ZF Friedrichshafen AG known as ZF Group Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen, abbreviated to ZF, is a German car parts maker headquartered in Friedrichshafen, in the south-west German region of Baden-Württemberg. Specialising in engineering, it is known for its design and development, manufacturing activities in the automotive industry, it is a worldwide supplier of driveline and chassis technology for cars and commercial vehicles, along with specialist plant equipment such as construction equipment. It is involved in rail, marine and aviation industries, as well as general industrial applications. ZF has 230 production locations in 40 countries with 146,000 employees. ZF Friedrichshafen is more than 90% owned by the Zeppelin Foundation, controlled by the town of Friedrichshafen; the company was founded in 1915 in Zepernick, Germany by Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH, to produce gears for Zeppelins and other airships. Zeppelin was unable to otherwise obtain gears for his airships; the German Zahnradfabrik translates to'gear factory' in English.
Literally'tooth-wheel factory'. By 1919, ZF had moved into the automobile market, a move consolidated by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles; some of the most important milestones that followed: 1920: Patent application submitted for the Soden pre-selector transmission. 1921: Under a rampant inflation and investor fears, the company goes public as the Zepernicker Zahnradfabrik, with the Zeppelin Luftschiffbau GmbH holding 80% of the stock options, valued at 4 million Marks. 1927: Moved to Friedrichshafen and changed the name to ZF Friedrichshafen 1929: A thriving auto industry warrants the series production of the innovative helical ZF Aphon transmission for cars and commercial vehicles. 1932: Launch of steering systems production under license. Today: ZF Lenksysteme GmbH. 1944: On 3 August, the Zahnradfabrik was bombed by the Fifteenth Air Force as a secondary target. As early as 20 September 1942, Albert Speer had warned Hitler of how important the Friedrichshafen tank engine production and the Schweinfurt ball-bearing facilities were.
After the bombing, the company was relocated to Zepernick until the 1970s. 1953: Market launch of the first synchronised transmission for commercial vehicles worldwide. 1961: Development of a automatic transmission for passenger cars. With series production beginning in 1969, proving popular, the 3HP20 is built to be swappable with the company's manual transmissions; the 1960s sees ZF supplying transmissions to major German automakers as well as Peugeot and Alfa Romeo. 1977: Start of volume production for automatic transmissions for commercial vehicles. Worldwide subsidiaries and factories were opened in the 1970s, the company moved into India and South Korea. 1980s: ZF started operating in Asia in the mid 80s 1984: Majority shareholding gained in Lemförder Metallwaren AG, today ZF Lemförder GmbH. 1986: Start of USA transmission production in Gainesville, for pickup trucks. ZF became a major supplier to Ford in the 1980s. 1991: The 5HP18 was the first 5-speed automatic transmission for passenger cars.
Introduced in 1991 on the BMW E36 320i/325i and E34 5 Series 1994: Development of an automatic transmission system for heavy commercial vehicles. The company expanded into China in the 1990s. 1999: World premiere for the first automatic 6-speed transmission. Series production begins with the BMW 7 Series as the first client. Today, ZF produces around one million six-speed automatic transmissions annually. 2001: Acquisition of Mannesmann Sachs AG. Today: ZF Sachs AG. 2001: Active Roll Stabilization premiere on BMW 7 Series 2002: Presentation of the world's first 4-point link – a newly developed chassis module for trucks and buses. 2003: First deliveries of the Active Steering systems for passenger cars. 2004: Ford starts volume production of the continuously variable transmissions for passenger cars developed by ZF. 2005: The 10-millionth airbag casing, the 5-millionth passenger car axle system and the 2-millionth'Servolectric' electric power steering system are delivered. 2006: ZF produces the 10-millionth passenger car automatic transmission.
2007: One of the world's first 8-speed automatic transmissions, the 8HP boasted to achieve an 11% improvement in fuel economy in comparison with standard 6-speed automatic transmissions. Production began in 2009. 2008: Acquisition of keyboard manufacturers Cherry Corporation. Incorporated into the ZF Electronics GmbH Corporate Division. 2011: World premiere for the first automatic 9-speed transmission. 2011: Production of 8-speed automatic transmission begins in Chrysler-owned plant in Kokomo, Indiana, USA, to supply Chrysler with RWD transmissions. Land Rover will demonstrate the world's first nine-speed automatic transmission for a passenger car at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show; the ZF 9HP transmission is designed for transverse applications, is one of the most efficient and technically advanced transmissions used in a production vehicle. Land Rover is the lead partner with ZF on this project. 2013: Jeep announces that ZF has developed a nine-speed automatic transmission for use in its all-new 2014 Jeep Cherokee midsized crossover utility vehicle.
2013: ZF Opens Passenger Car Transmission Plant in the U. S. 2014: Acquires American auto parts manufacturer TRW Automotive for $13.5 billion. 2015: Acquires industrial gears and wind turbine gearbox segment from Bosch Rexroth. ZF Friedrichshafen products include automatic and manual transmissions for cars, trucks and construction equipment.
Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine
The Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine is an all-alloy inline-four engine series produced by Alfa Romeo from 1954 to 1994. In Italian it is known as the "bialbero", has been nicknamed the "Nord" engine in reference to its being built in Milan in the North of Italy and to distinguish it from the Alfa Romeo Boxer engine built in the South for the Alfasud; the Twin Cam's predecessor appeared in the 1950 Alfa Romeo 1900 and was an under-square inline four cylinder with a cast-iron block, an aluminium alloy cylinder head with double overhead cams and a 90° included angle between intake and exhaust valves. Development of that engine was overseen by Orazio Satta Puliga who would helm development of its successor; the 1952 Disco Volante had a 2 litre DOHC four cylinder engine with an aluminium block and sleeves, but this seems to have been a custom version of the 1900 engine rather than a prototype of the forthcoming Twin Cam. While the Twin Cam shared some features with the 1900 engine, it was a new design by Giuseppe Busso.
The Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine debuted in the 1954 Giulietta. The engine featured: An aluminium alloy engine block with cast iron "wet" cylinder liners An aluminium alloy cylinder head with hemispherical combustion chambers. A forged steel crankshaft running in five main bearings Double overhead camshafts driven by a double row timing chain Direct valve actuation via camshafts on bucket tappets Two inclined valves per cylinder with a near-centrally located spark plug Inlet and exhaust valves separated by an angle of 80 degrees A large, finned oil sump; these features made the Twin Cam an advanced design for a production car engine of the mid-1950s and would, with minor variations, form the basis of all future versions of the engine. The engine displaced 1,290 cc in the 1954 Giulietta. In 1960 another version of the Twin Cam was unveiled along with the Alfa Romeo Tipo 103 small car prototype; this version was noteworthy because, with a bore of 66 mm, a stroke of 65.5 mm and displacing just 896 cc, it was the smallest four-cylinder Twin Cam ever.
Power was 39 kW. In adapting the engine to the transverse front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout the engine block and transaxle case were built as one unit. Only three of these engines were built. On June 27, 1962 a larger Twin Cam appeared in the just-released Giulia; the obvious change was that displacement was increased to 1,567 cc, but the engine was now being produced using a different casting method. The diameter of the valve stems had been increased by 1 to 9 mm, the bore centre spacing was different, the timing chain longer and the crank had been revised, among other changes. In 1968 the engine was again this time to 1,779 cc, for the 1750 GTV and 1750 Berlina. Additional changes to this version included offsetting the big-end bearings on the connecting rods, adding sodium-filled exhaust valves. In 1971 a 1,962 cc version was introduced for 2000 Berlina; this largest production Twin Cam had fewer teeth in the ring-gear and 6 bolts holding the flywheel instead of 8. When the engine was adapted for use in the Alfetta in 1972, this necessitated a new oil pump and a change away from the finned sump used in the 105-series cars.
While this was an aesthetic loss it may have been beneficial in other ways, as some owners reported that the old sump kept the engine and oil so cool that in cold weather it was sometimes necessary to block off the radiator airflow to raise the coolant temperature enough for the interior heater to be effective. Since the Alfetta used a rear-mounted transaxle, there was no need for a pilot bearing in the engine; the Twin Cam was the first production automobile engine. The system that appeared on the 1980 Spider was an electro-mechanical system employing a variator to alter the phase but not duration of the intake camshaft. Alfa Romeo's Autodelta competition arm produced a multiplicity of variations on the Twin Cam for different racing classes and cars including the racing oriented GTA. Displacements ranged from a 1,283 cc over-square version with a bore and stroke of 84 mm × 57.9 mm up to a 2,056 cc version with a bore and stroke of 86 mm × 88.5 mm. Many of these engines used dual ignition systems.
Though Alfa Romeo never sold a production version of the Twin Cam with more than 8 valves, at least two 16 valve cylinder heads were available. A number of Autodelta engines had them, another 16-valve head was developed by the tuner Franco Angelini; some Autodelta cylinder heads had an included angle between the intake and exhaust valves narrower than the 80° used in the majority of the production engines. These heads are called "testa stretta"; some engines had what was called a "monosleeve" liner, where all four cylinder bore liners are cast side-by-side in a single piece. The 1959 Asardo 1500 AR-S was a one-off non-Alfa prototype that used a custom-built version of the Twin Cam. Starting with a 1,290 cc block the bore was increased to 79.5 mm by using custom pistons and wet liners from Mahle so that its final displacement was 1,489 cc and power was 135 bhp. In 1967 the Alfa Romeo GTA SA debuted at the Geneva Motor Show. Built by Autodelta, the 1,567 cc Twin Cam engine was boosted by two superchargers driven by an engine-powered oil pump.
Power was reported to be 220 bhp. In 1979 the Alfa Romeo GTV Turbodelta was released; the 2 litre engine was augmented by a KKK turbocharger blowing through a pair of Dell'Orto DHLA40H pressurised carburetors and produced 150 bhp in normal tune. This car was only of
A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle, designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. In the United Kingdom, the word "minibus" is used to describe any full-sized passenger carrying van. Minibuses have a seating capacity of between 30 seats. Larger minibuses may be called midibuses. Minibuses are front-engined step-entrance vehicles, although low floor minibuses do exist. Minibuses are used for a variety of reasons. In a public transport role, they can be used as fixed route transit buses, airport buses, flexible demand responsive transport vehicles, share taxis or large taxicabs. Accessible minibuses can be used for paratransit type services, by local authorities, transit operators, hospitals or charities. Private uses of minibuses can include charter buses, tour buses. Schools, sports clubs, community groups and charities may use minibuses for private transport. Individual owners may use reduced seating minibuses as cheap recreational vehicles.
By size, microbuses are minibuses smaller than 8 metres long. Midibuses are minibuses smaller than full-size buses. There are many different types and configurations of minibuses, due to historical and local differences, usage. Minibus designs can be classified in three main groups, with a general increase in seating capacity with each type: Van conversions. Simple, optional extras Body builds Purpose built The most basic source of minibuses is the van conversion, where the minibus is derived by modifying the existing van design. Conversions may be produced by the van manufacturer, sold as part of their standard model line-up, or be produced by specialist conversion companies, who source a suitably prepared base model from the van manufacturer for final completion as a minibus. Van conversions involve adding windows to the bodywork, seating to the cargo area. Van conversion minibuses outwardly look the same shape as the parent van, the driver and front passenger cabin remains unchanged, retaining the driver and passenger doors.
Access to the former cargo area for passengers is through the standard van side sliding door, or the rear doors. These may be fitted with step equipment to make boarding easier. Optional extras to van converted minibuses can include the addition of a rollsign for transit work, and/or a full-height walk-in door, for passenger access to the former cargo area. For public transport use, this door may be an automatic concertina type. For other uses, this may be a simple plug style coach door. Depending on the relevant legislation, conversions may involve wheelchair lifts and tachograph equipment. A van conversion with a passenger area in the front and a storage area in the back, behind a fixed bulkhead, is called a splitter bus. Examples of vans used for these conversion minibuses are: Ford Transit Hyundai H350 LDV Maxus Mercedes-Benz Sprinter Renault Master Toyota Hiace Volkswagen Crafter Another method of building a minibus is for a second stage manufacturer to build a specific body for fitting to a semi-completed van or light truck chassis.
These allow a higher seating capacity than a simple van conversion. The second stage manufacturer is a bus manufacturer. In a body-on-chassis minibus, a cabin body is installed on a van or light truck chassis encompassing the drivers area; these designs may retain some outward signs such as the hood and grill. Other designs are visually a complete bus design, it is the chassis underneath, from the van design; the body-on-chassis approach gives the advantage of higher seating capacity, or more room for passenger comfort, through a larger cabin area. There is the advantage of being able to have the drivers seat positioned in a small cubicle, next to the main passenger entrance, allowing the driver to collect fares in a transit bus role. Examples of body built minibuses are: Busette Optare CityPacer Plaxton Beaver Examples of vehicles used for this type of minibuses are: Ford Transit Freight Rover Isuzu Elf locally built as the NQR bus A next generation approach to the van-derived or cutaway chassis approach, is for manufacturers to produce an integral design, where the whole vehicle is purposely designed and built for use as a minibus.
This is done by an integral bus manufacturer, although large automotive groups produce their own models. These designs are available in long high capacity versions, may attract different designations, such as midibus, or light bus. Examples of purpose built minibuses are: Hino Liesse Isuzu Journey MCW Metrorider Nissan Diesel RN Nissan Civilian Mitsubishi Fuso Rosa Toyota Coaster Karsan J9 Premier Karsan J10 Hyundai County Daewoo Lestar Renault Dodge S56 Following the development of low-floor technology, some low-floor purpose built minibuses have been created; some offer a low floor access through a centre door. Some short versions of low floor midibuses are sometimes called minibuses. Orion International "Orion II" Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Midi ME Optare Solo Optare Alero Karsan JEST! Hino Poncho Nissan Diesel RN Bluebird Tucana Bluebird Auriga Mercedes-Benz Sprinter There are many different form of public transportation services around the world that are provided by using vehicles that can be considered as minibus: Chiva bus in Colombia and
A van is a type of road vehicle used for transporting goods or people. Depending on the type of van it can be bigger or smaller than a truck and SUV, bigger than a common car. There is some varying in the scope of the word across the different English-speaking countries; the smallest vans, are used for transporting either goods or people in tiny quantities. Mini MPVs, Compact MPVs, MPVs are all small vans used for transporting people in small quantities. Larger vans with passenger seats are used such as transporting students. Larger vans with only front seats are used for business purposes, to carry goods and equipment. Specially-equipped vans are used by television stations as mobile studios. Postal services and courier companies use large step vans to deliver packages. Van meaning a type of vehicle arose as a contraction of the word caravan; the earliest records of van as a vehicle in English are in the mid 19th century meaning a covered wagon for transporting goods. Caravan with the same meaning has records since the 1670s.
A caravan, meaning one wagon, had arisen as an extension or corruption of caravan meaning a convoy of multiple wagons. The word van has different, but overlapping, meanings in different forms of English. While the word always now applies to boxy cargo vans, other applications are found to a greater or lesser extent in the different English-speaking countries. In Australian English, the term van is used to describe a minivan, a passenger minibus, or an Australian panel van as manufactured by companies such as Holden and Ford at various times. A full-size van used for commercial purposes is known as a van; the term van can sometimes be used interchangeably with caravan, which in the U. S. is referred to as a travel trailer. The British term people mover is used in Australian English to describe a passenger van; the American usage of van to mean a cargo box trailer or semi-trailer is used if in Australia. In India, the van is one of the most common modes of transport and is used for transporting school children to and from schools when parents working parents, are too busy to pick their children up from school or when school buses are full and unable to accommodate other children.
Early Japanese vans include Mazda Bongo and the Toyota LiteAce van. The Japanese produced many vans based on the American flat nose model, but mini-vans which for the American market have evolved to the long-wheelbase front wheel drive form factor pioneered by the Nissan Prairie and Mitsubishi Chariot. Microvans, vans that fulfill kei car regulations, are popular for small business; the term is used to describe full-fledged station wagons and hatchbacks with a basic trim package intended for commercial use. These are sometimes referred to as "Light Vans". In British English, the word van refers to vehicles that carry goods only, on both rails. What would be called a minivan in American English is called a people-carrier or MPV, or multi-purpose vehicle, larger passenger vehicles are called a minibus; the Telegraph newspaper introduced the idea of "White Van Man", a typical working class man or small business owner who would have a white Ford Transit, Mercedes-Benz Sprinter, or similar panel van.
Today the phrase "man and van" refers to light removal firms operated by a sole business owner transporting anything from the contents of a whole house to just a few boxes. The word "van" refers to railway covered goods wagons, called "boxcars" in the United States. In the United States, a van can refer to a box-shaped trailer or semi-trailer used to carry goods. In this case there is a differentiation between a "dry van", used to carry most goods, a refrigerated van, or reefer, used for cold goods. A railway car used to carry baggage is called a van. A vehicle referred to as a full-size van is a large, boxy vehicle that has a platform and powertrain similar to their light truck counterparts; these vans may be sold with the space behind the front seats empty for transporting of goods, or furnished for passenger use by either the manufacturer or another company for more personal comforts, such as entertainment systems. Full-size vans have a short hood, with the engine block moved to within the passenger cabin.
A cutaway van chassis is a variation of the full size van, developed for use by many second stage manufacturers. Such a unit has a van front end, driver controls in a cab body which extends only to a point aft of the driver and passenger seats, where the rest of the van body is cutoff. From that point aft only the chassis frame rails and running gear extend to the rear when the unit is shipped as an "incomplete vehicle". A second stage manufacturer known as a bodybuilder, will complete the vehicle for uses such as recreational vehicles, small school buses, type III ambulances, delivery trucks. A large portion of cutaway van chassis are equipped with dual rear wheels; some second stage manufacturers add a third weight-bearing single wheel "tag axle" for larger minibus models. The term van may refer to a minivan. However, minivans are distinguished by their smaller size and traditionally front wheel drive powertrain, although many now are being equipped with four wheel drive. Minivans offer seven or eight passenger seating capacity (similar to the smallest
The Diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel, injected into the combustion chamber, is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to the mechanical compression. Diesel engines work by compressing only the air; this increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that atomised Diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber ignites spontaneously. With the fuel being injected into the air just before combustion, the dispersion of the fuel is uneven; the process of mixing air and fuel happens entirely during combustion, the oxygen diffuses into the flame, which means that the Diesel engine operates with a diffusion flame. The torque a Diesel engine produces is controlled by manipulating the air ratio; the Diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any practical internal or external combustion engine due to its high expansion ratio and inherent lean burn which enables heat dissipation by the excess air.
A small efficiency loss is avoided compared with two-stroke non-direct-injection gasoline engines since unburned fuel is not present at valve overlap and therefore no fuel goes directly from the intake/injection to the exhaust. Low-speed Diesel engines can reach effective efficiencies of up to 55%. Diesel engines may be designed as either four-stroke cycles, they were used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they have been used in ships. Use in locomotives, heavy equipment and electricity generation plants followed later. In the 1930s, they began to be used in a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of Diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the US has increased. According to Konrad Reif, the EU average for Diesel cars accounts for 50% of the total newly registered; the world's largest Diesel engines put in service are 14-cylinder, two-stroke watercraft Diesel engines. In 1878, Rudolf Diesel, a student at the "Polytechnikum" in Munich, attended the lectures of Carl von Linde.
Linde explained that steam engines are capable of converting just 6-10 % of the heat energy into work, but that the Carnot cycle allows conversion of all the heat energy into work by means of isothermal change in condition. According to Diesel, this ignited the idea of creating a machine that could work on the Carnot cycle. After several years of working on his ideas, Diesel published them in 1893 in the essay Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Motor. Diesel was criticised for his essay, but only few found the mistake that he made. Diesel's idea was to compress the air so that the temperature of the air would exceed that of combustion. However, such an engine could never perform any usable work. In his 1892 US patent #542846 Diesel describes the compression required for his cycle: "pure atmospheric air is compressed, according to curve 1 2, to such a degree that, before ignition or combustion takes place, the highest pressure of the diagram and the highest temperature are obtained-that is to say, the temperature at which the subsequent combustion has to take place, not the burning or igniting point.
To make this more clear, let it be assumed that the subsequent combustion shall take place at a temperature of 700°. In that case the initial pressure must be sixty-four atmospheres, or for 800° centigrade the pressure must be ninety atmospheres, so on. Into the air thus compressed is gradually introduced from the exterior finely divided fuel, which ignites on introduction, since the air is at a temperature far above the igniting-point of the fuel; the characteristic features of the cycle according to my present invention are therefore, increase of pressure and temperature up to the maximum, not by combustion, but prior to combustion by mechanical compression of air, there upon the subsequent performance of work without increase of pressure and temperature by gradual combustion during a prescribed part of the stroke determined by the cut-oil". By June 1893, Diesel had realised his original cycle would not work and he adopted the constant pressure cycle. Diesel describes the cycle in his 1895 patent application.
Notice that there is no longer a mention of compression temperatures exceeding the temperature of combustion. Now it is stated that the compression must be sufficient to trigger ignition. "1. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder and piston constructed and arranged to compress air to a degree producing a temperature above the igniting-point of the fuel, a supply for compressed air or gas. See US patent # 608845 filed 1895 / granted 1898In 1892, Diesel received patents in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States for "Method of and Apparatus for Converting Heat into Work". In 1894 and 1895, he filed patents and addenda in various
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian luxury car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has been involved in car racing since 1911; the company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group. In February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy; the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and the Italian partners of the company hired Giuseppe Merosi to design new cars. On 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Merosi.
A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto. Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among, Alfa Romeo, through the "Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali". In 1925, the railway activities were separated from the Romeo company, in 1928, Nicola Romeo left. In 1933, the state ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolini's government, which had effective control; the company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models.
In 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. During the 1960s and 1970s, Alfa Romeo produced a number of sporty cars, but struggled to make a profit, so Istituto per la Reconstruzione, the state conglomerate that controls Finmeccanica sold the marque to the Fiat Group in 1986. Alfa Romeo has competed in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing, rallies, it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, Alfa Romeo won the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925; the race victories gave a sporty image to the marque, Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team, before becoming independent in 1939. It has had the most wins of any marque in the world; the company's name is a combination of the original name, "A. L. F.
A.", the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who took control of the company in 1915. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909; the firm's initial location was in Naples, but before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late in 1906 that Milan would be more suitable and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres was erected. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suited to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.
L. F. A. Cars, with more powerful engines. A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built, the GP1914, with a four-cylinder engine, double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder, twin ignition. However, the onset of the First World War halted automobile production at A. L. F. A. for three years. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft engines and other components and generators based on the company's existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. After the war, Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railway carriage plants in Saronno and Naples, which were added to his A. L. F. A. Ownership. Car production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars had remained at the A.
L. F. A. Factory since 1915. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged, their first success came in 1920 whe
The Nissan Trade is a light commercial vehicle, produced by Nissan Motor Ibérica S. A. was marketed only in Europe. It was launched in 1987 as the rebadged version of Ebro F260, F275, F350, when Nissan completed the acquisition of Ebro factory and launched for the first time a rebadged version of Ebro vehicle