Museo Nazionale Scienza e Tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci
The Museo nazionale della Scienza e della Tecnologia "Leonardo da Vinci" in Milan is the largest science and technology museum in Italy, is dedicated to Italian painter and scientist Leonardo da Vinci. It was opened on 5 February inaugurated by prime minister of Italy, Alcide De Gasperi; this museum, in the ancient monastery of San Vittore al Corpo of Milan, is divided in seven main departments: Materials Transport Energy Communication Leonardo da Vinci, Art & Science New Frontiers Science for young peopleEach of these departments have laboratories for children and young students. The Transport section in made by four different parts: air, rail and Submarine Enrico Toti-S-506; the Materials section treats the life cycle of modern products from raw materials to recycling. Specific sections are dedicated to polymeric and synthesis materials and to the basic chemical manufacturing. There is a metal section that illustrates the metal extraction and processing techniques and exhibits the first electric arc furnace for melting steel invented in 1898 by Ernesto Stassano.
The transport section is divided in four different sections: The Air transport section exhibits several aircraft including a Farman 1909 replica and an original Macchi MC 205 V used by the Regia Aeronautica Militare Italiana during the Second World War. There are several modern military aircraft like an Italian Fiat G.91, a North American F-86K and a Republic F-84F Thunderstreak. The Rail Transport section is sited in a pavilion from the 1906 Expo with an added reconstruction of a late 19th-century railway station facade; the collection exhibits vehicles from 19th and 20th century with a particular focus on the historical public transport of Lombardy. The Water transport section displays the bridge of the transatlantic liner Conte Biancamano, the training ship Ebe launched in 1921. Exhibited are a slow running torpedo and an explosive punt both used by the Italian Royal Navy in the Second World War; the last section is dedicated to the Toti-class submarine Enrico Toti, built by Italian shipbuilders after the Second World War for the Italian Navy and launched in 1967.
The Energy section is dedicated to device. In this part of the museum there are the Margherita thermoelectric power station and an oil industry/petrochemistry section; the communication section is divided in three different areas: The Astronomy section shows several antique astronomic and topographical instruments including two celestial and earth globe of 17th century, the Salmoiraghi refracting telescope and a Foucault pendulum. The Telecommunication section is dedicated to all form of modern era communication from telegraph to telephone and wireless communication, from radio to the modern television with a global view of the technical history of Italian television; the Sound section shows main technologies for recording and reproducing sound from the 19th century to the modern times. One of the most characteristic sections of the museum is Art & Science area; this department of the museum is divided in four parts: The Jewelry collection shows precious objects from stones and gems to metals including gold and ivory jewelry.
The Leonardo da Vinci section exhibits many Leonardo Machine reproduced from Da Vinci drawings like an hydraulic saw, a spinning machine, a flying machine or the Leonardo’s Tank. The models of the collection are the fruit of a reinterpretation, by a group of expert, which has translated and completed his drawings; the Horology collection shows the evolution of watchmaking and shows several pendulums, ancient clocks, personal watches and tower mechanisms. The Musical Instruments section exhibits instruments from 17th to 20th centuries. A reconstruction of a lutemaker’s workshop from the 17th century is exposed in this part of the museum. List of museums in Milan List of science museums in the World Official website
Alfa Romeo 1900
The Alfa Romeo 1900 is an automobile produced by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1950 to 1959. Designed by Orazio Satta, it was an important development for Alfa Romeo as the marque's first car built on a production line and first production car without a separate chassis, it was the first Alfa Romeo offered with left-hand drive. The car was introduced at the 1950 Paris Motor Show; the 1900 was offered in two-door or four-door models, with a new 1,884 cc, 90 bhp, 4-cylinder twin cam engine. It was quick and sporty; the slogan Alfa used when selling it was "The family car that wins races", not-so-subtly alluding to the car's success in the Targa Florio, Stella Alpina, other competitions. In 1951, the short wheelbase 1900C version was introduced, it had a wheelbase of 2,500 mm. In the same year the 1900TI with a more powerful 100 bhp engine was introduced, it had bigger valves, a higher compression ratio and it was equipped with a double carburetor. Two years the 1900 Super and 1900 TI Super with 1975 cc engine were introduced.
The TI Super had 115 bhp. Transmission was a 4-speed manual on basic versions and 5-speed manual in Super Sprint version, the brakes were drum brakes; the 1900 live rear axle. Production at the company's Milan plant continued until 1959: a total of 21,304 were built, including 17,390 of the saloons; the chassis was designed to allow coachbuilders to rebody it, the most notable of, the Zagato designed, 1900 Super Sprint coupé, with an improved engine and custom body design. The Alfa Romeo 1900M AR51 is a four-wheel drive off-road vehicle based on the 1900-series. Iginio Alessio general manager of Alfa Romeo, was concerned for the viability of the independent Italian Coachbuilding industry–the advent of the unibody chassis design was threatening to put the carrozzerie out of business. Alessio was a personal friend of Gaetano Ponzoni co-owner of Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera, thus from 1951-1958 Alfa Romeo built five different variations of the 1900 unibody chassis for independent coachbuilders.
Alfa Romeo gave official contracts to Touring to build the sporty 1900 Sprint coupé and to Pinin Farina to build an elegant four seat Cabriolet and Coupé. The availability of a suitable chassis led to many other coachbiulders to build versions of the 1900. Carrozzeria Zagato built a small series of coupés with the unofficial designation of 1900 SSZ, designed for racing with an aerodynamic lightweight aluminium body and Zagato's trademark double bubble roof. One-off specials where numerous from the famous Bertone BAT series of aerodynamic studies, to an infamous sci-fi like Astral spider designed by Carrozzeria Boneschi for Rafael Trujillo the dictator of the Dominican Republic. There was a Barchetta or "Boat Car" made by Ghia-Aigle in Lugano Switzerland designed by Giovanni Michelotti at the request of a wealthy Italian who had two passions: the'Riva' boats and a woman, his mistress, the car has no doors or windscreen wipers. Below is a sortable list of coachbuilt Alfa Romeo 1900s. In 1954, Alfa Romeo made two coupés using similar chassis as the C52 Disco Volante.
In Bertone, Franco Scaglione penned a coupé and a spider. The coupé was known as 2000 Sportiva, it has 138 horsepower. The acceleration is on par with most contemporary exotics and top speed is around 137 mph. Industrias Kaiser Argentina produced between 1960 and 1962 a car named IKA Bergantin in Argentina, the body and suspension was from the 1900 Berlina and engines were from the Willys line, the 4-L 151 cu in and the 6-L 226 cu in. Alfa Romeo 1900 Register
Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale and Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint Speciale known as Giulietta SS and Giulia SS, are small sports cars manufactured by Alfa Romeo from 1959 to 1966. The first prototype of the Giulietta SS was presented in 1957 at the Turin Motor Show. After two more prototypes were presented in car shows, the official presentation of the production version for the press was on 24 June 1959 on the Monza race track; the first 101 cars produced had 750 SS designation. 100 cars minimum were needed to homologate a car in FIA regulations. While there were some all-aluminium cars produced, the majority of these cars had steel bodies with aluminium doors, engine bonnet and boot lid. First cars were equipped with Weber 40 DCO3 carburettors changed to 40 DCOE2; the drag coefficient of the Sprint Speciale is 0.28, the same as a Chevrolet Corvette, was not surpassed for more than twenty years. Cars used the 1,290 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, a design with hemispheric combustion chambers and valves controlled directly by twin overhead camshafts.
Small changes to a production version included steel doors, Weber 40 DCOE2 carburetors, higher front nose, removal of plexiglas windows. Bumpers were fitted front and rear cars had some minimal sound-proofing. With the 1290 cc engine and 100 hp of power the maximum speed was around 200 km/h; the 1.3 litre engine and gearbox was the same as used in race-oriented Giulietta Sprint Zagato. All Giuliettas SS had three-shoe drum brakes at the rear. Export versions had 101.17 designation. Side badges had "Giulietta Sprint Speciale" script. There was a prototype by Bertone of a replacement for Giulietta SS, named "Giulia SS Bertone Prototipo", but the new shape did not enter production and the next generation Giulia SS carried over an unchanged Giulietta SS body. Giulia Sprint Speciale Bertone Prototipo The bigger engine 1.6 L Giulia series replaced the Giulietta and was introduced at the March 1963 Geneva Motor Show. As Giulietta is the diminutive for Giulia in Italian, the new Giulia name was a wordplay hinting that the new car was a grown-up version of the Giulietta.
In spite of a Giulia SS prototype, Alfa Romeo decided to retain the Giulietta-shaped SS in production. The 1,570cc engine made up to 200 km/h possible; the 1,570cc engine with Weber 40 DCOE2 carburetors was taken from Giulia Sprint Veloce and delivered 112 hp of power. Most Giulia SS had disc brakes at front wheels. An easy way to distinguish the Giulia SS from the Giulietta SS is by the dashboard; the Giulia has a leather underside with the glovebox at a different angle than the main fascia. The dashboard in the Giulietta painted in one colour without a leather underside. Side badges carried "Giulia SS" scripts. Production ended in 1965, with a last single Sprint Speciale completed in 1966.1,366 Giulietta Sprint Speciale and 1,400 Giulia Sprint Speciale were produced. 25 cars were converted to right hand drive by RuddSpeed. Alfa Romeo Giulietta Alfa Romeo Giulia SSZ Stradale Media related to Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint at Wikimedia Commons Sprint Speciale Register
Alfa Romeo 8C
The Alfa Romeo 8C was a range of Alfa Romeo road and sports cars of the 1930s. In 2004 Alfa Romeo revived the 8C name for a V8-engined concept car which made it into production for 2007, the 8C Competizione; the 8C designates 8 cylinders, a straight 8-cylinder engine. The Vittorio Jano designed 8C was Alfa Romeo's primary racing engine from its introduction in 1931 to its retirement in 1939. In addition to the two-seater sports cars it was used in the world's first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car, the Monoposto'Tipo B' - P3 from 1932 onwards. In its development it powered such vehicles as the twin-engined 1935 6.3-litre Bimotore, the 1935 3.8-litre Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, the Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Mille Miglia Roadster. It powered top-of-the-range coach-built production models, including a Touring Spider and Touring Berlinetta. In 1924, Vittorio Jano created his first straight-eight-cylinder engine for Alfa Romeo, the 1987 cc P2, with common crankcase and four plated-steel two-cylinder blocks, which won the first World Championship in 1925.
Although it was a straight-8, the 8C designation was not used. The 8C engine, first entered at the 1931 Mille Miglia road race through Italy, had a common crankcase, now with two alloy four-cylinder blocks, which incorporated the heads; the bore and stroke, were the same as the 6C 1750. There was no separate head, no head gasket to fail, but this made valve maintenance more difficult. A central gear tower drove the overhead camshafts and ancillaries; as far as production cars are concerned, the 8C engine powered two models, the 8C 2300 and the more rare and expensive 8C 2900, bore increased to 68 mm and stroke to 100 mm. At the same time, since racing cars were no longer required to carry a mechanic, Alfa Romeo built the first single seater race car; as a first attempt, the 1931 Monoposto Tipo A used a pair of 6-cylinder engines fitted side by side in the chassis. As the resulting car was too heavy and complex, Jano designed a more suitable and successful racer called Monoposto Tipo B for the 1932 Grand Prix season.
The Tipo B proved itself the winning car of its era, winning straight from its first outing at the 1932 Italian Grand Prix, was powered with an enlarged version of the 8C engine now at 2,665 cc, fed through a pair of superchargers instead of a single one. Alfa Romeo announced that the 8C was not to be sold to private owners, but by autumn 1931 Alfa sold it as a rolling chassis in Lungo or Corto form with prices starting at over £1000; the chassis were fitted with bodies from a selection of Italian coach-builders such as Zagato, Carrozzeria Touring, Carrozzeria Castagna, Carrozzeria Pinin Farina and Brianza though Alfa Romeo did make bodies. Some chassis were clothed by coach-builders such as Graber and Tuscher of Switzerland and Figoni of France. Alfa Romeo had a practice of rebodying cars for clients, some racing vehicles were sold rebodied as road vehicles; some of the famous first owners include Baroness Maud Thyssen of the Thyssen family, the owner of the aircraft and now scooter company Piaggio Andrea Piaggio, Raymond Sommer, Tazio Nuvolari.
The first model was the 1931'8C 2300', a reference to the car's 2.3 L engine designed as a racing car, but produced in 188 units for road use. While the racing version of the 8C 2300 Spider, driven by Tazio Nuvolari won the 1931 and 1932 Targa Florio race in Sicily, the 1931 Italian Grand Prix victory at Monza gave the "Monza" name to the twin seater GP car, a shortened version of the Spider; the Alfa Romeo factory added the name of events won to the name of a car.'8C 2300 tipo Le Mans' was the sport version of the'8C 2300' and it had a successful debut in the 1931 Eireann Cup driven by Henry Birkin. It won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1931; the 8C 2300 Le Mans model on display at the Museo Alfa Romeo was bought by Sir Henry Birkin in 1931 for competition use, but it is not the car in which Birkin and Howe won the 1931 Le Mans 24 hours. A 1933 8C 2300 Le Mans, chassis #2311201, is part of the permanent collection at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, US; the car was owned by Lord Howe who campaigned it in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1934 as well as in 1935 when it set the fastest lap before retiring.
In 1933 the supercharged dual overhead cam straight-8 engine, enlarged to 2.6 litres for the Tipo B, was fitted to the Scuderia Ferrari 8C Monzas. Scuderia Ferrari had become the "semi-official" racing department of Alfa Romeo, who were no longer entering races as a factory effort due to the poor economic situation of the company. With the initial 215 hp of the 2.6 engine, the Monoposto Tipo B racer could accelerate to 60 mph in less than 7 seconds and could reach 135 mph. For 1934 the race engines became 2.9 litres. Tazio Nuvolari won the 1935 German GP at the Nürburgring at the wheel of a 3.2 L Tipo B against the more powerful Silver Arrows from Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union. Eight 3.8-litre versions, sharing no castings with the earlier blocks, were individually built for racing in five months, most being used in the Alfa Romeo Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, as raced by Scuderia Ferrari. The 3.8 produced 330 bhp at 5500 rpm, had 320 lb⋅ft from 900 rpm to 5500 rpm. It had 15.5-inch drum brakes all round, using Pirelli 5.25 or 5.50 x 19 tyres at the front and 7.00 or 7.50 x 19 tyres at the rear.
A pickup truck is a light-duty truck having an enclosed cab and an open cargo area with low sides and tailgate. Once a work tool with few creature comforts, in the 1950s, consumers began purchasing pickups for lifestyle reasons, by the 1990s, less than 15% of owners reported use in work as the pickup truck's primary purpose. Today in North America, the pickup is used like a passenger car and accounts for about 18% of total vehicles sold in the United States. Full-sized pickups and SUVs are an important source of revenue for GM, FCA's Ram, accounting for more than two-thirds of their global pretax earnings, though the vehicles make up just 16% of North American vehicle production; the vehicles have a high profit margin and a high price, with 40% of Ford F-150s selling for US$40,000 or more. The term pickup is of unknown origin, it was used by Studebaker in 1913 and by the 1930s, "pick-up" had become the standard term. In Australia and New Zealand, "ute", short for utility vehicle, is used for both pickups and coupé utilities.
In South Africa, people of all language groups use the term bakkie, a diminutive of bak, Afrikaans for bowl/container, due to the cargo area's similarities with a bowl. In the early days of automobile manufacturing, vehicles were sold as a chassis only, third parties added bodies on top. In 1913, the Galion Allsteel Body Company, an early developer of the pickup and dump truck and installed hauling boxes on modified Ford Model T chassis, from 1917 on the Model TT. Seeking part of this market share, Dodge introduced a 3/4-ton pickup with cab and body constructed of wood in 1924. In 1925, Ford followed up with a Model T-based, steel-bodied, half-ton with an adjustable tailgate and heavy-duty rear springs. Billed as the "Ford Model T Runabout with Pickup Body", it sold for US$281. In 1928, it was replaced by the Model A which had a closed-cab, safety-glass windshield, roll-up side windows and three-speed transmission. In 1931, Chevrolet produced its first factory-assembled pickup. Ford Australia produced the first Australian "ute" in 1932.
During the Second World War, the United States government halted the production of owned pickup trucks. In the 1950s, consumers began purchasing pickups for lifestyle rather than utilitarian reasons. Car-like, smooth-sided, fenderless trucks were introduced, such as the Chevrolet Fleetside, the Chevrolet El Camino, the Dodge Sweptline, in 1957, Ford's purpose-built Styleside. Pickups began to feature comfort items such as air conditioning. Trucks became more passenger oriented with the introduction of crew cabs in the Toyota Stout and the Hino Briska, was introduced in 1962. Dodge followed with a crew cab in 1963, Ford in 1965, General Motors in 1973. In 1963, the U. S. chicken tax directly curtailed the import of the Volkswagen Type 2, distorting the market in favor of American manufacturers. The tariff directly affected any country seeking to bring light trucks into the U. S. and "squeezed smaller Asian truck companies out of the American pickup market." Over the intervening years, Detroit lobbied to protect the light-truck tariff, thereby reducing pressure on Detroit to introduce vehicles that polluted less and that offered increased fuel economy.
The US government's 1973 Corporate Average Fuel Economy policy sets higher fuel-economy requirements for cars than pickups. CAFE led to the replacement of the station wagon by the minivan, the latter being in the truck category, which allowed it compliance with less-strict emissions standards; this same idea led to the promotion of sport utility vehicles. Pickups, unhindered by the emissions controls regulations on cars, began to replace muscle cars as the performance vehicle of choice; the Dodge Warlock appeared in Dodge's "adult toys" line, along with the Macho Power Wagon and Street Van. The gas guzzler tax, which taxed fuel-inefficient cars while exempting pickup trucks, further distorted the market in favor of pickups. In the 1980s, the compact Mazda B-series, Isuzu Faster, Mitsubishi Forte appeared. Subsequently, American manufacturers built their own compact pickups for the domestic market: the Ford Ranger, the Chevrolet S-10. Minivans make inroads into the pickups' market share. In the 1990s, pickups' market share was further eroded by the popularity of SUVs.
While the Ford F-150 has been the best-selling vehicle in the United States since 1982, the Ford F-150, or indeed any full-sized pickup truck, is a rare sight in Europe, where high fuel prices and narrow city roads make it difficult to use daily. In America, pickups are favored by a cultural attachment to the style, low fuel prices, taxes and regulations that distort the market in favor of domestically built trucks; as of 2016, the IRS offers tax breaks for "any vehicle equipped with a cargo area... of at least six feet in interior length, not accessible from the passenger compartment". In Europe, pickups represent less than 1% of light vehicles sold, the most popular being the Ford Ranger with 27,300 units sold in 2015. Other models include the Renault Alaskan, the Toyota Hilux; the NOx law and other differing regulations prevent pickups from being imported to Japan, but the Japanese Domestic Market Mitsubishi Triton was available for a limited time. The most-recent pickup truck on sale in Japan is Toyota Hilux.
In China the Great Wall Wingle is exported to Australia. In Thailand pickups manufactured for local sale and export include the Isuzu D-Max and the Mitsubishi Triton. In Latin and South America, the Toyota Hilux, Ford Ranger, VW Amarok, Dodge Ram, Chevrolet S-10, Chevrolet D-20, Chevrolet Montana are sold. In S
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia is the name of three not directly related models by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. The first is a line of sporty four-door compact executive cars produced from 1962 to 1978, the second is an updated up-engined Spider and Sprint Speciale Giuliettas, the third Giulia is a compact executive car unveiled in 2015. Alfa Romeo was one of the first mainstream manufacturers to put a powerful engine in a light-weight 1 tonne four-door car for mass production; the Type 105 Giulia was equipped with a light alloy twin overhead camshaft four-cylinder engine similar to that of the earlier Giulietta range, available in 1.3-litre and 1.6-litre versions. Various configurations of carburetors and tuning produced power outputs from about 80 to about 110 bhp, coupled in most cases to 5-speed manual transmission. Giulia sedans were noted for lively handling and impressive acceleration among small European four-door sedans of their era considering modest engine sizes offered; the popular Super version with the twin carburettor 1.6 litre engine had a top speed of 170 km/h and accelerated from 0 to 100 km/h in about 12 seconds, better than many sports cars of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
When leaving the factory all variations of the Giulia fitted either Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres or Pirelli Cinturato 155HR15 tyres. The styling of the boxy four-door notchback saloon was somewhat wanting; the engine bay and boot were all square shaped, buffered somewhat by details on the grill, roofline and boot. Use of a wind tunnel during development led to a aerodynamic shape that produced a drag coefficient of Cd=0.34 low for a saloon of the era. The Giulia Spider was succeeded by the Alfa Romeo Spider in 1966. Note: chassis and engine type numbers displayed in italic for each model are sourced from Fusi 1978, pages 841–848. Tipo: 105.14, 105.08, 105.09. Engine: 00514. Unveiled on 27 June 1962 at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI was the first of the Giulia family of cars to be introduced, its 1,570 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was fitted with a single Solex 33 PAIA 7 twin-choke down-draft carburettor, produced 92 DIN-rated PS or 106 SAE-rated PS at 6,200 rpm. The "TI" nomenclature referred to a class of Italian saloon car racing known as "Turismo Internazionale", had been applied to higher-performance versions of the 1900 and Giulietta saloons in the 1950s.
However, for the Giulia saloon, the TI was at first the only version available, with the introduction of the TI Super and Super, the TI became the base version in the 1.6-litre engine class. A distinguishing feature of the original Giulia were drum brakes on all corners, the front ones of the three-shoe type like on late Giuliettas; the car was marketed as a six-seater, thanks to a standard column-mounted shifter and a split bench front seat—though Italian car magazine Quattroruote found it rather a comfortable four-seater. Other notable interior features of the early models were mottled cloth and vinyl upholstery, a grey, trapezoid instrument panel including a strip speedometer, a black steering wheel with two ivory-coloured spokes and a chrome half horn ring. In May 1964 a floor shifter became available, to be ordered in conjunction with the newly introduced separate front seats. Around the same time a right hand drive model variant entered production, with floor shifter only. In February 1966 several changes were made.
The floor shifter became standard. From outside these TIs can be recognized by L-shaped chrome strips around the tail lights which supplanted the previous C-shaped ones. Production of the Giulia TI ceased during 1967. Tipo: 105.16. Engine: 00516; the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI Super was a special road-going sports model produced in limited numbers, fitted with a more powerful engine and a number of weight saving components, intended for racing use. It was introduced to the press at the Monza race track on 24 April 1963. In total only 501 were made, 178 in 1963 and 323 1964. On 2 May 1964 the TI Super received international FIA and Italian CSAI homologation for racing, was extensively campaigned in the European Touring Car Challenge. Today the Giulia TI Super is rare and considered desirable by collectors; the TI Super's 1,570 cc engine was the same installed on the Giulia Sprint Speciale coupé—though bearing a different type code. It was fitted with two twin-choke horizontal Weber 45 DCOE 14 carburettors and, as on the Sprint Speciale, produced 112 DIN-rated PS or 129 SAE-rated PS at 6,500 rpm, pushing top speed to over 185 km/h.
Dry weight was 910 kilograms compared to 1,000 kg of the standard Giulia TI. Parts contributing to the weight reduction were mesh grilles replacing the inner pair of head lamps, bumpers without overriders, fixed front quarter windows, Plexiglas rear windows, magnesium alloy wheels with hubcaps similar in appearance to the standard steel wheels of the TI. Braking was by discs all around. Cars built from August 1964 used the bodyshell of the TI with mounting points for the brake servo, but wer
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian luxury car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has been involved in car racing since 1911; the company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group. In February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy; the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and the Italian partners of the company hired Giuseppe Merosi to design new cars. On 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Merosi.
A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto. Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among, Alfa Romeo, through the "Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali". In 1925, the railway activities were separated from the Romeo company, in 1928, Nicola Romeo left. In 1933, the state ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolini's government, which had effective control; the company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models.
In 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. During the 1960s and 1970s, Alfa Romeo produced a number of sporty cars, but struggled to make a profit, so Istituto per la Reconstruzione, the state conglomerate that controls Finmeccanica sold the marque to the Fiat Group in 1986. Alfa Romeo has competed in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing, rallies, it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, Alfa Romeo won the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925; the race victories gave a sporty image to the marque, Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team, before becoming independent in 1939. It has had the most wins of any marque in the world; the company's name is a combination of the original name, "A. L. F.
A.", the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who took control of the company in 1915. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909; the firm's initial location was in Naples, but before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late in 1906 that Milan would be more suitable and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres was erected. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suited to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.
L. F. A. Cars, with more powerful engines. A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built, the GP1914, with a four-cylinder engine, double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder, twin ignition. However, the onset of the First World War halted automobile production at A. L. F. A. for three years. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft engines and other components and generators based on the company's existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. After the war, Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railway carriage plants in Saronno and Naples, which were added to his A. L. F. A. Ownership. Car production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars had remained at the A.
L. F. A. Factory since 1915. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged, their first success came in 1920 whe