Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Faina Georgievna Ranevskaya, PAU, is recognized as one of the greatest Soviet actresses in both tragedy and comedy. She was famous for her aphorisms, she acted in plays by Anton Chekhov, Aleksandr Ostrovsky, Maxim Gorky, Ivan Krylov, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Leo Tolstoy, others. Our judgement of her theater performances must come from photos as only her three final performances of Make Way for Tomorrow by Vina Delmar, Truth is Good, but Happiness is Better by Aleksandr Ostrovsky, The Curious Savage by John Patrick were filmed. Faina Ranevskaya is more known to a wide audience as a cinema actress by her performance in such films as Pyshka, The Man in a Shell, Vesna, Cinderella and String and many more, she was born as Faina Feldman to a wealthy Jewish family in the city of Taganrog. Her father, Girsch Haimovich Feldman, owned a dry-ink factory, several buildings, a shop and the steamboat "Saint Nicolas", he was a founder of a Jewish asylum for the aged. Faina's mother, Milka Rafailovna, was a great admirer of art.
That and her passion for Chekhov influenced Faina's love of art, poetry and theater. There were three other children in the family - two brothers and an older sister named Bella. Faina Feldman attended the elementary school classes at the Mariinskaya Gymnasium for Girls, received regular home education, she was given music, foreign languages lessons. Faina loved reading, her passion for theater began when she was 14. Her attendance of Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard at the Moscow Art Theater was an experience that had great impact on her, her pseudonym "Ranevskaya," which became her official surname came from that theater visit. In 1915 she left Taganrog for Moscow to pursue a career in the theater. Faina became estranged from her family over her choice of career, which they rejected, she started as an extra actor in crowd or background scenes at the Summer Theater in Malakhovka near Moscow in 1915, where she had a dacha. The Feldman family emigrated in 1917, but Faina decided to stay and continued her acting career, working in the theaters of Kerch, Rostov on Don, at the mobile theater "The First Soviet Theater" in Crimea in Baku, Arkhangelsk and other cities.
In 1931 Ranevskaya acted at the Chamber Theater. The film Pyshka, directed by Mikhail Romm, marked her debut as a film actress in 1934, it was a silent black and white film based on the novel Boule de Suif by Guy de Maupassant, in which she starred as Madame Loiseau. Although the film was silent, Ranevskaya learned several sayings of Madame Loiseau in French from the original novel by Maupassant. Romain Rolland, a French writer who visited the Soviet Union in the 1930s, loved the film, his favorite actor in the movie was Faina Ranevskaya. At his request, the Pyshka was shown in French cinemas. Ranevskaya played on stage of the Central Academic Theatre of the Russian Army, Drama Theater, now Mayakovsky Theater, Moscow Pushkin Drama Theatre, Mossovet Theater, where she worked with Yury Zavadsky; the actress was awarded the Stalin Prize for outstanding creative achievements on stage in 1949, in 1951 for her work in the film U nih est' Rodina, directed by Vladimir Legoshin and Alexandre Feinzimmer.
In 1961 Faina Ranevskaya was awarded the title of People's Artist of the USSR. The actress was buried at the Donskoe Cemetery. A memorial plate dedicated to Ranevskaya was placed on her birthhouse in the city of Taganrog on August 29, 1986. In 1992 British "Who's Who" encyclopedia named Ranevskaya among the world's Top Ten Actors of the 20th century; that was done despite the fact that the actress had never played a major part in a movie: all her roles were supporting ones. In a newspaper article, one of the Soviet movie industry apparatchiks explained her lack of main roles by Faina Ranevskaya's "typical Semitic" face features. On May 16, 2008, the Ranevskaya Monument was inaugurated in Taganrog in front of actress's birth house on Ulitsa Frunze 10 within the framework of the International Ranevskaya Theater Festival "The Great Province". 1934 - Boule de Suif as Madame Loiseau 1938 - The Ballad of Cossack Golota 1939 - Man in a Shell 1939 - Engineer Kochin's Error 1939 - The Foundling 1940 - The Beloved 1941 - The Dream 1943 - The New Adventures of Schweik 1944 - The Wedding 1945 - Heavenly Slug 1947 - Private Aleksandr Matrosov 1947 - Springtime 1947 - Cinderella 1949 - Encounter at the Elbe as Mrs. McDermot 1949 - They Have a Motherland 1958 - A Girl with a Guitar 1960 - Watch Out, Grandma!
1964 - An Easy Life 1965 - Today - New Side Show Life is a short promenade, just before the eternal sleep. Solitude is a house that has a telephone. Life is a sky-dive: out of a cunt, into the grave. Ageing is tedious. I spent all my life swimming in the butterfly style. There are people with God inside, there are people with the devil inside and there are people with only parasites inside! Faina Ranevskaya on IMDb Monument to Ranevsk
Birth house of Anton Chekhov
The Birth house of Anton Chekhov is the place in Taganrog, where the famous writer Anton Chekhov was born. It is now a writer's house museum; the outbuilding on the territory of a property on Chekhov Street in Taganrog was built in 1859 of wattle and daub and whitened. The area taken up by the small outbuilding is 30.5 sq. meters. The house and grounds were owned by the merchant Gnutov in 1860, by the petit bourgeois Kovalenko in 1880-1915. Pavel Yegorovich Chekhov and his family —rented the outbuilding in December 1859. Anton Chekhov was born in this house on January 17, 1860. In March, 1861, Pavel Yegorovich Chekhov and his family moved into another apartment. In 1910, a memorial plate was placed on the birth house of Chekhov thanks to the initiative of the Chekhov Circle in Taganrog, formed by the writer Yevgeny Garshin in 1905. In 1916, the Taganrog City Council supported the initiative of the Chekhov Circle and acquired the house and grounds on Chekhov Street 69 to conserve the birth house of Anton Chekhov.
In December 1920, the house was freed from all tenants, a renovation followed in 1921. In 1924, the first exhibition telling of the writer's youth was opened. In 1935 Maria Chekhova and Olga Knipper came to visit the home city of Chekhov, Taganrog, to participate at the events commemorating the 75th anniversary of Anton Chekhov's birth. Within the framework of the visit, Maria Chekhova presented to the Taganrog memorial museum several Anton Chekhov or Chekhov family memorabilia from White Dacha in Yalta; as part of the celebrations marking the 150th anniversary of Chekhov's birth, Russian President Dmitri Medvedev visited the Birth House memorial museum on January 29, 2010. Taganrog Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, Taganrog, 2003 Anton Chekhov's White Dacha in Yalta
Taganrog is a port city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, on the north shore of the Taganrog Bay in the Sea of Azov, several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 257,681; the history of the city goes back to late Bronze Age–early Iron Age, when it was the earliest Greek settlement in the northwestern Black Sea Region and was mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus as Emporion Kremnoi. Taganrog was founded by Peter the Great on September 12, 1698; the first Russian Navy base, it hosted the Azov Flotilla of Catherine the Great, which subsequently became the Russian Black Sea Fleet. Taganrog was granted city status in 1775. By the end of the 18th century, Taganrog had lost its importance as a military base after Crimea and the entire Sea of Azov were absorbed into the Russian Empire. In 1802, Tsar Alexander I granted the city special status, which lasted until 1887. In 1825, the Alexander I Palace in Taganrog was used as his summer residence, where he died in November 1825.
Taganrog became important as a commercial port, used for the import and export of grain by the end of the 19th century until the early 20th century. Industrialization increased in the city when Belgian and German investors founded a boiler factory, an iron and steel foundry, a leather factory, an oil press factory. By 1911, fifteen foreign consulates had opened in the city. During World War I, Taganrog was occupied by the troops of the German Army from May until August 1918. In 1919, General Anton Denikin established his headquarters at the Avgerino mansion in the city while commanding White Russian troops fighting in South Russia during the Russian Civil War; when the White Russians were defeated and Bolshevik power was established in the city on December 25, 1919, Denikin's remaining troops and the British Consulate were evacuated by HMS Montrose. Full power was granted to the Executive Committee of The City Soviet Workers' council on December 17, 1920, Taganrog joined the Ukrainian SSR as the administrative center of Taganrog Okrug, until it was transferred to the Russian SFSR along with Shakhty Okrug on October 1, 1924.
During World War II, Taganrog was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1943 during Operation Barbarossa, when two SS divisions entered the city on October 17, 1941, followed by Wehrmacht divisions, with the city suffering extensive damage. The occupation led to the local government system being replaced by German-style Bürgermeisteramt, which governed the city until it was liberated by the Red Army on August 30, 1943. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Taganrog Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status. The climate of Taganrog is temperate. Taganrog experiences hot summers. Taganrog is the leading industrial center of Rostov Oblast. Local industry is represented by aerospace, machine-building, military and steel industry, metal traders and processors, woodwork and paper, light and industry of construction materials, one of the major ports of the Sea of Azov.
The biggest company operating in Taganrog is Taganrog Metallurgical Plant, which manufactures steel, steel pipe, for oil and gas industry and consumer goods. The other major employer is Taganrog Auto Factory, which originated from Taganrog Combine Harvester Factory; the plant manufactures automobiles licensed by Hyundai. The production line includes Hyundai Accent compact sedan, mid-size Hyundai Sonata, sport utility vehicle Santa Fe, Hyundai Porter pickup truck. Taganrog is home to the aircraft design bureau Beriev; the area around Taganrog has a large industrial potential, a diversified agricultural industry, production plants, a modern infrastructure. The location of Taganrog on the intersection of traffic routes and the seaport facilitate access to the emerging CIS markets. Taganrog's main trading partners are the CIS countries, South Korea, Italy and Egypt; the Taganrog air base is 3.6 miles to the northwest of the city and hosts the Taganrog Aviation Museum. The city hosts the Taganrog military museum.
Taganrog College of Technologies Taganrog State Pedagogical Institute Taganrog College of Management and Economy The image of the city and its people is featured in numerous Anton Chekhov works, including Ionych, The House with an Attic, The Man in a Shell, Van'ka, Three Years, My Life. It is believed that Taganrog's image may be used as Lukomorye in Alexander Pushkin's Ruslan and Lyudmila, it appeared in the novels of Ivan Vasilenko and Konstantin Paustovsky and in the poems of Nikolay Sherbina and Valentin Parnakh. The conspiratorial legend of "Elder Fyodor Kuzmich" is cited in the book Roza Mira by Russian mystic Daniil Andreyev. According to this legend, the Russian tsar Alexander I did not die in Taganrog, but instead left his crown and the status of monarch to continue his life as a traveling hermit. In foreign literature, the city was mentioned in the titles of Der Tote von Taganrog by Eberhard von Cranach-Sichart and Taganrog by Reinhold Schneider. In 2004 Sabine Wichert published a collection of poems titled Taganrog.
Numerous Russian and international aristocrats, politicians and scientists were born and/or have lived in Taganrog. Taganrog is the native city of Anton Chekhov, Faina Ranevskaya, Sophia Parnok, Alexandre Koyré, Isaac Yakovlevich Pavlovsky, Dmitri Sinodi-Popov.
The Chekhov Shop is a museum in Taganrog, Russia. This is a two-storey house where the famous Russian writer Anton Chekhov stayed with his family from 1869 to 1874; the building was built in late 1840s and is located on the crossing of Alexandrovskaya and Gogol Street. The Chekhov family rented this building from the merchant Ivan Moiseev; the family moved into this building due to commercial interests of Anton Chekhov’s father. The shop’s entry featured a sign "Tea, sugar and other colonial goods"; when Anton’s father was away on business, he had to replace him serving as shop assistant and keeping the accounting records. It is on the first floor of this house that the future world-famous playwright wrote his first stories and staged amateur theatricals with other Chekhov family children or with gymnasium fellow students. November 3, 1977 museum "The Chekhov Shop" was open offering visitors objects and documents related to Chekhov youth years and life of the Chekhov family. Taganrog Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, Taganrog, 2003
Paul von Rennenkampf
Paul Georg Edler von Rennenkampff, more known as Paul von Rennenkampf in English, was a Baltic German nobleman and general of the Imperial Russian Army who commanded the 1st Army in the Invasion of East Prussia during the initial stage of the Eastern front of World War I. He served as the last commander of the Vilna Military District. Rennenkampf gained a reputation as an effective cavalry commander during the Boxer Rebellion and the Russo-Japanese War. Following service in the latter, he led the detachment that suppressed the Chita Republic during the 1905 Russian Revolution; this earned him further promotion, by the outbreak of World War I Rennenkampf was commander of the Vilna Military District, whose forces were used to form the 1st Army under his command. He led the 1st Army in the invasion of East Prussia, but was relieved of command after defeats at Tannenberg, the Masurian Lakes and Łódź, although he was proved innocent for the mistakes made in the Battle at Łódź. Exonerated by an official inquiry into his actions, Rennenkampf was shot by the Bolsheviks in Taganrog during the Red Terror in 1918.
Paul Georg Edler von Rennenkampff was born 29 April 1854 in the Konofer Manor in the Governorate of Estonia, one of eight children of Captain Karl Gustav Edler von Rennenkampff and Anna Gabriele Ingeborg Freiin von Stackelberg, he came from the Konofer-Tuttomäggi-Sastama branch of the Baltic German Rennenkampff family and was of Lutheran faith. His family was of Westphalian origin. On his mother's side was the Stackelberg family, which the common ancestor was Carl Adam von Stackelberg, a Swedish cavalry officer and participant of The Great Northern War, making him a fifth cousin of the famous Russo-Japanese War general Georg von Stackelberg; as a youth, Rennenkampf was educated in the Knight and Cathedral School, a German-speaking school built for Baltic German aristocrats. Upon graduation, he joined the military as a non-commissioned officer in the 89th Infantry Regiment, he graduated the Helsingforsky infantry school of the Junkers in Helsingfors. He began his military career with the Lithuanian 5th Lancers Regiment.
He graduated at the head of his class from the Nicholas General Staff Academy in St. Petersburg in 1881. From late November to late August 1884, he was an over-officer for instruction of the 14th Army Corps. In late September 1886, he was the chief of staff of the Warsaw Military District serving under commander-in-chief of the military district general and field marshal, Count Gurko. In early 1888, he was appointed to the Kazan Military District, Rennenkampf subsequently became the senior adjutant to the headquarters of the Don Cossacks. In late October 1889, he was appointed headquarters officer for special assignment at the 2nd Army Corps headquarters. In late March 1890, he was appointed the chief of staff of the Osowiec Fortress in Russian Poland; the same year he was promoted to colonel, after which he served in several minor regiment until late November 1899, when he was appointed chief of staff of the Transbaikal region, was promoted to major general. Rennenkampf participated in the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion in China from 1900-1901.
He distinguished himself with extreme success during the campaign and for military distinction, he was awarded both the 4th and 3rd classes of the Order of St. George, he acquired a name and wide popularity in military circles during the Chinese campaign, for which he received two St. George crosses; the military, in general, were skeptical of the "heroes" of the Chinese war, considering it "not real." But the cavalry raid of Rennenkampf, in its daring and courage, deserved universal recognition. It began in late July 1900, after the occupation of Aigun. Rennenkampff, with a small detachment of three arms, defeated the Chinese in a strong position along the ridge of the Small Hingan and, having overtaken his infantry, with fourteen hundred Cossacks and a battery, having made 400 kilometers in three weeks with continuous skirmishes, captured a large Manchurian city of Qiqihar with a sudden raid. From here the high command assumed a systematic offensive against Jirin, gathering large forces in the 3 regiments of infantry, 6 regiments of cavalry and 64 guns, under the command of the famous general von Kaulbars...
But, without waiting for the detachment to be collected, General von Rennenkampff, taking with him 10 hundred Cossacks and a battery, on August 24 moved forward along the Sungari valley. This match, unparalleled in its speed and suddenness, caused the Chinese, exaggerating to the extreme the strength of Rennenkampff, the impression that Kirin, the second most populated city and the most important city of Manchuria and the big garrison folded it. A handful of Rennenkampff Cossacks, lost among the mass of the Chinese, for several days, until reinforcements arrived, was in a preoriginal position... - Anton Denikin In mid September, Rennenkampf left for Dagushan, leaving hundreds of troops to protect the mint and arsenal. After several days of resetting, he, with his detachment attacked and occupied Tieling and Mukden, which he occupied until October. During the occupation, the general had faced numerous assassinations
Taganrog during World War II
The Soviet city of Taganrog, now part of the Rostov Oblast of the Russian Federation, had an eventful history during World War II, from 1941 to 1945. In July 1941 the municipal Communist Party Committee ordered the creation of the 44th Home Guards detachment from communists working at the city's factories to defend Taganrog; the detachment was under command of NKVD lieutenant Pyotr Gerasimov. In the summer months of 1941, the "Taganrog Instrumental Factory named after J. Stalin" began production of artillery shells. In the spring of 1941, the State Aviation Factory no.31 began producing the brand-new fighters LAGG-3 increasing the number of planes assembled to at least 6 airplanes per day following the opening of the Eastern Front. The "Taganrog factory named after Molotov" produced spare parts for tanks. On 30–31 August 1941, the city of Taganrog was bombed by Luftwaffe planes. On 15 September 1941, the Rostov Oblast Communist Party Committee gave instructions for the organization of defense and underground resistance in case of occupation.
A municipal defense committee was established in Taganrog, which controlled the evacuation of the population and military equipment from defense factories. The defense was held by 31st Rifle Division under command of Mikhail Ozimin and the 44th Home Guards detachment. On June 27, 1941 the State Communist Party Committee and Sovnarkom ordered the evacuation of industrial enterprises, agricultural resources and cultural values from the areas in the proximity of the front-line. On October 4, 1941 the first train from Taganrog, carrying the dismantled equipment of the Instrumental Factory named after J. Stalin, left for Novosibirsk. On October 9, 1941 the State Aviation Factory no.31 started preparations for evacuation to relocate the production of LAGG-3 to Tbilissi. On October 10, 1941 the Kransny Kotelshik factory started the evacuation of its equipment for Zlatoust of Chelyabinsk Oblast. On October 15, 1941 the Taganrog Metallurgical Pipe Factory finished its evacuation for Kamensk-Uralsky in Ural.
"The factory named after Molotov" was evacuated to Petropavlovsk. The Evacuation Hospital no.2097 located in Taganrog was evacuated on October 9 for Makhachkala. By October 15, 1941 around 70–75% of equipment and products of Taganrog factories, as well as most workers were evacuated from the city. On October 17, 1941, the armored divisions SS Division Wiking and 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler of 1st Panzer Group arrived on the outskirts of Taganrog and several tanks made a breakthrough to the seaport and opened fire at gunboats "Krenkel" and "Rostov-Don" and the last transport ship evacuating women and children. According to Sovinformburo, the Germans lost around 35,000 soldiers and officers during the fight for Taganrog. According to German sources, on the way from Mariupol to Taganrog, the German army lost 138 dead and 479 wounded. During the takeover of Taganrog, I./LSSAH captured 510 war prisoners, 29 artillery pieces, 8 antitank guns, 29 heavy machine-guns. The gunboat "Krenkel" was damaged and sunk in the haven of the Taganrog seaport.
During the occupation, the local government system was replaced by Bürgermeisteramt or "New Russian local government" and the city was divided into 4 police sectors controlled by "Ortskommendatur" and by SS-Sturmbannführer Dr. Kurt Christmann of Einsatzkommando Sonderkommando 10a. Sicherheitsdienst headquarters were stationed at the Chekhov Gymnasium. In the summer-fall campaign of 1942 the headquarters of the VIII. Fliegerkorps of the Luftwaffe was stationed in Taganrog. Since November, 1942 Ju 52 and Ju 88 aircraft were flying supplies to German troops encircled in Stalingrad; the promised tonnage figure was never reached, instead of the minimum required 300 tons of supplies per day, a maximum of 100 tons per day was reached. Taganrog was paid considerable attention by German intelligence services, it was due not only to strategic objects, such as seaport, train stations or developed industry, but to the fact that the city was located on the Azov Sea with hospitals and a spa center that could provide comfortable staying conditions for personnel.
The following special services were stationed in Taganrog in 1941–1943: SS Einsatzkommande Sonderkommando 10a Sicherheitsdienst SD-6 Sicherheitsdienst SD-10 Sicherheitsdienst SD-4b headed by Eckhardt Geheime Feldpolizei GFP-626 Geheime Feldpolizei GFP-721 headed by Brandt Abwehr Abwehrgruppe 101 and 103 Abwehr Abwehrgruppe 201 Abwehr "Nachrichtenbeobachter" group Abwehr "Marine Einsatzkommando des Schwartzes Meeres" May–July 1942) Abwehr Abwehrnebenstelle "Ukraine" Abwehr Abwehrausland Wally The SS Einsatzgruppe Sonderkommando 10a performed systematic genocide of Taganrog citizens from the first days of occupation. The large groups of citizens were taken from Vladimirskaya Plaza in Taganrog to Petrushino village, where they were shot to death in the Gully of Petrushino; the massacres in Taganrog started with the Final Solution of the Jewish question. On October 22, 1941 the Ortskommendant issued an order for all Jewish people to wear a Star of David sign and to register themselves at the Ortskommendatur