Alfa Romeo Arese Plant
The Alfa Romeo Arese Plant was a plant area where Alfa Romeo had its head office for more than two decades prior to 1986 was known to be. After Fiat Group purchased Alfa Romeo in 1986, Arese became one of the plants of Fiat Group. The factory is in the Province of Milan in the Italian region Lombardy, the factory became known as the Arese plant only because the main entrance is in the municipality of Arese. Today the factory is almost totally closed and abandoned, since the Alfa Romeo owners have almost completely moved design, the companys final manufacturing activities at Arese ended in 2005 when the Alfa Romeo V6 engine production stopped in Arese. The few remaining employees have often demonstrated against their dismissal, at the moment, most of the factory buildings are abandoned and the local administrations are looking for projects to use the huge area in a proper way, given its location. Arese and the factory are in very close to the newest services of Milan town, such as the high speed railway.
Several Italian highways pass close to Arese as well, the A8, the A9, the A4. The Alfa Romeo Centro Stile created in 1990 was one of the last company activities in Arese, but was moved in summer 2009 to Turin also, the last designs made in Arese are MiTo and Giulietta. One of the few activities which are located in the Alfa Romeo buildings is the Museo Storico Alfa Romeo. However, since February 2011, the museum has closed for renovations
Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale
The Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale and Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint Speciale, known as Giulietta SS and Giulia SS, are small sports cars manufactured by Alfa Romeo from 1959 to 1966. The first prototype of the Giulietta SS was presented in 1957 at the Turin Motor Show, after two more prototypes were presented in car shows, the official presentation of the production version for the press was on 24 June 1959 on the Monza race track. The first 101 cars produced had low nose and 750 SS designation,100 cars minimum were needed to homologate a car in FIA regulations. While there were some all-aluminium cars produced, the majority of cars had steel bodies with aluminium doors, engine bonnet. Also first cars were equipped with Weber 40 DCO3 carburettors, changed to 40 DCOE2, the drag coefficient of the Sprint Speciale is 0.28, the same as a Chevrolet Corvette, and was not surpassed for more than twenty years. Cars used the 1,290 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, small changes to a production version included steel doors, Weber 40 DCOE2 carburetors, higher front nose, removal of plexiglas windows.
Bumpers were fitted front and rear, cars had some minimal sound-proofing, with the 1290 cc engine and 100 hp of power the maximum speed was around 200 km/h. The 1.3 litre engine and gearbox was the same as used in race-oriented Giulietta Sprint Zagato, all Giuliettas SS had three-shoe drum brakes at front wheels and drum brakes at the rear. Side badges had Giulietta Sprint Speciale script, Giulia Sprint Speciale Bertone Prototipo The bigger engine 1.6 L Giulia series replaced the Giulietta and was introduced at the March 1963 Geneva Motor Show. As Giulietta is the diminutive for Giulia in Italian, the new Giulia name was a wordplay hinting that the new car was a version of the Giulietta. In spite of a Giulia SS prototype, Alfa Romeo decided to retain the Giulietta-shaped SS in production, the 1, 570cc engine made up to 200 km/h possible. The 1, 570cc engine with Weber 40 DCOE2 carburetors was taken from Giulia Sprint Veloce, most Giulia SS had disc brakes at front wheels. An easy way to distinguish the Giulia SS from the Giulietta SS is by the dashboard, the Giulia has a leather underside with the glovebox at a different angle than the main fascia.
The dashboard in the Giulietta is sloping and painted in one colour without a leather underside, side badges carried Giulia SS scripts. Production ended in 1965, with a last single Sprint Speciale completed in 1966,1,366 Giulietta Sprint Speciale and 1,400 Giulia Sprint Speciale were produced. 25 cars were converted to right hand drive by RuddSpeed, Alfa Romeo Giulietta Alfa Romeo Giulia SSZ Stradale Media related to Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint Speciale at Wikimedia Commons Sprint Speciale Register
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans is the worlds oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since 1923 near the town of Le Mans, France. It is one of the most prestigious races in the world and is often called the Grand Prix of Endurance. The event represents one leg of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, other events being the Indianapolis 500, since 2012, the 24 Hours of Le Mans has been a part of the FIA World Endurance Championship. In 2017, it will be the round of the season. The race has over the years inspired imitating races all over the globe, popularizing the 24-hour format at places like Daytona, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, and Bathurst. The American Le Mans Series and Europes Le Mans Series of multi-event sports car championships were spun off from 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations. At a time when Grand Prix motor racing was the dominant form of motorsport throughout Europe, Le Mans was designed to present a different test. Instead of focusing on the ability of a car company to build the fastest machines and this encouraged innovation in producing reliable and fuel-efficient vehicles, because endurance racing requires cars that last and spend as little time in the pits as possible.
At the same time, the layout of the track necessitated cars with better aerodynamics, while this was shared with Grand Prix racing, few tracks in Europe had straights of a length comparable to the Mulsanne. Additionally, because the road is public and thus not as meticulously maintained as permanent racing circuits, racing puts more strain on the parts, increasing the importance of reliability. The oil crisis in the early 1970s led organizers to adopt a fuel economy formula known as Group C that limited the amount of each car was allowed. Although it was abandoned, fuel economy remains important as new fuel sources reduced time spent during pit stops. Such technological innovations have had an effect and can be incorporated into consumer cars. This has led to faster and more exotic supercars as manufacturers seek to develop road cars in order to develop them into even faster GT cars. Additionally, in recent years hybrid systems have been championed in the LMP category as rules have changed to their benefit.
The race is held in June, leading at times to very hot conditions for drivers, particularly in closed vehicles with poor ventilation, the race begins in mid-afternoon and finishes the following day at the same hour the race started the previous day. Over the 24 hours, modern competitors often cover distances well over 5,000 km, the record is 2010s 5,410 km, six times the length of the Indianapolis 500, or approximately 18 times longer than a Formula One Grand Prix. Drivers and racing teams strive for speed and avoiding damage, as well as managing the cars consumables, primarily fuel, tires
Tour de France Automobile
Tour de France Automobile was a sports car race held on roads around France regularly – mostly annually – between 1899 and 1986. The first edition was held in 1899 at speeds of 30 mph, the first event was won by René de Knyff driving a Panhard et Levassor. Out of 49 starters,21 vehicles finished, the 1908 event was won by Clément-Bayard. The 1951 event was won by Pagnibon-Barracquet in a 2. 6-litre Ferrari, the event visited La Turbie Hill Climb, near Nice. In 1954 the event was won by the 2.5 litre Gordini of Jacques Pollet and M. Gauthier, the 1956 event was won by de Portago/Nelson in a Ferrari 2502.9 with Moss/Houel in second place. The 1960 Tour de France took place between September 15 and 23 that year, starting at Nice it visited Mont Ventoux, Spa, Montlhéry, Rouen and Le Mans with the finish at Clermont Ferrand. The event was won overall by the Ferrari 250 G. T. of Willy Mairesse/Georges Berger, the Jaguar 3.8 litre Mk. II of Bernard Consten/J. Renel won the Touring category with the BMW700 coupé of Metternich/Hohenlohe winning the Index of Performance, the 1964 event was won by Lucien Bianchi/Georges Berger in a Ferrari GTO, entered by Ecurie Nationale Belge.
The event started at Lille, visiting Reims, Rouen, Le Mans, Clermont-Ferrand, the Touring car category was won by Peter Procter/Andrew Cowan in a Ford Mustang, entered by Alan Mann Racing. The A. C. Shelby Cobras of Maurice Trintignant, Bob Bondurant, the 1980s saw the event incorporated into the European Rally Championship which saw an influx of new competitors. The last event was held in 1986, known as Tour Auto, it was revived in 1992 for historic cars, with both a competition and a regularity class. The format is a 5-day event combining about 2,500 km of roads,4 or 5 circuit races and 6 to 8 hillclimbs, patrick Peter of Agence Peter is the organiser. The start of the International event with some 300 entrants is in Paris, the winning cars over the years, Ford Shelby Mustang 350GT, Ford GT40, AC Cobra 289, Lotus Elan, Ferrari Daytona Gr IV
Alfa Romeo SZ
It was unveiled as ES-30 in 1989 Geneva Motor Show as a prototype by Zagato, although the car was mainly built by them - not designed mechanically. Robert Opron of the Fiat design studio was responsible for the sketches while Antonio Castellana was largely responsible for the final styling details. Only the Z logo of Zagato was kept, the car possessed unusual headlights positioned in a trio on each side - a styling used more subtly on Alfa Romeos in the 2000s. Mechanically and engine-wise, the car was based on the Alfa Romeo 75, the thermoplastic injection moulded composite body panels were produced by Italian company Carplast and French company Stratime Cappelo Systems. The suspension was taken from the Alfa 75 group A/IMSA car, a hydraulic damper system was made by Koni. The two-seater hard roof version saw a version, the RZ. Although almost identical to look at the two cars had different body panels save for the front wings and boot. The RZ had a revised bumper and door sills to give ground clearance.
Three colours were available as standard black yellow and red, with black and red cars got a black leather interior and black cars burgundy. Although the interior layout was almost unchanged from the SZ, the RZ had a central console that swept up between the seats to conceal the convertible roof storage area. Of those final three were painted silver with burgundy interior and another pearlescent white, engine,3.0 V6 12V,210 PS at 6200 rpm,245 N·m at 4500 rpm. 278 RZs were produced A lot of information about the Alfa Romeo SZ and RZ by E v. d
The Mille Miglia was an open-road endurance race which took place in Italy twenty-four times from 1927 to 1957. Like the older Targa Florio and the Carrera Panamericana, the MM made Gran Turismo sports cars like Alfa Romeo, BMW, Maserati, Mercedes Benz, the race brought out an estimated five million spectators. From 1953 until 1957, the Mille Miglia was a round of the World Sports Car Championship, since 1977, the Mille Miglia has been reborn as a regularity race for classic and vintage cars. Participation is limited to cars, produced no than 1957, the route is similar to that of the original race, maintaining the point of departure / arrival in Viale Venezia in Brescia. This made organisation simpler as marshals did not have to be on duty for as long a period, from 1949, cars were assigned numbers according to their start time. For example, the 1955 Moss/Jenkinson car, #722, left Brescia at 07,22, in the early days of the race, even winners needed 16 hours or more, so most competitors had to start before midnight and arrived after dusk - if at all.
The race was established by the young Count Aymo Maggi and Franco Mazzotti, together with a group of wealthy associates, they chose a race from Brescia to Rome and back, a figure-eight shaped course of roughly 1500 km — or a thousand Roman miles. Later races followed twelve other routes of varying total lengths, the first race started on 26 March 1927 with seventy-seven starters — all Italian — of which fifty-one had reached the finishing post at Brescia by the end of the race. The first Mille Miglia covered 1,618 km, corresponding to just over 1,005 modern miles, entry was strictly restricted to unmodified production cars, and the entrance fee was set at a nominal 1 lira. The winner, Giuseppe Morandi, completed the course in just under 21 hours 5 minutes, averaging nearly 78 km/h in his 2-litre OM, tazio Nuvolari won the 1930 Mille Miglia in an Alfa Romeo 6C. Having started after his teammate and rival Achille Varzi, Nuvolari was leading the race, in the dim half-light of early dawn, Nuvolari tailed Varzi with his headlights off, thereby not being visible in the latters rear-view mirrors.
He overtook Varzi on the roads approaching the finish at Brescia, by pulling alongside. The event was dominated by local Italian drivers and marques. Caracciola had received little support from the factory due to the economic crisis at that time. He did not have mechanics to man all necessary service points. After performing a pit stop, they had to hurry across Italy, the race was briefly stopped by Italian leader Benito Mussolini after an accident in 1938 killed a number of spectators. When it resumed in 1940 during wartime, it was dubbed the Grand Prix of Brescia and this event saw the debut of the first Enzo Ferrari-owned marque AAC. The Italians continued to dominate their race after the war, now again on a single big lap through Italy, caracciola, in a comeback attempt, was fourth
The Targa Florio was an open road endurance automobile race held in the mountains of Sicily near Palermo. Founded in 1906, it was the oldest sports car racing event, after 1973, it was a national sports car event until it was discontinued in 1977 due to safety concerns. It has since run as a rallying event, and is part of the Italian Rally Championship. The race was created in 1906 by the wealthy pioneer race driver and automobile enthusiast, Vincenzo Florio, alessandro Cagno won the inaugural 1906 race in nine hours, averaging 30 miles per hour. By the mid-1920s, the Targa Florio had become one of Europes most important races, Grand Prix races were still isolated events, not a series like todays F1. The wins of Mercedes in the 1920s made a big impression in Germany, especially that of German Christian Werner in 1924, rudolf Caracciola repeated a similar upset win at the Mille Miglia a couple of years later. In 1926, Eliska Junkova, one of the female drivers in Grand Prix motor racing history.
In 1953, the FIA World Sportscar Championship was introduced, the Targa became part of it in 1955, when Mercedes had to win 1-2 with the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR in order to beat Ferrari for the title. They had missed the first two of the 6 events, Buenos Aires and the 12 Hours of Sebring, where Ferrari, Jaguar and Porsche scored. Mercedes appeared at and won in the Mille Miglia, pulled out of Le Mans as a sign of respect for the victims of the 1955 Le Mans disaster, stirling Moss/Peter Collins and Juan Manuel Fangio/Karl Kling finished minutes ahead of the best Ferrari and secured the title. Several versions of the track were used and it started with a single lap of a 148 km circuit from 1906-1911 and 1931. From 1912 to 1914 a tour around the perimeter of Sicily was used, with a lap of 975 kilometres. The 148 km Grande circuit was shortened twice, the first time to 108 km, the version used from 1919-1930. From 1951-1958, the coastal island tour variant was used for a separate event called the Giro di Sicilia.
The start and finish took place at Cerda, the second version of the track went south through Caltavuturo and took a shortcut starting right before Castellana to Collesano via the town of Polizzi Generosa. There was a circuit called Favorita Park used from 1937-1940. To put that in perspective, most purpose built circuits have between 12 and 18 corners, and the longest purpose built circuit in the world, the 13-mile Nurburgring, has about 180 corners. Like a rally event, the cars were started one by one every 15 seconds for a time trial, as a start from a full grid was not possible on the tight
Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ
The Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ was a sports car and racing car manufactured by Alfa Romeo from 1963 to 1967. In 2011, the name was reduced from Giulia TZ to TZ in the new TZ3 model, the original TZ, currently sometimes referenced as TZ1 to differ from TZ2, was developed in together with Autodelta, a company led by Ex-Ferrari engineer Carlo Chiti. The result was a lightweight coupé of only 650 kilograms and top speed of 134 miles per hour, the TZ was built both for street and racing trim, with the latest racing versions producing up to 160 brake horsepower. Aiding the TZ in its quest for performance was the treatment of the rear bodywork, incorporating the research of Dr. Wunibald Kamm, the TZ used a style called coda tronca in Italian, meaning short tail. Otherwise known as the Kamm tail, Zagato had previously proved the success of this tail treatment in their coda tronca Sprint Zagato sports-racing cars, and it was a natural evolution to adapt this to the Giulia TZ. The car debuted at the 1963 FISA Monza Cup, where TZs took the first four places in the prototype category, at the beginning of 1964 the TZ was homologated to the Gran Turismo category.
After homologation it started to take more class wins in Europe, of the first TZ,112 units were built between 1963 and 1965. Only built as limited amount these TZ models are quite collectibles nowadays, listed price around 150,1,570 cc straight-4 DOHC112 bhp at 6500 rpm,160 bhp In 1965 the car was updated with new fibreglass bodywork providing lower drag and reduced weight. This new version was made by Zagato. The new design was called the Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ2, the TZ2 was only built as racing version, it was equipped with an Autodelta-prepared twin plug, dry sump lubrication 1,570 cc straight-4 DOHC engine producing around 170 brake horsepower at 7000 rpm. With this engine the car reached top speed of 152 miles per hour, the rear window was changed, now single unit rather than three part window in TZ. Development of TZ cars was stopped in the end of 1965, the car won the prestigious Gran Turismo Trophy at the 2009 Pebble Beach Concours dElegance. The TZ3 was built in two forms, celebrating Alfa Romeos centenary in two different heritages, the Alfa Romeo TZ3 Corsa is the track version of the TZ3 built to celebrate 100 years of Alfa Romeo in racing.
The Corsa is a car that was first presented at, and won. This unique car, based on the Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione, was made for German collector Martin Kapp and is not intended for sale or for competitions. The car weighs 850 kg thanks to its carbon fiber frame, the car has a 6-speed sequential gearbox, it reaches a top speed of over 300 km/h and it can accelerate from zero to 100 km/h in 3.5 seconds. The chassis is a monocoque with some tubular elements. The suspension setup and rear, are double wishbones, with pushrod actuated coil springs, the Alfa Romeo TZ3 Stradale is the road version of the TZ3, designed by Norihiko Harada of Zagato, and was built to celebrate 100 years of Alfa Romeo on the road
Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance
The Pebble Beach Concours dElegance is an automotive charitable event held each year on the Pebble Beach Golf Links in Pebble Beach, considered the most prestigious event of its kind. It is the finale of Monterey Car Week held in August every year, a Concours dElegance is an event open to both prewar and postwar collector cars in which they are judged for authenticity, function and style. Classes are commonly arranged by type, coachbuilder, country of origin, judges select first-, second-, and third-place finishers for each class in the event, and the judges confer the Best of Show award on one car from the group of first-place winners. Approximately 15,000 spectators attend the event, the 1950 and 1951 Concours were held on a practice tee and driving range adjacent to the Beach Club, a private club near the Del Monte Lodge. Thirty cars were exhibited on November 4,1950, and a field of 23 on May 27,1951. In 1952, the event was moved to the 18th green of the Pebble Beach Golf Links, the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance has continued since 1950 with one missed year, in 1960, the show was cancelled due to scheduling conflicts.
In 2001, the event saw an introduction of a new category for preservation cars and this category was designed to bear witness to the passage of time, including the so-called barn find car. The 2006 event saw 175 cars lining the 18th green and hole of Pebble Beach Golf Links with 25 judged classes, with cars brought to Pebble Beach from 27 states and 13 countries. The event describes itself as Exhibiting prewar and postwar automobiles along with the latest in concept car designs, the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance is the premiere concours in the world. 24 of the 175 cars in the come from outside the U. S, representing Italy, France, Australia, Germany, Czech Republic, Netherlands. The total estimated cost of the vehicles spread across the 18th fairway at the 2006 event was US$200 million, from 227 cars in 2005, the 2006 event had a field reduced to 175 cars. Organizers said the change was made to more time to judge each car. In 2009, the Pebble Beach Concours included classic motorcycles for the first time under the theme of pre-1959 British Motorcycles, the Concours received the 2011 Motoring Event of the Year award by the International Historic Motoring Awards.
Each years Pebble Beach Concours honors a featured marque, prospective entrants must submit an application for each car, and the Concours field is selected from each years pool of applicants. Many collectors spend years and hundreds of thousands of dollars purchasing and restoring a car in hopes of being chosen, many of the competing cars are valued in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, and more recently into the millions of dollars. To the repeat participants, their guests, and thousands of attendees, the proceeds of the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance have supported the United Way of Monterey County and the Pebble Beach Company Foundation for a combination of 56 years. It supports a number of local and national organizations. The 2016 event raised over $1.75 million, and the Concours has given more than $23 million to charities through the years
Alfa Romeo Giulietta (750/101)
The 2+2 was Alfa Romeos first successful foray into the 1. 3-litre class. The Giulietta series was succeeded by the Giulia in 1962, the first Giulietta to be introduced was the Giulietta Sprint 2+2 coupé at the 1954 Turin Motor Show. Designed by Franco Scaglione at Bertone, it was produced at the coachbuilders Grugliasco plant near Turin, a year later, at the Turin Motor Show in April 1955, the Sprint was joined by the 4-door saloon Berlina. In mid 1955, the open two-seat Giulietta Spider, featuring convertible bodywork by Pininfarina, in 1957 more powerful Berlina version, called Giulietta T. I. was presented with minor cosmetic changes to the hood, the dial lights and rear lamps. Carrozzeria Colli made the Giulietta station wagon variant called Giulietta Promiscua, ninety-one examples of this version were built. Carrozzeria Boneschi made a few station wagon examples called Weekendina, a new version of the Giulietta Berlina debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1959. The bodywork showed a front end, with more rounded wings, recessed head lights.
The rear showed changes, with new tail lights on vestigial fins. The T. I. received a front side repeater mounted in a small spear, during 1959 the type designation for all models was changed from 750 and 753 to 101. In February 1961 the 100, 001st Giulietta rolled off the Portello factory, in Autumn 1961 the Giulietta was updated a second time. Both Normale and T. I. had revised engines and new exhaust systems, with this new engine the car could reach a speed of almost 160 km/h. At the front of the car square mesh side grilles were now pieced together with the centre shield, inside the T. I. had individual instead of bench seats, with storage nets on the seatbacks. June 1962 saw the introduction of the Alfa Romeo Giulia, which would replace the Giulietta. As until 1964 the Giulia only had a larger 1. 6-litre engine, production of the standard Berlina ended with 1963, a last T. I. was completed in 1965. The Alfa Romeo Giulietta used unibody construction and a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, front suspension was by control arms, with coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers.
At the rear there was an axle on coil springs. The axle was located by a link on each side. All Giuliettas had hydraulic brakes on all four corners
In relation to motorsport governed by the FIA, Group N referred to a set of regulations providing standard production vehicles for competition, often referred to as the Showroom Class. This contrasted with the Group A all-out competition production-derived vehicles, Group N cars are limited in terms of modifications made from standard specification. Group N was introduced by the FIA in 1982 to replace the outgoing Group 1 as standard touring cars. To qualify for homologation, a minimum of 2500 cars of the model had to be built in one year. The Group N regulations were replaced in 2013. No new cars will be homologated under Group A or Group N regulations, the R4 class itself will be gradually phased out. In 2015, the FIA realigned the rally classes yet again, a new class, NR4 has been added, and is identical to the previous Group N class, just with a new name to fit in with the other R names. R4 cars are now not allowed in FIA sanctioned rallies in Europe, while Group A became the standard category for international touring car racing, Group N found a home as a more economic class in national touring car racing.
In many countries, there would often be two touring car championships, one for Group A and one for Group N, in Rallying, the Production World Rally Championship was run under Group N rules until 2012. Some local variants of Group N have been created to allow other marques to compete where Group N is the national formula, cars with forced induction engines were fitted with a restrictor in front of the charger to limit power. Originally, Group N meant that all the interior trim had to be present, the springs and dampers were free, as are the internals of the gearbox and the final-drive ratio, providing that the homologated gear ratios and gearchange pattern were respected. This allowed the use of dog-engagement gearboxes, providing quicker gearchanges, there was provision for strengthening of the suspension components and bodyshell, provided this didnt alter the operating principle. The GpN 4WD Turbo rally car category underwent the process of being renamed as R4 for 2011, the key areas were that standard road car bodywork and driven wheels were retained from the road car that could be bought from the showroom.
Rallying – Wikipedia book Touring car racing – Wikipedia book