Comarcas of Spain
In Spain traditionally and some autonomous communities are divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a defined status, are regulated by law and their comarcal councils have some power. In some other cases their legal status is not formal for they correspond to natural areas, like valleys, river basins and mountainous areas, or to historical regions overlapping different provinces and ancient kingdoms. In such comarcas or natural regions municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in mancomunidad, like the Taula del Sénia, the only legal formula that has allowed those comarcas to manage their public municipal resources meaningfully. There is a comarca, the Cerdanya, divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, area or zone. Alto Almanzora Poniente Almeriense Níjar Los Vélez Levante Almería Bahía de Cádiz Bajo Guadalquivir called Costa Noroeste Campo de Gibraltar La Janda Campiña de Jerez called Marco de Jerez Sierra de Cádiz Alto Guadalquivir Campiña de Baena Campiña Este - Guadajoz Campiña Sur Los Pedroches Subbetica Valle del Guadiato Valle Medio del Guadalquivir Granadin Alpujarra Comarca de Alhama Comarca de Baza Comarca de Guadix Comarca de Huéscar Comarca de Loja Granadin Coast Los Montes Lecrin Valley Vega de Granada Andévalo Condado de Huelva Cuenca Minera de Huelva Costa Occidental de Huelva Huelva Sierra de Huelva Alto Guadalquivir - Cazorla La Campiña El Condado Área Metropolitana de Jaén La Loma Las Villas Norte Sierra Mágina Sierra de Segura Sierra Sur de Jaén Antequera Axarquía Costa del Sol Occidental Málaga Serranía de Ronda Valle del Guadalhorce Aljarafe Bajo Guadalquivir Campiña Estepa Marisma Sierra Norte Sierra Sur La Vega Alto Gállego Bajo Cinca called Baix Cinca Cinca Medio Hoya de Huesca called Plana de Uesca Jacetania La Litera called La Llitera Monegros Ribagorza Sobrarbe Somontano de Barbastro Bajo Martín Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Comarca, named after the Sierra de Albarracín mountain range Gúdar-Javalambre Matarraña called Matarranya Aranda Bajo Aragón-Caspe called Baix Aragó-Casp Campo de Belchite Campo de Borja Campo de Cariñena Campo de Daroca Cinco Villas Comunidad de Calatayud Ribera Alta del Ebro Ribera Baja del Ebro Tarazona y el Moncayo Valdejalón Zaragoza Avilés Caudal Eo-Navia Gijón / Xixón Nalón Narcea Oriente Oviedo / Uviéu Serra de Tramuntana Es Raiguer Es Pla Migjorn Llevant Menorca Eivissa Formentera Añana Aiara / Ayala Agurain / Salvatierra Vitoria-Gasteiz Zuia Arabako Mendialdea / Montaña Alavesa Arabako Errioxa / Rioja Alavesa Arratia-Nerbioi Busturialdea Durangaldea Enkarterri Greater Bilbao Lea-Artibai Uribe Bidasoa-Txingudi Debabarrena Debagoiena Goierri Donostialdea Tolosaldea Urola Kosta Fuerteventura Lanzarote Las Palmas El Hierro La Gomera La Palma Tenerife Valle de Güímar Valle de la Orotava Icod Daute Isla Baja Isora-Teno Tenerife Sur Tenerife Sur Acentejo Metropolitana-Anaga Comarca de Santander Besaya Saja-Nansa Costa occidental Costa oriental Trasmiera Pas-Miera Asón-Agüera Liébana Campoo-Los Valles Alt Penedès Anoia Bages Baix Llobregat Barcelonès Berguedà Garraf Maresme Moianès Osona Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental Alt Empordà Baix Empordà Baixa Cerdanya Garrotxa Gironès Osona Pla de l'Estany Ripollès Selva Alt Urgell Alta Ribagorça Baixa Cerdanya Garrigues Noguera Pallars Jussà Pallars Sobirà Pla d'Urgell Segarra Segrià Solsonès Urgell Val d'Aran Alt Camp Baix Camp Baix Ebre Baix Penedès Conca de Barberà Montsià Priorat Ribera d'Ebre Tarragonès Terra Alta Llanos de Albacete Campos de Hellín La Mancha del Júcar-Centro La Manchuela Monte Ibérico–Corredor de Almansa Sierra de Alcaraz y Campo de Montiel Sierra del Segura Campo de Montiel.
Alcarria conquense. La Mancha de Cuenca. Manchuela conquense. Serranía Alta. Serranía Baja. Serranía Media-Campichuelo. Campiña de Guadalajara Campiña del Henares La Alcarria La Serranía Señorío de Molina-Alto Tajo Campo de San Juan La Jara La Campana de Oropesa Mancha Alta de Toledo Mesa de Ocaña Montes de Toledo La Sagra Sierra de San Vicente Tierras de Talavera Torrijos La Moraña Comarca de Ávila Comarca de El Barco de Ávila - Piedrahíta Comarca de Burgohondo - El Tiemblo - Cebreros Comarca de Arenas de San Pedro Merindades Páramos La Bureba Ebro Odra-Pisuerga Alfoz de Burgos Montes de Oca Arlanza Sierra de la Demanda Ribera del Duero La Montaña de Luna La Montaña de Riaño La Cabrera Astorga El Bierzo Tierras de León La Bañeza El Páramo Esla-Campos Sahagún Cerrato Palentino Montaña Palentina Páramos Valles Tierra de Campos Comarca de Vitigudino Comarca de Ciudad Rodrigo La Armuña Las Villas Tierra de Peñaranda Tierra de Cantalapiedra Tierra de Ledesma Comarca de Guijuelo Tierra de Alba Sierra de Béjar Sierra de Francia Campo de Salamanca An official classification establishes three comarcas: Segovia.
Cuéllar. Sepúlveda.or sometimes four: Tierra de Pinares. Segovia. Sepúlveda. Tierra de Ayllón. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas: Tierra de Pinares. Tierra de Ayllón. Tierras de Cantalejo y
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
Road bicycle racing
Road bicycle racing is the cycle sport discipline of road cycling, held on paved roads. Road racing is the most popular professional form of bicycle racing, in terms of numbers of competitors and spectators; the two most common competition formats are mass start events, where riders start and race to set finish point. Stage races or "tours" take multiple days, consist of several mass-start or time-trial stages ridden consecutively. Professional racing has been most popular in Western Europe, centered on France, Spain and the Low Countries. Since the mid-1980s the sport has diversified with professional races now held on all continents of the globe. Semi-professional and amateur races are held in many countries; the sport is governed by the Union Cycliste Internationale. As well as the UCI's annual World Championships for men and women, the biggest event is the Tour de France, a three-week race that can attract over 500,000 roadside supporters a day. Road racing in its modern form originated in the late 19th century.
It began as an organized sport in 1868. The sport was popular in the western European countries of France, Spain and Italy, some of those earliest road bicycle races remain among the sport's biggest events; these early races include Liège–Bastogne–Liège, Paris–Roubaix, the Tour de France, the Milan–San Remo and Giro di Lombardia, the Giro d'Italia, the Volta a Catalunya, the Tour of Flanders. They provided a template for other races around the world. Cycling has been part of the Summer Olympic Games since the modern sequence started in Athens in 1896; the most competitive and devoted countries since the beginning of 20th century were Belgium and Italy road cycling spread in Colombia, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal and Switzerland after World War II. However nowadays as the sport grows in popularity through globalization, countries such as Kazakhstan, Russia, South Africa, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland and the United States continue to produce world-class cyclists. Single-day race distances may be as long as 180 miles.
Courses may run from place to comprise one or more laps of a circuit. Races over short circuits in town or city centres, are known as criteriums; some races, known as handicaps, ages. Individual time trial is an event in which cyclists race alone against the clock on flat or rolling terrain, or up a mountain road. A team time trial, including two-man team time trial, is a road-based bicycle race in which teams of cyclists race against the clock. In both team and individual time trials, the cyclists start the race at different times so that each start is fair and equal. Unlike individual time trials where competitors are not permitted to'draft' behind each other, in team time trials, riders in each team employ this as their main tactic, each member taking a turn at the front while teammates'sit in' behind. Race distances vary from a few km to between 20 miles and 60 miles. Stage races consist of stages, ridden consecutively; the competitor with the lowest cumulative time to complete all stages is declared the overall, or general classification, winner.
Stage races may have other classifications and awards, such as individual stage winners, the points classification winner, the "King of the Mountains" winner. A stage race can be a series of road races and individual time trials; the stage winner is the first person to cross the finish line that day or the time trial rider with the lowest time on the course. The overall winner of a stage race is the rider who takes the lowest aggregate time to complete all stages. Three-week stage races are called Grand Tours; the professional road bicycle racing calendar includes three Grand Tours - the Giro d'Italia, the Tour de France, the Vuelta a Espana. Ultra-distance cycling races are long single stage events where the race clock continuously runs from start to finish, they last several days and the riders take breaks on their own schedules, with the winner being the first one to cross the finish line. Among the best-known ultramarathons is the Race Across America, a coast-to-coast non-stop, single-stage race in which riders cover 3,000 miles in about a week.
The race is sanctioned by the UltraMarathon Cycling Association. RAAM and similar events allow racers to be supported by a team of staff. A number of tactics are employed to reach the objective of a race; this objective is being the first to cross the finish line in the case of a single-stage race, clocking the least aggr
Route of the Valencian classics
The Route of the Valencian classics, is a cultural route through the lands of the great classical writers of the Valencian literature of the Valencian Golden Age: Ausiàs March, Joanot Martorell and Joan Roís de Corella, the three related to the court of the Duke Alfonso of Aragon and Foix, "the Old". The route evokes the Valencian 15th century and its heritage, of the sea, of valleys and mountains, of gastronomy and wines, the various accents of the Valencian language with the echoes of the immortal words of the most universal Valencian writers; the route includes the following monuments and towns: Gandía: Collegiate Basilica of Gandia Ducal Palace of Gandia Convent of Santa Clara Sant Marc HospitalBeniarjó: Manor house of Ausias MarchAlfauir: Monastery of Sant Jeroni de CotalbaAlbaida: Parish Church of the Asunción Palace of Milà i Aragó Segrelles MuseumCocentaina: Palace of the Counts of Cocentaina Cocentaina CastleXaló: Manor house of Joanot Martorell Route of the MartorellDénia: Castle of Denia Gandía: The ducal city was the epicenter of the literary renewal of the 15th century, where resided the Martorell, the March and the Roís de Corella families.
Collegiate Basilica of Gandia: Example of Valencian religious Gothic, returns us the echo of classics and the Borgia family, that consolidating the Duchy of Gandia in 1485. Ducal Palace of Gandia: In the Ducal Palace of Gandia these valencian classical writers were entered in the letters and arts of chivalry. Convent of Santa Clara: Its artistic treasure recalls the splendour of the ancient Duchy of Gandia. A canvas of walls from the 14th century on the river Serpis closes the medieval remains of the city. Sant Marc Hospital: Nowadays it's an Archaeological Museum, its Gothic arches take us back to the middle ages. Beniarjó: Manor house of Ausias MarchAlfauir: Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba: The father, Pere March, the two wives of the well-known Valencian medieval poet Ausiàs March are buried in this monastery; the monastery is one of the most historic monastic constructions in the Valencian Community. Albaida: Parish Church of the Asunción: The parish was built in the 13th century; the building was built between 1621 in Valencian Gothic style.
There are a set of interesting oil paintings by Josep Segrelles. Palace of Milà i Aragó: The remains of the walls from the 15th century configure a monumental heritage. Inside this palace nowaydays is the International Museum of Puppets of Albaida. Segrelles Museum: House Museum of the valencian painter Josep Segrelles. Cocentaina: Palace of the Counts of Cocentaina: This palace belonged to the Rois de Corella family in the 15th century. Here we can find towers and canvases of the wall, the medieval quarter. Cocentaina Castle: The castle dominates the whole region. Through these mountains we will find snow deposits that were used for th ice trade; the valley of Xaló: In search of the sea, it is obligatory to go through a land of mountains: the valleys of the Marina Alta, where Al-Azraq, the Muslim leader, resisted the Aragonese conquest in the 13th century. The valley of Xaló belonged to the March families. Xaló Manor house of the Martorell: In Xaló we can find this manor house of the writer Joanot Martorell refurbished in the 19th century.
Route of the MartorellDénia: Alfonso of Aragon and Foix was count of Denia, a city ruled by an attorney general and Ausias’s father, called Pere March. Castle of Denia: On the walls and the castle, a contemporary of Ausias drew some graffiti or engravings of ships which were in the harbour; this is March’s maritime landscape and it is evoked in the play written by Joanot Martorell, Tirant lo Blanch. Visits to the Raset quarter, the Rotes coves, the feet of Montgo mountain are a must. Route of the Monasteries of Valencia Route of the Borgias Route of the Castles of Vinalopó Route of the Valencian Classics Guide of the Route in pdf The Route on Gandia Town Council website The Route on the Tourism of Valencia Province Government
Route of the Monasteries of Valencia
The Route of the Monasteries of Valencia is a religious and cultural route that connects five monasteries located in central region of the Province of Valencia, in Spain. The Route was inaugurated in the year 2008; the route includes the following five monasteries: 1 Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba, in Alfauir. 2 Monastery of the Corpus Christi, in Llutxent. 3 Monastery of Santa María de la Valldigna, in Simat de la Valldigna. 4 Monastery of Aguas Vivas, in Carcaixent. 5 Monastery of la Murta, in Alzira. There are four distinct itineraries; the first road, for condition for hiking: the GR-236, the second route, access to the monasteries with vehicles. The four routes are different and each one goes through different towns, but both routes pass by the five monasteries. On foot. By car. Bicycle. By horse; the walk route passes through ancient medieval historical paths as the Pas del Pobre, riding trails, mountain trails, old roads and railroad tracks. It ends in Alzira, to connect to public transport.
The route ends on Alzira Railway Station. The GR-236 is the international code of the Monasteries route by foot, it is a GR approved by the Valencian Federation of Mountain Climbing. The GR-236 begins in Gandía and finishes in Alzira passing by these monasteries: 1 Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba, in Alfauir. 2 Monastery of the Corpus Christi, in Llutxent. 3 Monastery of Santa María de la Valldigna, in Simat de la Valldigna. 4 Monastery of Aguas Vivas, in Carcaixent. 5 Monastery of la Murta, in Alzira. All the paths are signposted from the Train Station of Gandía to Alzira. There are road signs in problematic forks with location signs and direction signs; the signs are white and red and they all have the path code. To walk round this route you need 3 days. There is a main route and there is another way where you can take a short cut in the route, but with the last option you can't see one of the monasteries. 1 Monastery of the Corpus Christi 2 Llutxent 3 Benicolet 4 Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba 5 Gandia 6 Marchuquera 7 La Drova 8 Bárig 9 Simat de la Valldigna 10 Monastery of Santa Maria de la Valldigna 11 Monastery of Aguas Vivas 12 La Barraca de Aigües Vives 13 Alzira 14 Monastery of la Murta The itinerary by bicycle is a circular route of 123 km which starts and ends in Alzira and which crosses the central regions of La Safor, la Vall d'Albaida and La Ribera Alta.
The itinerary has a special path adapted to mountain bike. The itinerary by horse has a specific signaling and a special path adapted to horses and homologated by the Royal Spanish Equestrian Federation and their code is IE-001, it is the second in Europe to be approved as equestrian route. The itinerary starts in the Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba, near Gandia. It's possible to collect a card in the Tourist Office of Gandia which credited the pilgrims passing through the various monasteries and towns. Tourist Info GandiaAvda. Marques de Campo s/n 46701 Gandia Ph 96 287 77 88 www.visitgandia.com Tourist Info RotovaPlaza Mayor 7 - 46725 Rotova Ph 96 283 53 16 Tourist Info Tavernes de la ValldignaAvda. Marina s/n 46760 Tavernes de la Valldigna Ph 96 288 52 64 www.valldignaturisme.org Tourist Info AlziraPl. Del Reino 46600 Alzira Ph 96 241 95 51 www.alzira.es Tourist Info Simat de la ValldignaPasseig 9 de Octubre, s/n 46750 Simat de la Valldigna Ph 96 281 09 20 Bernat Montagud Piera. "Monasterios Valencianos".
Generalitat Valenciana, Conselleria de Cultura, Educació i Ciència. Rutes d'aproximació al patrimoni cultural valencià, Volumen nº 3. 1984. ISBN 8475790224 María Desamparados Cabanes Pecourt. Los monasterios valencianos. University of Valencia. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Departamento de Historia Medieval. 1974. ISBN 8460060365 Carlos Sarthou Carreres. "Monasterios Valencianos: su historia y su arte". La Semana Gráfica, Valencia, 1943. Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba Route of the Borgias PR-CV 100 Route of the Castles of Vinalopó GR-160 Route of the Monasteries of Valencia Route of the Monasteries - IdealSpain.com The Route on the website of Gandia Tourist Info Maps and itineraries of the Route The route at the Valencian Community Tourist Info Website Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba Monastery of Santa Maria de la Valldigna
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
A silversmith is a metalworker who crafts objects from silver. The terms silversmith and goldsmith are not synonyms as the techniques, training and guilds are or were the same but the end product may vary as may the scale of objects created. In the ancient Near East the value of silver to gold being less, allowed a silversmith to produce objects and store these as stock. Ogden states that according to an edict written by Diocletian in 301 A. D. a silversmith was able to charge 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, or 300 denarii for material produce. At that time, guilds of silversmiths formed to arbitrate disputes, protect its members' welfare and educate the public of the trade. Silversmiths in medieval Europe and England formed guilds and transmitted their tools and techniques to new generations via the apprentice tradition. Silver working guilds maintained consistency and upheld standards at the expense of innovation. Beginning in the 17th century, artisans experienced fewer restrictions; as a result, silver working was one of the trades that helped to inaugurate the Technological and industrial history of the United States Silver-working shift to industrialization in America.
Exquisite and distinctly designed silverware, that goes by the name of Swami Silver, emerged from the stable of watchmaker turned silversmith P Orr and Sons in the South Indian city of Madras during the British rule in 1875. The Falasha Clan, or Beta Israel, of Ethiopia were known for their silversmithing skills. Silversmiths saw or cut specific shapes from sterling and fine silver sheet metal and bar stock, use hammers to form the metal over anvils and stakes. Silver is hammered cold; as the metal is hammered and worked, it'work-hardens'. Annealing is the heat-treatment used to make the metal soft again. If metal is work-hardened, not annealed the metal will crack and weaken the work. Silversmiths can use casting techniques to create knobs and feet for the hollowware they are making. After forming and casting, the various pieces may be assembled by riveting. During most of their history, silversmiths used charcoal or coke fired forges, lung-powered blow-pipes for soldering and annealing. Modern silversmiths use gas burning torches as heat sources.
A newer method is laser beam welding. Silversmiths may work with copper and brass when making practice pieces, due to those materials having similar working properties and being more affordable than silver. Although jewelers work in silver and gold, many of the techniques for working precious metals overlap, the trades of jeweler and Silversmith have distinct histories. Chain-making and gem-setting are common practices of jewelers that are not considered aspects of silversmiths; the tradition of making armor was interrupted sometime after the 17th century. Silversmithing and goldsmithing, by contrast, have an unbroken tradition going back many millennia; the techniques used to make armor today are an amalgam of silversmith forming techniques and blacksmith iron-handling techniques. In the western Canadian silversmith tradition, guilds do not exist. In the native Canadian western tradition, silversmithing is done through hand tooling and bright cut engraving of silver. There are silversmiths who only make jewelry and there are silversmiths who only make utensils.
* still living.** Garrad & Co. was founded by George Wickes in London in 1722, is still operating. Yemenite silversmithing Society of American Silversmiths Jeff Herman's comprehensive guide for professional silver care methods and products Staatliche Zeichenakademie Hanau Stamped silver button, made 1787 image from Victoria & Albert Museum jewellery collection. Gee,G; the silversmith's handbook: containing full instructions for the alloying and working of silver, including the different modes of refining and melting the metal. Wilson,H. Silverwork and jewelry: a text-book for students and workers in metal Sampson Mordan