Abarth & C. S.p. A. is an Italian racing car and road car maker founded by Italo-Austrian Carlo Abarth in 1949. Its logo is a shield with a stylized scorpion on a red background. Abarth & C. S.p. A. is a owned subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p. A. the subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles controlling its European automotive production activities. Carlo Abarth was sporting director of the Cisitalia factory racing team starting in 1947. 1948 saw the financial downfall of Cisitalia, spurred by the investments needed to put the 202 coupé into production. The following year the manufacturer folded, founder Piero Dusio flew to Argentina. Carlo Abarth, funded by Armando Scagliarini, took over Cisitalia's assets and on 31 March 1949 Abarth & C. was founded in Bologna. Carlo's astrological sign, was chosen as the company logo. From the Cisitalia liquidation Abarth obtained five 204 sports cars, a D46 single seater and various spares; the 204s were rechristened Abarth 204 A. Abarth built and raced sports cars developed from the last Cisitalia cars.
In addition to Guido Scagliarini, the "Squadra Abarth" racing team lined up celebrated drivers including Tazio Nuvolari, Franco Cortese and Piero Taruffi. Notably Tazio Nuvolari made his last appearance in racing at the wheel of an Abarth 204 A, winning its class in the Palermo–Monte Pellegrino hillclimb on 10 April 1950. Alongside racing, the company's main activity was producing and selling accessories and performance parts for Fiat, Lancia and Simca cars, like inlet manifolds and silencers. On 9 April 1951 the company's headquarters were moved to Turin. In the 1960s, Abarth was successful in hillclimbing and sports car racing in classes from 850 cc to 2000 cc, competing with Porsche 904 and Ferrari Dino. Hans Herrmann was a factory driver from 1962 until 1965, winning the 500 km Nürburgring in 1963 with Teddy Pilette. Abarth promised Johann Abt. Abt succeeded: of the 30 races he entered, Abt won 29 and finished second once. Abt founded Abt Sportsline. Abarth produced high-performance exhaust pipes, diversifying into tuning kits for road vehicles for Fiat.
A racing exhaust was produced for the 1950s Lambretta models "D" and "LD". Original Abarth LD exhausts are now valuable collectors' items. Reproductions are available. Lambretta held several 125 cc motorcycle land speed records during the 1950s thanks to the exhaust that Abarth developed for them. Abarth helped build sports or racing cars with Porsche and Simca. Carlo sold Abarth to Fiat on 31 July 1971; the acquisition was only made public by Fiat with a press release on 15 October. As Fiat was not interested in the Reparto Corse racing operations, these were taken over by Enzo Osella. Osella obtained cars, spares and drivers, continued the racing activity founding the Osella racing team, thus ended for Abarth the days of sport prototype and hill climb racing. Under Fiat ownership, Abarth became the Fiat Group's racing department, managed by engine designer Aurelio Lampredi. Abarth prepared Fiat's rally cars, including 131 Abarth. In December 1977, in advance of the 1978 racing season, the beforehand competing Abarth and Squadra Corse Lancia factory racing operations were merged by Fiat into a single entity named EASA.
Cesare Fiorio was appointed director. The combined racing department developed the Lancia Beta Montecarlo Turbo Group 5 racing car which won the 1980 World Championship for Makes and the 1981 World Endurance Championship of Makes, it created the Lancia Rally 037 Group B rally car which won for Lancia the 1983 World Manufacturers' Championship). On 1 October 1981, Abarth & C. ceased to exist and was replaced by Fiat Auto Gestione Sportiva, a division of the parent company specialized in the management of racing programmes that would remain in operation through to the end of 1999, when it changed to Fiat Auto Corse S.p. A; some commercial models built by Fiat or its subsidiaries Lancia and Autobianchi were co-branded Abarth, including the Autobianchi A112 Abarth, a popular "boy racer" because it was lightweight and inexpensive. In the 1980s, Abarth name was used to mark performance cars, such as the Fiat Ritmo Abarth 125/130 TC. In 2000s, Fiat used the Abarth brand to designate a trim/model level, as in the Fiat Stilo Abarth.
On 1 February 2007 Abarth was re-established as an independent unit with the launch of the current company, Abarth & C. S.p.a. controlled 100% by Fiat Group Automobiles S.p. A. the subsidiary of Fiat S.p. A. dealing with the production and selling of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The first model launched was the Abarth Grande Punto and the Abarth Grande Punto S2000; the brand is based in part of the old Mirafiori engineering plant. The CEO as of 2011 is Harald Wester. In 2015, Abarth's parent company was renamed FCA Italy S.p. A. reflecting the incorporation of Fiat S.p. A. into Fiat Chrysler Automobiles that took place in the previous months. Abarths collaboration with Yamaha to produce for 2017 a limited-edition "Sport Heritage café racer special", the XSR900 Abarth based on Yamahas XSR900 847 cc inline-triple neo-retro standard. Fia
Ugo Gobbato was an Italian engineer and Managing Director of Alfa Romeo 1933 to 1945. He studied in Germany where he graduated in mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Zwickau in Saxony. After having fulfilled his military service between 1915 and 1918, he was hired to Fiat becoming the first director of the Lingotto factory. From 1929 to 1931, followed by the construction Fiat factories in Germany and Spain and again in 1931, by direct appointment of Fiat founder and senator Giovanni Agnelli, he was entrusted with the construction of the factory in Moscow, a city where he lived for over two years, he was back in Italy in 1933, the government and the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale gave him the task of reorganizing Alfa Romeo, facing bankruptcy. From 1938 he directed the development of a new factory in Alfa Romeo Pomigliano d'Arco plant outside Naples, bombed in 1943. Back in Milan, he led the company until he was assassinated in Milan on 28 April 1945 after the war.
He was followed as Alfa director by Pasquale Gallo. Ugo was the father of racing driver Pier Ugo Gobbato. Marino Parolin, Ugo Gobbato - La leggenda di un innovatore senza epoca, Volpago del Montello, 2009
The Autobianchi Y10 is a'designer' city car and economy car manufactured from 1985 to 1995 and marketed under the Lancia brand in most export markets. The car was manufactured at Fiat's Autobianchi plant in Desio, Milan until 1992 and after that in Arese, near Alfa Romeo's plants, it offered a high level of trim for its market segment. The Y10 featured a new rear rigid axle suspension design, subsequently fitted to the facelifted Fiat Panda. Despite its short length, the Y10 boasted a drag coefficient of just 0.31. It sold rather well, for its unique style, luxurious trim and the continuously variable transmission that equipped certain versions, its excellent aerodynamics, characterized by clean lines and a Kammback provided great fuel economy. The model could be seen as a forerunner to premium superminis such as the Fiat 500 and Citroen DS3. Sales in the United Kingdom were not strong, it was withdrawn from sale there in late 1991; this was more than two years before Lancia withdrew from Britain, all other RHD markets.
The Autobianchi Y10 made its official debut at the Geneva Motor Show in March 1985 designed to replace the fifteen-year-old A112. It lost out for the title of European Car of the Year for 1986 to the Ford/Merkur Scorpio; the A112 remained on sale, alongside the Y10 to the end of 1986. The Y10 was sold under the Autobianchi marque in Italy and Japan, in most other markets was sold under the Lancia marque; the Y10's most important design innovation was the vertical tail cut-off, characterized by the tailgate painted in black satin, regardless of the color chosen for the body. The notable wedge shape of the small body is aerodynamic thanks to the hood, inclined towards the curved windscreen, side windows that were mounted flush with the bodywork, as well as the absence of drip rails, the recessed door handles and roof tapering toward the back. All these features were unique for a small car in 1985 and were developed by the Fiat Style Centre, at that time led by Ing. Vittorio Ghidella; the definition of the project Y10 took more than three years of study.
It was necessary that this car have a specific identity to allow it to be unequivocally placed under the Lancia brand. The appointments were entrusted to Pininfarina and Giorgetto Giugiaro as well as the Fiat Style Centre. Hundreds of drawings were executed with sketches and scale models starting as early as 1980. A design by the Fiat Style Centre was selected and developed that best responded to the theme of a car destined for a particular user, "select and elite", a real flagship miniature desired by women as much as a handbag and identified by the men as their favorite perfume; the car had rectangular headlights, together with a simple and elegant grille, defined the shape of the engine hood, giving the front of the car a "technical" look different from the back end. The windshield, installed with silicone resin instead of a rubber gasket, was large and characterized by a single wiper, a functional and practical solution; the side was kept clean and is characterized by a belt line from the base of the hood rising as it approaches the lower edge of the tailgate, delimited by the wrap-around taillights.
The flanks did not have any pronounced rib, only a slight pleat, a profile of embellishment and protection. The Y10 was offered only with a three-door body with large doors, offering easy access for rear passengers; the tailgate was on a nearly vertical plane, hinged to make it more practical to access the luggage compartment by shifting the point of rotation eleven centimeters towards the center of the roof, allowing for easy opening. The rear lights were of a horizontal layout, similar to the latest A112 with a bumper wrapping around the sides of the car underneath them; the interior has carpeting on the floor, standard on all versions, cloth upholstery on the seats and top-range versions featured Alcantara upholstery on the dashboard and door panels, options such as electric windows, central locking, split rear bench seat, rear window hinged electrically, glass sunroof and climate control system with electronic controls and LED display, similar to that adopted on Fiat Regata. The attention and interest shown by the international public at the Geneva Motor Show, gave Fiat-Lancia Group hope that the new Y10 met the public's taste, but sales in the first month struggled.
There were few people prepared to pay the Y10's asking price. In 1985 Autobianchi-Lancia assembled 63,495 Y10s; the campaign focused on technical content. Because the Y10 was an innovative car that offered exceptional performance and a series of new solutions in its class, the car became unmistakable, characterized by its modernity. All versions came with a five speed gearbox, front-wheel drive, a front transverse engine, a MacPherson strut suspension and a front and rear rigid "omega" axle. Y10 Fire was equipped with the new four-cylinder Fire, with displacement of 999 cc and maximum power of 45 hp at 5000 rpm/minute, a flexible engine, with low fuel consumption, low noise, low-power, allowing it to exceed 145 km/h and to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in 16 seconds. Y10 Touring: It was powered by a Brazilian-built motor of 1049 cc, used in the brazilian Fiat Uno; this has a maximum power of 56 hp at 5850 r/min and maximum torque of 81.4 N m at 3000 r/min, was developed from Fiat's Lampredi-designed four-cylinder that equipped the Fiat 127.
The Touring is externally identical to the Y10 Fire, aside from the trunk badging, while on the carrier can be seen the Alcantara in place o
Alfa Romeo Arna
The Alfa Romeo Arna is a hatchback produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo Nissan Autoveicoli S.p. A. between 1983 and 1987. The company was founded on 9 October 1980, as a 50:50 joint venture between the Italian Alfa Romeo S.p. A. and the Japanese Nissan Motor Company. On October 9, 1980, Takashi Ishihara of Nissan and Alfa Romeo President Ettore Massacesi signed a memorandum in Tokyo for increased cooperation between their two firms, revealed their intent to create a joint production venture called AR. N. A. S.p. A.. Italian Prime Minister Francesco Cossiga endorsed the deal, despite political and auto industry opposition, because he hoped to bolster the fortunes of the state owned manufacturer, which had a cult following but was losing money; the immediate priority of Alfa management, including Massacesi and managing director Corrado Innocenti was to field a competitor in the lucrative family hatchback market sector where the compact Volkswagen Golf and Lancia Delta were proving successful, they hoped an alliance with Nissan would bring a competitive model to market quicker and more cheaply.
During that period, European countries were engaging in protectionism to guard their domestic car industries, with France banning the import of Japanese made vehicles. Working with Alfa Romeo, who controlled a respectable amount of European auto sales at the time was seen as a good hedge for Nissan and a chance to establish a foothold in the European market. For the joint venture, a new plant was constructed near Naples; the body panels of the car were constructed in Japan by Nissan shipped to Italy for final assembly. Nissan and Alfa Romeo engaged in a commercial cabover truck, called the Romeo and rebadged as the Nissan Trade for a short time; the product of the relationship was launched at the 1983 Frankfurt Motor Show. The Arna was based on the N12 series Nissan Pulsar / Nissan Cherry but featured Alfa Romeo engines carried over from the Alfasud, as well as an Alfa transmission, front brakes and front suspension, it did however use rear brakes from Nissan. The Arna was briefly marketed as the Nissan Cherry Europe in the United Kingdom and Spain.
Italian built cars badged as Nissan Cherry Europe can be identified by their rear lighting clusters, which match those of the Arna rather than the Japanese built Cherry. Although no variants of the Italian built Arna were sold in Japan, a domestic version of the N12 Nissan Pulsar, labelled the Nissan Pulsar Milano X1, made use of the Alfa Romeo connection in its publicity and was fitted with the same black and green interior as the Arna Ti or Cherry Europe GTi; the model was N12 based and featured the usual transversely mounted Nissan E engine. While British Leyland and Honda had a limited partnership in the United Kingdom at that time, the Nissan and Alfa Romeo alliance was the first of its kind between a European and Japanese automaker with joint investment into manufacturing and development, it was feared by the European Economic Community and Alfa's future parent Fiat, that the success of this partnership would be a Trojan horse for Japanese automakers to unfairly compete in Europe and decimate the European automotive manufacturing industry.
However, such fears were allayed upon the Arna's release when it became obvious that the Arna exhibited the worst qualities of each of its parents. The Arna featured tempestuous mechanicals and indifferent build quality courtesy of Alfa Romeo, married to a Nissan body of questionable build and frumpy, box like styling, with insipid handling common to Japanese cars of the time; this mismatch of technical strengths served to kill the sales of the Arna rapidly. As the car gained a reputation for poor build quality and questionable reliability, sales of the Nissan badged Cherry Europe sister car nosedived, as loyal Nissan customers shunned it in favour of the "genuine" Japanese built Cherry instead. By 1986, Alfa Romeo's parent company, the Italian government owned Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale was suffering from heavy losses, IRI president Romano Prodi put Alfa Romeo up for sale, with Fiat emerging as the new owner of Alfa. Fiat's first decision was to cease Arna production owing to its poor reputation and poor sales, to terminate the unsuccessful Alfa Romeo Nissan alliance.
Production ceased in 1987, with Fiat intending to strengthen the competitiveness of the Alfa Romeo 33 as Alfa's entry in that segment. By this time, Nissan had set up a European operation of its own at Nissan Motor Manufacturing UK in Sunderland, which became hugely successful; the Arna was sold as a three door L and a five door SL, was fitted with the Alfasud 1.2 boxer engine. In 1984, a three door TI version, with an 86 PS 1.3 litre boxer four engine, was introduced, capable of reaching a top speed of 170 km/h. In November 1984 came a more powerful 1.2 engine in the same trim configurations with 68 PS, while there were no external differences there were light alterations to the interior. There were some TI trim cars built with 1.5 litre engines, sold as the Nissan Cherry Europe GTI. The more powerful 1.5 TI/Cherry GTI had a top speed of 175 km/h. The TI version was discontinued halfway through 1986. Source: In June 2000, it was reported that only 34 Alfa Romeo Arnas were still registered with the Driver and Vehicle Licens
Pomigliano d'Arco is a municipality in the Metropolitan City of Naples in Italy, located north of Mount Vesuvius. The city is home to several automobile plants and the aeronautic manufacturing firm Alenia Aeronautica, it is home to Elasis, Fiat's research center in southern Italy. During World War II, Pomigliano was the location of a large military airfield and base, was attacked on several occasions by the United States Army Air Forces; the airfield was used by the RAF and the USAAF Twelfth Air Force during the Italian campaign and known as RAF Pomigliano and Pomigliano Airfield. Maurer, Maurer. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History, 1983. ISBN 0-89201-092-4; this article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Official website Official site of the International Jazz Festival of Pomigliano d'Arco Visit Figli Di Pomigliano D'Arco, a non-profit organization, established in 2007
Giambattista Vico was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment. He criticized the expansion and development of modern rationalism, was an apologist for Classical Antiquity, a precursor of systematic and complex thought, in opposition to Cartesian analysis and other types of reductionism, was the first expositor of the fundamentals of social science and of semiotics; the Latin aphorism Verum esse ipsum factum coined by Vico is an early instance of constructivist epistemology. He inaugurated the modern field of the philosophy of history, although the term philosophy of history is not in his writings, Vico spoke of a “history of philosophy narrated philosophically." Although he was not an historicist, contemporary interest in Vico has been motivated by historicists, such as Isaiah Berlin, an historian of ideas, Edward Said, a literary critic, Hayden White, a metahistorian. Giambattista Vico's intellectual magnum opus is the book Scienza Nuova, which attempts a systematic organization of the humanities as a single science that recorded and explained the historical cycles by which societies rise and fall.
Born to a bookseller in Naples, Giovan Battista Vico attended several schools, but ill health and dissatisfaction with the scholasticism of the Jesuits led to his being educated at home by tutors. Evidence from his autobiographical work indicates that Vico was an autodidact educated under paternal influence, during a three-year absence from school, consequence of an accidental fall when the boy was seven years old. Giovann Battista’s formal education was at the University of Naples from which he was graduated in 1694, as Doctor of Civil and Canon Law. In 1686, after surviving a bout of typhus, he accepted a job as a tutor, in Vatolla, south of Salerno, which became a nine-year professional engagement that lasted till 1695. Four years in 1699, Vico married Teresa Caterina Destito, a childhood friend, accepted a chair in rhetoric at the University of Naples, which he held until ill-health retirement, in 1741. Throughout his academic career, Vico would aspire to, but never attain, the more respectable chair of jurisprudence.
Vico's version of rhetoric is product of his pedagogic concerns. In the 1708 commencement speech De Nostri Temporis Studiorum Ratione, Vico said that whoever “intends a career in public life, whether in the courts, the senate, or the pulpit” should be taught to “master the art of topics and defend both sides of a controversy, be it on Nature, Man, or politics, in a freer and brighter style of expression, so he can learn to draw on those arguments which are most probable and have the greatest degree of verisimilitude”; as Royal Professor of Latin Eloquence, Vico prepared students for higher studies in the fields of Law and of Jurisprudence. Yet, Vico chose to emphasize the Aristotelian connection of rhetoric with logic and dialectic, thereby placing ends at their center. Vico's objection to modern rhetoric is that it is disconnected from common sense, defined as the “worldly sense”, common to all men. In lectures and throughout the body of his work, Vico's rhetoric begins from a central argument, to be clarified by following the order of things as they arise in our experience.
Probability and circumstance retain their proportionate importance, discovery — reliant upon topics — supersedes axioms derived through reflective, abstract thought. In the tradition of classical Roman rhetoric, Vico sets out to educate the orator as the transmitter of the oratio, a speech with ratio at the centre. What is essential to the oratorical art is the orderly link between common sense and an end commensurate with oratory. In the tradition of Socrates and Cicero, Vico's true orator will be midwife to the birth of “the true” from “the certain”, the ignorance in the mind of the student. Rediscovery of "the most ancient wisdom" of the senses, a wisdom, humana stultitia, Vico's emphases on the importance of civic life and of professional obligations are in the humanist tradition, he would call for a maieutic oratory art against the grain of the modern privilege of the dogmatic form of reason, in what he called the “geometrical method” of René Descartes and the logicians at the Port-Royal-des-Champs abbey.
As he relates in his autobiography, Vico returned to Naples from Vatolla to find "the physics of Descartes at the height of its renown among the established men of letters." Developments in both metaphysics and the natural sciences abounded as the result of Cartesianism. Disseminated by the Port Royal Logic of Antoine Arnauld and Pierre Nicole, Descartes's method was rooted in verification: the only path to truth, thus knowledge, was through axioms derived from observation. Descartes's insistence that the "sure and indubitable" should form the basis of reasoning had an obvious impact on the prevailing views of logic and disco
Simca was a French automaker, founded in November 1934 by Fiat and directed from July 1935 to May 1963 by Italian Henri Théodore Pigozzi. Simca was affiliated with Fiat and, after Simca bought Ford's French activities, became controlled by the Chrysler Group. In 1970, Simca became a subsidiary and brand of Chrysler Europe, ending its period as an independent company. Simca disappeared in 1978, when Chrysler divested its European operations to another French automaker, PSA Peugeot Citroën. PSA replaced the Simca brand with Talbot after a short period when some models were badged as Simca-Talbots. During most of its post-war activity, Simca was one of the biggest automobile manufacturers in France; the Simca 1100 was for some time the best-selling car in France, while the Simca 1307 and Simca Horizon won the coveted European Car of the Year title in 1976 and 1978, respectively—these models were badge engineered as products of other marques in some countries. For instance the Simca 1307 was sold in Britain as the Chrysler Alpine, the Horizon was sold under the Chrysler brand.
Simca vehicles were manufactured by Simca do Brasil in São Bernardo do Campo and Barreiros in Spain. They were assembled in Australia, Chile and the Netherlands during the Chrysler era. In Argentina, Simca had a small partnership with Metalmecánica SAIC for the production of the Simca Ariane in 1965. Henri Théodore Pigozzi was active in the automotive business in the early 1920s when he met Fiat founder, Giovanni Agnelli, they began business together in 1922 with Pigozzi acting as a scrap merchant, buying old automobile bodies and sending them to Fiat for recycling. Two years Pigozzi became Fiat's General Agent in France, in 1926 SAFAF was founded. In 1928, SAFAF started the assembly of Fiat cars in Suresnes near Paris, licensed the production of some parts to local suppliers. By 1934, as many as 30,000 Fiat cars were sold by SAFAF; the SIMCA company was founded in 1935 by FIAT, when Fiat bought the former Donnet factory in the French town of Nanterre. The first cars produced were Fiat 508 Balillas and Fiat 518 Arditas, but with Simca-Fiat 6CV and 11CV badges.
They were followed during 1936 by the Simca Cinq or 5CV, a version of the Fiat Topolino announced in the Spring, but only available for sale from October 1936. The Huit, an 8CV version of the Fiat 508C-1100, appeared in 1937. Production of the 6CV and 11CV stopped in 1937, leaving the 5CV and the 8CV in production until the outbreak of World War II; the firm remained connected with Fiat, it was not until 1938 that the shortened name "Simca" replaced "Simca-Fiat". Of the businesses that emerged as France's big four auto-makers after the war, Simca was unique in not suffering serious bomb damage to its plant. There were persistent suggestions that Henri Pigozzi's close personal relationship with the Agnelli family and Fiat's powerful political influence with the Mussolini government in Italy secured favourable treatment for Simca during the years when France fell under the control of Italy's powerful ally, Germany. Despite France being occupied, Simca cars continued to be produced in small numbers throughout the war.
Following the 1944 liberation, the company’s close association with Italy became an obvious liability in the feverish atmosphere of recrimination and new beginnings that swept France following four years of German occupation. Shortly after the liberation the Nanterre plant's financial sustainability received a boost when Simca won a contract from the American army to repair large numbers of Jeep engines. On 3 January 1946 the new government’s five-year plan for the automobile industry came into force. Government plans for Simca involved pushing it into a merger with various smaller companies such as Delahaye-Delage, Bernard and Unic so as to create an automobile manufacturing combine to be called “Générale française automobile”. With half an eye on the Volkswagen project across the Rhine, the authorities determined that GFA should produce the two door version of the “AFG”, a small family car, developed during the war by the influential automobile engineer, Jean-Albert Grégoire. Grégoire owed his influence to a powerfully persuasive personality and a considerable engineering talent.
Regarding the future of the French automobile industry, Grégoire held strong opinions, two of which favoured front-wheel drive and aluminium as a material for car bodies. A few weeks after the liberation Grégoire joined the Simca board as General Technical Director, in order to prepare for the production of the AFG at the company’s Nanterre factory. For Simca, faced with a determinedly dirigiste left-wing French government, the prospect of nationalisation seemed real. Simca’s long standing Director General, Henri Pigozzi, was obliged to deploy his considerable reserves of guile and charm in order to retain his own position within the company, it appears that in the end Pigozzi owed his survival at Simca to the intervention with the national politicians of his new board room colleague, Jean-Albert Grégoire. In return, Grégoire obtained the personal commitment of the surviving Director General to the production at Nanterre of his two-door AFG, it is easy to see how the two-door AFG looked, because its four-door equivalent went into