "pitch stroke" or side slipping a canoe with a "scull" involves a similar technique. In China, called "lu", was used by the 3rd century AD. In sculling, a single blade is moved through an arc, from side to side taking care to keep presenting the blade to the water at the effective angle.
The innovation introduced with the screw propeller was the extension of that arc through more than 360° by attaching the blade to a rotating shaft. Propellers can have a single blade, but in practice there are nearly always more than one so as to balance the forces involved; the origin of the screw propeller starts with Archimedes, who used a screw to lift water for irrigation and bailing boats, so famously that it became known as Archimedes' screw. It was an application of spiral movement in space to a hollow segmented water-wheel used for irrigation by Egyptians for centuries. Leonardo da Vinci adopted the principle to drive his theoretical helicopter, sketches of which involved a large canvas screw overhead. In 1661, Toogood and Hays proposed using screws for waterjet propulsion, though not as a propeller. Robert Hooke in 1681 designed a horizontal watermill, remarkably similar to the Kirsten-Boeing vertical axis propeller designed two and a half centuries in 1928. In 1752, the Academie des Sciences in Paris granted Burnelli a prize for a design of a propeller-wheel.
At about the same time, the French mathematician Alexis-Jean-Pierre Paucton, suggested a water propulsion system based on the Archimedean screw. In 1771, steam-engine inventor James Watt in a private letter suggested using "spiral oars" to propel boats, although he did not use them with his steam engines, or implement the idea; the first practical and applied use of a propeller on a submarine dubbed Turtle, designed in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1775 by Yale student and inventor David Bushnell, with the help of the clock maker and brass foundryman Isaac Doolittle, with Bushnell's brother Ezra Bushnell and ship's carpenter and clock maker Phineas Pratt constructing the hull in Saybrook, Connecticut. On the night of September 6, 1776, Sergeant Ezra Lee piloted Turtle in an attack on HMS Eagle in New York Harbor. Turtle has the distinction of being the first submarine used in battle. Bushnell described the propeller in an October 1787 letter to Thomas Jefferson: "An oar formed upon the principle of the screw was fixed in the forepart of the vessel its axis entered the vessel and being turned one way rowed the vessel forward but being turned the other way rowed it backward.
It was made to be turned by the hand or foot." The brass propeller, like all the brass and moving parts on Turtle, was crafted by the "ingenious mechanic" Issac Doolittle of New Haven. In 1785, Joseph Bramah in England proposed a propeller solution of a rod going through the underwater aft of a boat attached to a bladed propeller, though he never built it. In 1802, Edward Shorter proposed using a similar propeller attached to a rod angled down temporarily deployed from the deck above the waterline and thus requiring no water seal, intended only to assist becalmed sailing vessels, he tested it on the transport ship Doncaster in Gibraltar and at Malta, achieving a speed of 1.5 mph. The lawyer and inventor John Stevens in the United States, built a 25-foot boat with a rotary stem engine coupled to a four-bladed propeller, achieving a speed of 4 mph, but he abandoned propellers due to the inherent danger in using the high-pressure steam engines, instead built paddle-wheeled boats. By 1827, Czech-Austrian inventor Josef Ressel had invented a screw propeller which had multiple blades fastened around a conical base.
He had tested his propeller in February 1826 on a small ship, manually driven. He was successful in using his bronze screw propeller on an adapted steamboat, his ship, Civetta of 48 gross register tons, reached a speed of about 6 knots. This was the first ship driven by an Archimedes screw-type propeller. After a new steam engine had an accident his experiments were banned by the Austro-Hungarian police as dangerous. Josef Ressel was at the time a forestry inspector for the Austrian Empire, but before this he received an Austro-Hungarian patent for his propeller. He died in 1857; this new method of propulsion was an improvement over the paddlewheel as it was not so affected by either ship motions or changes in draft as the vessel burned coal. John Patch, a mariner in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia developed a two-bladed, fan-shaped propeller in 1832 and publicly demonstrated it in 1833, propelling a row boat across Yarmouth Harbour and a small coastal schooner at Saint John, New Brunswick, but his patent application in the United States was rejected until 1849 because he was not an American citizen.
His efficient design drew praise in American scientific circles but by
Alfa Romeo 1900
The Alfa Romeo 1900 is an automobile produced by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1950 to 1959. Designed by Orazio Satta, it was an important development for Alfa Romeo as the marque's first car built on a production line and first production car without a separate chassis, it was the first Alfa Romeo offered with left-hand drive. The car was introduced at the 1950 Paris Motor Show; the 1900 was offered in two-door or four-door models, with a new 1,884 cc, 90 bhp, 4-cylinder twin cam engine. It was quick and sporty; the slogan Alfa used when selling it was "The family car that wins races", not-so-subtly alluding to the car's success in the Targa Florio, Stella Alpina, other competitions. In 1951, the short wheelbase 1900C version was introduced, it had a wheelbase of 2,500 mm. In the same year the 1900TI with a more powerful 100 bhp engine was introduced, it had bigger valves, a higher compression ratio and it was equipped with a double carburetor. Two years the 1900 Super and 1900 TI Super with 1975 cc engine were introduced.
The TI Super had 115 bhp. Transmission was a 4-speed manual on basic versions and 5-speed manual in Super Sprint version, the brakes were drum brakes; the 1900 live rear axle. Production at the company's Milan plant continued until 1959: a total of 21,304 were built, including 17,390 of the saloons; the chassis was designed to allow coachbuilders to rebody it, the most notable of, the Zagato designed, 1900 Super Sprint coupé, with an improved engine and custom body design. The Alfa Romeo 1900M AR51 is a four-wheel drive off-road vehicle based on the 1900-series. Iginio Alessio general manager of Alfa Romeo, was concerned for the viability of the independent Italian Coachbuilding industry–the advent of the unibody chassis design was threatening to put the carrozzerie out of business. Alessio was a personal friend of Gaetano Ponzoni co-owner of Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera, thus from 1951-1958 Alfa Romeo built five different variations of the 1900 unibody chassis for independent coachbuilders.
Alfa Romeo gave official contracts to Touring to build the sporty 1900 Sprint coupé and to Pinin Farina to build an elegant four seat Cabriolet and Coupé. The availability of a suitable chassis led to many other coachbiulders to build versions of the 1900. Carrozzeria Zagato built a small series of coupés with the unofficial designation of 1900 SSZ, designed for racing with an aerodynamic lightweight aluminium body and Zagato's trademark double bubble roof. One-off specials where numerous from the famous Bertone BAT series of aerodynamic studies, to an infamous sci-fi like Astral spider designed by Carrozzeria Boneschi for Rafael Trujillo the dictator of the Dominican Republic. There was a Barchetta or "Boat Car" made by Ghia-Aigle in Lugano Switzerland designed by Giovanni Michelotti at the request of a wealthy Italian who had two passions: the'Riva' boats and a woman, his mistress, the car has no doors or windscreen wipers. Below is a sortable list of coachbuilt Alfa Romeo 1900s. In 1954, Alfa Romeo made two coupés using similar chassis as the C52 Disco Volante.
In Bertone, Franco Scaglione penned a coupé and a spider. The coupé was known as 2000 Sportiva, it has 138 horsepower. The acceleration is on par with most contemporary exotics and top speed is around 137 mph. Industrias Kaiser Argentina produced between 1960 and 1962 a car named IKA Bergantin in Argentina, the body and suspension was from the 1900 Berlina and engines were from the Willys line, the 4-L 151 cu in and the 6-L 226 cu in. Alfa Romeo 1900 Register
Alfa Romeo Matta
The Alfa Romeo 1900 M is a four-wheel drive utility vehicle produced by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1951 to 1954. Developed on request of the Italian Ministry of Defence, it was made in both military and civilian versions; the AR 51 was the result of the request of a light reconnaissance vehicle for use on paved and mountain roads. A civilian version, the AR 52, was developed from the military AR 51; the Matta was built from 1952 to 1954, with 2,007 military AR 51s for the Italian Army and 154 civilian AR 52 units produced. In 1954, the Italian army abandoned the AR 51 and switched to the Fiat Campagnola, mechanically simpler; the Matta was powered by 8-valve inline-four engine with dry sump lubrication. The cylinder head was aluminium and featured hemispherical combustion chambers, while the engine block was cast iron. Output was 65 PS at 4,400 rpm. http://www.alfamatta.co.uk/ Italian registry website