Alfa Romeo Giulia (952)
The Alfa Romeo Giulia is a compact executive car produced by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. It was unveiled in June 2015, with market launch scheduled for February 2016, it is the first saloon offered by Alfa Romeo after the production of the 159 ended in 2011; the Giulia is the first mass-market Alfa Romeo vehicle in over two decades to use a longitudinal rear-wheel drive platform, since the 75, discontinued in 1992. The Giulia was second in 2017 European Car of the Year voting and was named Motor Trend Car of the Year for 2018; the car was designed at the Centro Stile Alfa Romeo, by a team headed by Marco Tencone and including Senior Exterior Designer, Andrea Loi. along with Interior Chief Designer, Inna Kondakova and Senior Interior Designer, Manuele Amprimo. The Giulia has been the subject of a long gestation and delayed launch dates due to the design being sent back to the drawing board by Sergio Marchionne, CEO of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the parent company of Alfa Romeo at the time.
The new Giulia was unveiled to the press at the Museo Storico Alfa Romeo in Arese, on 24 June 2015, at an event which involved only the top-of-the-range Quadrifoglio variant and a rendition of "Nessun dorma" by Italian tenor Andrea Bocelli. The occasion coincided with the company's 105th anniversary, saw the company debut a restyled logo for all future Alfa Romeo models; the Giulia was presented under the new La meccanica delle emozioni slogan. The Giulia is the first model in the company's relaunch plan, which involves a €5 billion investment for an eight car line-up and a worldwide sales target of 400,000 by 2018—up from 74,000 in 2013, it is underpinned by an all-new, longitudinal-engine, rear-wheel drive platform developed for Alfa Romeo—codenamed "Giorgio". Development of the Giulia, along with development of the entire "Giorgio" project, has been overseen by the technical director of Ferrari, Philippe Krief; the Giulia uses a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, featuring an 50% front and 50% rear weight distribution.
Suspension is independent all-around, of the double wishbone type at the front and multilink at the rear. All Giulia models employ a carbon-fibre drive shaft made by Hitachi Automotive Systems, as well as aluminium alloy shock towers, suspension components, front wings and doors. Four-wheel drive models will be offered. Depending on trim level it has a 6.5-inch or 8.8-inch colour display, optional Sport and Luxury Packs are available. The sport package includes sports steering wheel with added grip, aluminium inserts on the dashboard, centre console and door panels, Xenon headlights; the luxury package offers premium leather wood trim. The performance package includes mechanical limited-slip differential along with electronic suspension and paddle shifters on the steering column in the cars equipped with an automatic transmission; the base model Giulia, mid-level Super, loaded Speciale are powered by a 200 PS gasoline engine, or the choice of 150 PS or 180 PS turbo diesel engine. The base model comes with 16 inch alloys, the Super can be distinguished with 17 inch alloys and dual chrome exhaust tip for the diesel model.
The Speciale has 18 inch alloys, black brake calipers, leather sports seats from the Veloce. The Giulia Veloce was presented at the 2016 Paris International Motor Show held in October; the Veloce offers the choice of two engines: the 2.0-litre turbo petrol and the 2.2-litre diesel inline-4 engines, both equipped with an 8-speed automatic transmission and Alfa Q4 all-wheel drive system. The Veloce has a glossy black door trim. On the interior, it has black, red or tan leather sport seats and a sports steering wheel with a suede grip, aluminium inserts on the dashboard, central tunnel, door panels and Xenon headlights; the new petrol straight-4 engine produces a maximum power output of 280 PS at 5,250 rpm and a maximum torque of 400 N⋅m at 2,250 rpm. It has MultiAir electro-hydraulic valve activation system along with "2-in-1" " turbocharger system and direct injection with a 200-bar high pressure system; the 210 PS diesel all aluminum straight-4 engine comes with MultiJet II technology and electrically operated variable geometry turbocharger.
The Alfa Q4 all wheel drive system behaves like a rear-wheel drive vehicle: 100% of torque is distributed to the rear axle. As it reaches the wheel adherence limit, the system transfers up to 60% of the torque to the front axle. To ensure maximum speed of response in re-distributing torque, the system exploits a high mechanical over slippage between the two axles, which translates into segment-beating vehicle control in terms of traction and directional stability on bends; the new trim level between Veloce and Quadrifoglio was introduced at the 2018 Goodwood Festival of Speed, sitting between the standard Veloce and the high-powered Quadrifoglio models. Its exterior design is inspired by the Quadrifoglio with an optional carbon fibre pack; the high-performance Giulia Quadrifoglio was the first model in the new Giulia range. It was unveiled at Italy in June 2015, it made its official international debut at the 2015 Frankfurt Motorshow. The Quadrifoglio's main competitors are cars such as the Mercedes-AMG C63, BMW M3 and Cadillac ATS-V.
The Quadrifoglio is powered by an all-aluminium alloy, twin-turbocharged gasoline direct injection 90° V6 engine, with a single-cylinder displacement of just under half a litre, for a total of 2,891 cc (176.4 cu
Compact sport utility vehicle
Compact sport utility vehicle known as compact SUV, is a class of small sport utility vehicles, larger than mini SUVs, but smaller than mid-size SUVs with a length between 4.25 to 4.60 metres. In markets such as India, They were a sub-segment of Utility Vehicles, but the smaller size versions have grown to become a dominant segment. According to Bob Lutz, an executive at several car companies, American Motors "invented an all-new automotive segment—the compact sport utility vehicle" with the original compact Jeep Cherokee two- and four-door models; the modern compact SUV models were introduced in 1983. General Motors released the two-door Chevrolet S-10 Blazer, a four-wheel drive wagon with a four-cylinder engine as standard. Mid-year, Ford brought out the Ford Bronco II. Both models were body-on-frame designs based on each automaker's small pickup trucks, the Chevrolet S-10 and Ford Ranger respectively. Chevrolet's S-10 pickup based baby Blazer came with an all-steel, permanent roof and a top-hinged rear hatch.
The Bronco II's general dimensions, drive train, cab details were identical to those of the compact truck with differences in the interior only aft of the doors. Both were station wagon-like vehicles with seating for four adults and an enclosed cargo area, while their similar compact truck versions that would fit two and have an open load bed; the first purpose-designed unibody compact SUV, the first with four-doors, was the Jeep Cherokee. It was introduced by American Motors Corporation in 1983 for the 1984 model year and was produced unchanged through 2001 in the U. S. and through 2005 in China. The compact XJ Cherokee took its name from the full-size SJ model that came before it, but was smaller. While the competing SUVs were adaptations of trucks, Jeep did not sell many pickup trucks so they designed a SUV first; the original Jeep XJ combined a passenger car comfort with a rugged chassis for ease of driving in difficult conditions, established the modern SUV market segment. Automobile magazine called it a "masterpiece" of automotive design with room for five passengers and their cargo.
The compact Cherokee's design and sales popularity spawned imitators as other automakers noticed that the Jeep XJ models began replacing regular cars. Compact SUVs have become an alternative to the minivans for families. While unchanged since its introduction, Cherokee XJ production continued through 2005 in China, was one of the best-selling compact SUVs in the world. There were over 2.8 million Jeep XJs built in the U. S. between 1984 and 2001. Most compact SUVs since the mid-2000s are crossover SUVs with monocoque construction and limited off-road capabilities; these models are derived from a compact car automobile platform. There are many different brands and models available in this market segment across numerous national markets. For example, the U. S. is "crowded with so many of these vehicles that sorting through them can be a daunting task." There are so many models in different price ranges and targeting different consumer needs that one publisher, U. S. News & World Report, separately evaluates compact SUVs on the basis of "best value for the money" and "best for families."
A subcompact SUV called a mini SUV or subcompact crossover, is a class of small sport utility vehicles with a length under and around 4,200 mm. The term comprises any vehicle, smaller than a compact SUV in North American standardization, or any 4x4 with a supermini body in international standardization or based on a supermini platform. First mini SUVs appeared in the course of 1990s and were off-road vehicles built on body-on-frame chassis, such as the Suzuki Samurai; some of the current models still use this concept due to their off-road prowess and more manageable size on the trail. However, most modern mini SUVs reside on unibody construction and offer only few off-road capabilities, hence falling into the crossover SUV category; some are representative of modern superminis with only a bumper hinge and more ground clearance. In Japan, as cars under 3,400 mm in length are attract lower taxes. Mini MPV List of sport utility vehicles
Alfa Romeo 105/115 Series Coupés
The Alfa Romeo 105 and 115 series coupés were a range of cars made by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1963 until 1977, based on a shortened floorpan from the Giulia saloon. They were the successors to the Giulietta Sprint coupé; the basic body shape shared by all models was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro for Bertone. It was one of his first major projects for Bertone, borrowed from his earlier design for the Alfa Romeo 2000 Sprint/2600 Sprint; the balance of glass and metal, the influence of the shape of the front and rear glass on the shape of the cabin, the flat grille with incorporated headlamps were groundbreaking styling features for the era. A limited production convertible was a modification from the standard car by Touring of Milan, offered as a catalogue model by Alfa Romeo called the Giulia Sprint GTC. A small number of the GT Junior Zagato were built with a different, aerodynamic two-seater coupé body designed by Ercole Spada for Zagato of Milan; these too were offered by Alfa Romeo as catalogue models, as the GT 1300 Junior Zagato and GT 1600 Junior Zagato.
All models feature the four cylinder, all-light-alloy Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine in various cubic capacities from 1290 cc to 1962 cc, all with two valves per cylinder. All versions of this engine fitted to the 105 series coupés featured twin carburettors, except for US market 1750 GTV and 2000 GTV cars which were fitted with mechanical port fuel injection by SPICA. Competition models featured cylinder heads with twin spark plugs. Common to all models was a 5-speed manual transmission and solid disc brakes on all four wheels, although in South Africa at the Brits plant a few Auto 2000 GTV were made for the local market; these featured the 3 speed ZF auto box. The rear suspension uses a solid axle with coil springs. Air conditioning and a limited slip rear differential were optional on the models. A limited slip differential was standard on the GTV 2000 for North America 1972-1974. Factory air conditioning was available on the 1973-1974 only in the USA; the 105 series coupés featured the GT model description, common to all models in one form or another.
The various models in this range can be considered in two broad categories. On one hand were Gran Turismo Veloces; these were meant to be the most sporting cars in the Alfa Romeo range and sold well to enthusiastic motorists around the world. The first model available was the Giulia Sprint GT which evolved into the Giulia Sprint GT Veloce, the 1750 GTV and the 2000 GTV, with engines increasing in cubic capacity from 1570 cc through 1779 cc to 1962 cc. A limited production convertible, the Giulia Sprint GTC, was based on the Giulia Sprint GT, modified by Touring of Milan, it was only made over two years from 1964 to 1966. On the other hand, was the GT Junior range, which featured engines with smaller cubic capacities. GT Juniors sold in great numbers to people who wanted a sporting, stylish car that handled well, but either did not require the maximum in engine power, or could not afford the taxation on larger engine capacities in some markets - most notably, Alfa Romeo's home Italian market. Junior models began with the first GT 1300 Junior in 1966.
The GT 1300 Junior continued until 1976 with the 1290 cc engine and various modifications incorporating features from the evolution of the GT's and GTV's. From 1972 a GT 1600 Junior model was available, with the 1570 cc engine; the 1300 Junior and 1600 Junior became available with a different, aerodynamic two-seater coupé body designed by Ercole Spada for Zagato of Milan. These models were GT 1600 Junior Zagato. Both categories were used to derive GTA models, which were intended for competition homologation in their respective engine size classes; the GTA's featured extensive modifications for racing, so they were priced much higher than the standard models and sold in much smaller numbers. All GTA's made were used in competition, where they had a long and successful history in various classes and category; these models included the Giulia Sprint GTA, GTA 1300 Junior, GTAm. Although not thought of as a 105 Series coupé variant, the Alfa Romeo Montreal used a strengthened and modified 105 series floorpan and suspension.
Tipo: 105.02, 105.04. Engine: 00502; the Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint GT was the first Giulia sport model introduced, was manufactured from 1963 to 1965. It was revealed at a press event held at the newly opened Arese plant on 9 September 1963, displayed the same month at the Frankfurt Motor Show. In its original form the Bertone body is known as scalino or "step front", because of the leading edge of the engine compartment lid which sat 1/4 an inch above the nose of the car; the Giulia Sprint GT can be distinguished from the models by the following features: Exterior badging: Alfa Romeo logo on the front grille, a chrome script reading "Giulia Sprint GT" on the boot lid, rectangular "Disegno di Bertone" badges aft of the front wheel arches. Flat, chrome grille in plain, wide rectangular mesh without additional chrome bars. Single-piece chrome bumpers. Inside the cabin the padded vinyl dashboard was characterised by a concave horizontal fascia, finished in grey anti-glare crackle-effect paint. Four round instruments were inset in the fascia in front of the driver.
The larger diameter inner pair were speedometer.
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
A car platform is a shared set of common design and production efforts, as well as major components over a number of outwardly distinct models and types of cars from different, but somewhat related marques. It is practiced in the automotive industry to reduce the costs associated with the development of products by basing those products on a smaller number of platforms; this further allows companies to create distinct models from a design perspective on similar underpinnings. A basic definition of a platform in cars, from a technical point of view, includes: underbody and suspensions — where the underbody is made of front floor, engine compartment and frame. Key mechanical components that define an automobile platform include: The floorpan, which serves as a foundation for the chassis and other structural and mechanical components Front and rear axles and the distance between them - wheelbase Steering mechanism and type of power steering Type of front and rear suspensions Placement and choice of engine and other powertrain componentsPlatform sharing is a product development method where different products and the brand attached share the same components.
The purpose with platform sharing is to reduce the cost and have a more efficient product development process. The companies gain on reduced procurement cost by taking advantage of the commonality of the components. However, this limits their ability to differentiate the products and imposes a risk of losing the tangible uniqueness of the product; the companies have to make a trade-off between reducing their development costs and the degree of differentiation of the products. One of the first car companies to use this product development approach was General Motors for in 1908. General Motors used a single chassis for certain class of model across most of its brands like Chevrolet, Buick and Oldsmobile. Chrysler Corporation would use the same for Plymouth and DeSoto and Dodge cars. Ford followed the same principle for Mercury in US markets; the chassis unit was common with many shared mechanical components while the Exterior styling and Interior trims were designed according to its individual brand and category.
In recent years for Monocoque chassis, the Vehicle platform-sharing combined with advanced and flexible-manufacturing technology enable automakers to reduce product development and changeover times, while modular design and assembly allow building a greater variety of vehicles from one basic set of engineered components.. Shown below is the Nissan MS platform where vehicles ranging from 5-door hatchback, sedan to compact SUV and Minivan were built on common floor panel and many shared various functional assemblies such as engine and chassis components. Many vendors refer to this as vehicle architecture; the concept of product architecture is the scheme by which the function of a product is allocated to physical components. The use of a platform strategy provides several benefits: Greater flexibility between plants, Cost reduction achieved through using resources on a global scale, Increased utilization of plants, Reduction of the number of platforms as a result of their localization on a worldwide basis.
The car platform strategy has become important in new product development and in the innovation process. The finished products have to be responsive to market needs and to demonstrate distinctiveness while — at the same time — they must be developed and produced at low cost. Adopting such a strategy affects the development process and has an important impact on an automaker's organizational structure. A platform strategy offers advantages for the globalization process of automobile firms; because the majority of time and money by an automaker is spent on the development of platforms, platform sharing affords manufacturers the ability to cut costs on research and development by spreading the cost of the R&D over several product lines. Manufacturers are able to offer products at a lower cost to consumers. Additionally, economies of scale are increased. A "platform" was a shared chassis from a previously-engineered vehicle, as in the case for the Citroën 2CV platform chassis used by the Citroën Ami and Citroën Dyane, Volkswagen Beetle frame under the Volkswagen Karmann Ghia.
But these two manufacturers made vastly different category of vehicles under using the same chassis design at different years though the primary vehicle was still in production. In the USA platform sharing has been a common practice since the 1960s, when GM used the same platform in the development of the Pontiac LeMans, the Buick Skylark, the Chevrolet Chevelle, the Oldsmobile Cutlass. In the 1980s, Chrysler's K-cars all wore a badge with the letter "K" to indicate their shared platform. In stages, the "K" platform was extended in wheelbase, as well as use for several of the Corporation's different models. GM used similar strategies with its "J" platform. Subsequently GM introduced its "A" bodies for the same four divisions using the same tread width/wheelbase of the "X" body platform, but with larger body work to make the cars seem larger, with larger trunk compartments, they were popular through the 1980s, primarily. Cadillac started offering a "J" body model called the Cimarron, a much gussied up version of the other four brands' platform siblings.
A similar strategy applied to what is known as the N-J-L platform, arguably the most prolific of GM's efforts on one platform. Once more, GM's four lower level divis
The C-segment is the third smallest of the European segments for passenger cars, is described as "medium cars". It is equivalent to the Euro NCAP "small family car" size class, the compact car category in the United States and Great BritainIn 2011, the C-segment had a European market share of 23%; the European segments are not based on weight criteria. In practice, C-segment cars have been described as having a length of 4.5 metres. The most common body styles for C-segment cars are hatchbacks and wagons/estates; the five highest selling C-segment cars in Europe are the Volkswagen Golf, Škoda Octavia, Opel Astra, Ford Focus and Renault Mégane. According to 2011 sales, compact cars are the second segment in Europe after the subcompact one, with 3 million units sold; the world's the 1958 FR layout Austin A40 Farina Countryman. Because of the Volkswagen Golf's definition and long standing dominance of this class it is referred to as the "Golf segment" in much of Europe. During the late 1990s, compact MPVs increased in popularity as a competitor to the compact car, with models such as the Renault Scenic and the Citroën C4 Picasso becoming popular in Europe..
By the early 2010s, demand for compact MPVs was declining, due to the rise of the compact SUV. At the start of the 1970s, the two most popular sectors of the UK market were compact cars and mid-size cars. Since its launch in 1962, the BMC 1100/1300 had been Britain's best selling car, other locally produced compact cars included the Ford Escort, Vauxhall Viva and Hillman Avenger. Imported compact cars that were popular in the UK included the Citroën GS and Datsun Sunny 120Y; the BMC 1100/1300 was replaced in 1973 by the Austin Allegro, second-generation Ford Escort was released in 1974. The third-generation Vauxhall Viva was produced until late 1979, when it was replaced by the Vauxhall Astra; the Astra was part of a late 1970s transition in compact cars from being predominantly rear-wheel drive saloons, to becoming front-wheel drive hatchbacks. The Austin Allegro— introduced five years earlier— was front-wheel drive, although it was produced in saloon and estate body styles; the German-built Volkswagen Golf front-wheel drive hatchback was released in 1974 and was one of the first significant imported compact cars to impact the UK compact car market.
The sporty "GTI" version of the Golf sparked a huge demand for "hot hatchbacks" in the UK and many other countries. The Hillman Avenger continued to sell well, in spite of the 1978 launch of the Talbot Horizon front-wheel drive hatchback; the Ford Escort Mk3 went on sale in the autumn of 1980 replacing the rear-drive saloon format in favour of hatchbacks and front-wheel drive. A saloon version, called the Ford Orion was added in 1983. In 1983, the Austin Allegro was replaced by the Austin Maestro hatchback. In 1984, the Vauxhall Astra Mk2 hatchback/estate/cabriolet was released, including a saloon version called the Vauxhall Belmont; the first significant Japanese-designed compact car in the UK was the 1981 Triumph Acclaim, a four-door saloon based on the Honda Ballade with a Honda-designed engine. The Acclaim was replaced in 1984 by the Rover 200. In late 1985, the Peugeot 309 became the first Peugeot to be produced in the UK. Ford began the 1990s by replacing its 10-year-old Escort with the Ford Escort MkV.
In 1998, the European version of the Escort was replaced by the global Ford Focus MkI model. General Motors released the Vauxhall Astra Mk3 update in 1991 and the all-new Astra Mk4 in 1998. Rover Group introduced the Rover 200 Mk2 in 1989; the Rover 200 Mk3 was introduced in 1995, replacing the Honda Prelude-based Mk2 with a UK-designed car. Car classification Compact car
Alfa Romeo Brera and Spider
The Alfa Romeo Brera and the Alfa Romeo Spider are two sports cars manufactured by Alfa Romeo between 2005-2010 and 2006-2010. The Brera is a 2 +2 coupé. Both models were built by Pininfarina. 12,488 units of the Spider and 21,786 units of the Brera were built. Production of both models ended in late 2010, although remaining stock continued into 2011; the Brera appeared as a concept car at the 2002 Geneva Motor Show. It was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro at Italdesign Giugiaro; the concept version was powered with a Maserati V8 engine producing around 400 PS. The Brera was acclaimed, production plans were subsequently announced for 2005; the Alfa Romeo Brera was introduced in production form at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show. It translated the original's exterior appearance on a much smaller scale, becoming a mid-size coupé on the GM/Fiat Premium platform, designed to replace the outgoing GTV. A convertible Spider version of the Brera was announced, to be launched shortly after the coupe and to replace the existing GTV-based Spider.
In Europe, the Brera was available with two petrol engines, the 185 PS 2.2-litre JTS and 260 PS 3.2-litre V6. Cars with the diesel or 2.2 petrol were front-wheel drive, whilst the V6 came with a Torsen four-wheel drive system similar to the 159's Q4. At the 2008 Geneva Motor Show Alfa Romeo introduced updated "Model year 2008" Brera and Spider; the 3.2 litre V6 version became available in front wheel drive form, allowing for a top speed of 250 kilometres per hour. The following year, again at Geneva Motor Show, an all-new turbocharged petrol engine badged as 1750 TBi was added to the lineup; this 1742 cc unit featured direct injection and variable valve timing on both inlet and exhaust cams, developed 200 PS and 320 N⋅m of torque. *stated by Pininfarina production records As with its predecessor, the GTV, Brera was available with two trim levels:'Medium' and'Sky View', the latter's name being derived from the panoramic glass roof available for Brera's top specification. In 2008 a special trim was introduced, TI for Turismo Internazionale, featuring 19" alloy wheels, special badges on the front fenders and inside the front headrests.
Alongside the bigger rims, there were stiffer shocks and springs. In Spring 2008 the Brera'S' Special Edition was announced; this Alfa Romeo-approved British-only limited-run version was developed by British engineering specialists Prodrive and was intended to address criticism regarding the handling of the standard car. Selected suspension and chassis components and settings of the'S' have been amended from the standard car, altering the handling characteristics; these include Bilstein and Eibach suspension, Prodrive sports exhaust and special 19" wheels and trim. Alfa Romeo and Prodrive had collaborated in motorsport, campaigning an Alfa Romeo 155 in the BTCC during 1994 and 1995. In 2009, Alfa Romeo released a limited edition of the Brera and Spider in association with Italia Independent, an Italian design company owned and run by Lapo Elkann, grandson of Gianni Agnelli of the Fiat empire. Limited to 900 units and named after Alfa Romeo's partner in the venture, the Italia Independent edition of the Brera was offered with opaque-finish "titanium" paintwork, 18" "turbine" style alloy wheels and an aluminium fuel-filler cap.
The interior saw a Sat-Nav system as standard and interior trim finished with a Carbon effect. The Italia Independent was offered with 125 kW 2.0 JTDM, 154 kW 2.4 JTDM diesel,157 kW 2.4 JTDM diesel l or 147 kW 1.8 TBi, 136 kW 2.2 JTS, 191 kW 3.2 V6 petrol engines and six-speed transmission. Manual, "Selespeed" or automatic Q-Tronic transmission options were offered, the V6 engined-car was available with Alfa Romeo's Q4 all-wheel drive system. Before it was released, the Alfa Brera concept car was voted "Best of Show" by Autoweek magazine at the Geneva Motor Show, "Best of Show" in the prototype category at the Villa d’Este Concorso D’Eleganze, it picked up two prizes at Challenge Bibendum 2002, "the Most Fascinating Car" award at the Super Car Rally 2002 form Paris to Monte Carlo. Most Beautiful Car in the World award at the 21st annual International Automobile Festival 2006 Brera was elected to European Car of the Year 2007 in Japan. Best Sports/Coupe - What Diesel Car? European Automotive Design Award 2006 Best Design Award 2006 by Autocar Magazine Best Coupe – Croatian Car of the Year Awards 2006 The New Spider version was introduced at the 2006 Geneva Motor Show, where it received the "Cabrio of the Year" award.
The Spider is a pure 2-seater convertible. At the beginning there were two engine options available: the 2.2 L straight-4 and 3.2 L V6 JTS engines, the JTD common rail turbodiesel was introduced at the 2007 Geneva Motor Show. This car replaced the Spider 916 model, introduced in 1995; this Spider version can be seen as the 6th generation of Alfa Spiders, the first version of, released in 1966. Production ceased in November 2010. In 2009, Alfa Romeo released a limited edition of the Brera and Spider in association with Italia Independent, an Italian design company. Limited to 900 units and named after Alfa Romeo's partner in the venture, the Italia Independent edition of the Brera was offered with opaque-finish "titanium" paintwork, 18" "turbine" style