Alfie (1966 film)
Alfie is a 1966 British romantic comedy-drama film directed by Lewis Gilbert and starring Michael Caine. It is an adaptation by Bill Naughton of his own play of the same name; the film was released by Paramount Pictures. Alfie tells the story of a young womanising man who leads a self-centred life, purely for his own enjoyment, until events force him to question his uncaring behaviour, his loneliness and his priorities, he cheats on numerous women, despite his confidence towards women, he treats them with disrespect and refers to them as "it", using them for sex and for domestic purposes. Alfie breaks the fourth wall by speaking directly to the camera narrating and justifying his actions, his words contrast with or contradict his actions. This was the first film to receive the "suggested for mature audiences" classification by the Motion Picture Association of America in the US, which evolved into the modern PG rating; the film had its World Premiere at the Plaza Theatre in the West End of London on 24 March 1966.
Handsome Cockney chauffeur Alfie Elkins enjoys the favours of women, while avoiding any commitment. He ends an affair with a married woman, just as he gets his submissive single girlfriend, pregnant. Although Alfie refuses to marry Gilda and cheats on her Gilda decides to have the child, a boy named Malcolm, keep him rather than give him up for adoption. Over time, Alfie becomes attached to his son, but his unwillingness to commit to Gilda causes her to break up with him and instead marry Humphrey, a kindly bus conductor who loves her and is willing to accept Malcolm as his own son, she bars Alfie from any further contact with Malcolm, forcing Alfie to watch from a distance as Humphrey steps into his fatherly role. When a health check reveals Alfie has tubercular shadows on his lungs, the diagnosis, combined with his separation from his son, leads him to have a brief mental breakdown. Alfie spends time in a convalescent home, where he befriends a fellow patient named Harry, a family man devoted to his frumpy wife Lily.
When Alfie flippantly suggests that Lily might be cheating on Harry, Harry confronts Alfie about his attitudes and behaviour. Alfie is released from the home and meets Ruby, an older, voluptuous and promiscuous American, while freelancing taking holiday photos of tourists near the Tower of London. Alfie returns to the convalescent home to visit Harry. Neither Alfie nor Lily want to spend time together, but they agree to please Harry, the ride home turns into a one-night stand. Alfie picks up a young hitchhiker, Annie from Sheffield, looking to make a fresh start in London and moves in with him, she proves preoccupied with a love left behind, scrubbing Alfie's floor, doing his laundry, preparing his meals to compensate. He grows resentful of the relationship and drives her out with an angry outburst regretting it. Around the same time, Lily informs him that she is pregnant from their one encounter, the two plan for her to have an illegal abortion to keep Harry from finding out; the abortion proves traumatic for both Lily and Alfie, with Alfie breaking down upon seeing the aborted fetus, in a powerfully moving moment, the only time the dire consequences of his own actions came home to Alfie, though shortly after through the fourth wall he tried to make light of it.
The stress of the situations with Annie and Lily makes Alfie decide to change his non-committal ways and settle down with the rich Ruby. However, upon visiting Ruby, he finds a younger man in her bed, he encounters Siddie again. Alfie is left lonely and wondering about his life's choices asks the viewers "What's it all about? You know what I mean." The film concludes as Alfie comes across an old, stray dog that he encounters at the beginning of the movie and they walk the empty street together. Michael Caine as Alfie Elkins Shelley Winters as Ruby Millicent Martin as Siddie Vivien Merchant as Lily Clamacraft Jane Asher as Annie Julia Foster as Gilda Shirley Anne Field as Carla Eleanor Bron as the Doctor Denholm Elliott as the Abortionist Alfie Bass as Harry Clamacraft Graham Stark as Humphrey Murray Melvin as Nat Sydney Tafler as Frank Queenie Watts as the Blonde Pub Singer The film is unusual in that it has no opening credits and the end credits feature photos of the principal actors, as well as of the main technical crew, including director Gilbert and cameraman Otto Heller.
It was shot at Twickenham Studios with scenes shot at several locations in London. Several well-known actors, including Richard Harris, Laurence Harvey, James Booth and Anthony Newley turned down the title role due to the then-taboo subject matter. Despite having played "Alfie" on Broadway, Terence Stamp categorically declined to reprise the role on film, so he and casting agents approached his good friend and roommate Michael Caine: not one to snub a role about a common man, Caine agreed to do it, he continued to land better parts. The original film soundtrack featured jazz saxophonist Sonny Rollins with local musicians from London including Stan Tracey on piano, who improvised "Little Malcolm Loves His Dad", Rick Laird on bass, Phil Seamen on drums, Ronnie Scott on tenor sax; the released soundtrack album, recorded in t
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
You're My World
"You're My World" is a ballad recorded in 1963 as "Il Mio Mondo" by Umberto Bindi, who co-wrote the Italian-language version with Gino Paoli. Rendered with English lyrics by Carl Sigman as "You're My World", the song has reached No. 1 in Australia, Mexico, South Africa and United Kingdom via recordings by Cilla Black, Daryl Braithwaite, Guys'n' Dolls and Helen Reddy. The song went to No. 1 in France and Spain via the respective translations "Ce monde" and "Mi Mundo", both sung by Richard Anthony. Although the original Italian version by composer Umberto Bindi was not a hit in Italy, the song came to the attention of UK record producer George Martin, who commissioned an English version to be recorded by his protégée Cilla Black; the English lyrics were written by Carl Sigman whose son Michael Sigman would recall: "Inspired by Umberto Bindi's haunting melody, Carl evoked Gino Paoli's Italian title. But he created a wholly original English lyric". Black cut the song "You're My World" — as Carl Sigman entitled his English language rendering of "Il Mio Mondo" - in a session at Abbey Road Studios with Johnny Pearson conducting his orchestra on 3 April 1964 and The Breakaways providing background vocals.
Black has said that her road manager and future husband Bobby Willis sang on the track. Judd Proctor was the lead guitarist on the session which featured drummer Kenny Clare."You're My World" reached No. 1 in Britain on the chart dated 30 May 1964 and remained there for a total of four weeks, one week more than Black's preceding single "Anyone Who Had a Heart". Although Black returned to the UK Top Ten eight times, the song was her final No. 1 hit. Black's "You're My World" was No. 1 in Australia for two weeks that July when it spent three weeks at No. 2 in New Zealand, while in South Africa the disc was the second biggest hit for the year 1964. A Top Twenty hit in Denmark and a Top Thirty hit in The Netherlands, the track reached No. 12 in Canada, No. 2 in Ireland, No. 8 in Norway and No. 7 in Sweden."You're My World" was the first track by Black to be released in the US, where the singer was signed to Capitol Records. Peaking at No. 26 in August 1964, the song was Black's only Top 40 hit in the United States.
She reached number four on the Easy Listening chart. An alternative take from the recording sessions which yielded the Cilla Black hit version of "You're My World" was issued, with the opening notes being likened to be the sound of musicians tuning up. Both the 1964 versions, remain faithful to Bindi's strong vocal delivery and the instrumentation of his original recording in Italian. Black remade the song in 1985 for her Surprisingly Cilla album and again in 1993 for her Through the Years album. Over the Christmas season of 2008 Black came out of retirement for her professional swansong playing the Fairy Godmother in the Cinderella panto at the Liverpool Empire Theatre, each presentation of which would conclude with Black joined by her castmates in a performance of You're My World; when the hearse bearing Black's body arrived at St Mary's Church, Woolton for her 20 August 2015 funeral mass, "hundreds of fans broke into Cilla's 1964 hit'You're My World'". The grave marker beneath the headstone on Black's burial plot in Allerton Cemetery is inscribed with the second and third stanzas of "You're My World": lyrics from Black's hits "Step Inside Love" and "Alfie" appear on the marker.
On 16 January 2017 a bronze statue of Cilla Black was unveiled on Mathew Street in Liverpool being positioned outside the entrance of the Cavern Club where Black was discovered: Black is represented standing on an oversize depiction of a 45" single copy of "You're My World". Cilla Black – vocals The Breakaways – backing vocals Bobby Willis – backing vocals Subsequent to the success of Cilla Black's "You're My World" in the English-speaking world, Richard Anthony recorded a translation for release in France as "Ce Monde", No. 1 for six weeks in the summer of 1964 and that autumn reached No. 3 in Belgium. Anthony made the song a hit in its original Italian format, taking "Il Mio Mondo" into the Italian charts for the first time with a No. 20 peak in 1964/5. Anthony, who recorded the English rendition under the title "You Are My World" reached No. 1 in Spain in January 1965 with the rendering "Mi Mundo" which afforded Anthony a concurrent Top Ten hit in Argentina despite a local version by Juan Ramón - entitled "En Mi Mundo" - having reached the Argentine Top 20 in the autumn of 1964.
Paris-based German-born songstress Ria Bartok recorded "Ce Monde" for a four track EP released by Columbia/EMI in September 1964: that same month the track was issued as 7" single Pathé 77-519 in Canada where it reached No. 1 on that nation's French-language chart. Bartok included "Mi Mundo" on a Spanish-language EP she recorded. "Ce Monde" was featured on the 1965 album release Ria Bartok Pathé PAM 67.214 The success of the Cilla Black version of "You're My World" in South Africa did not preclude the success of a local cover version by Ray Walter which rose as high as No. 2 on South Africa's weekly hit parade. The Finnish language rendering of "You're My World" entitled "Olet kaikki" has become a pop music standard in Finland due to its success on
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Sandie Shaw, MBE is an English singer. One of the most successful British female singers of the 1960s, in 1967 the song "Puppet on a String" performed by her became the first British entry to win the Eurovision Song Contest. Shaw announced her retirement from the music industry in 2013. Sandra Ann Goodrich was born and brought up in Dagenham, England. On leaving school, she worked at the nearby Ford Dagenham factory, did some part-time modelling before coming second as a singer in a local talent contest; as a prize, she appeared at a charity concert in London, where her potential was spotted by singer Adam Faith. He introduced her to his manager, Eve Taylor, who won her a contract with Pye Records in 1964 and gave her the stage name of "Sandie Shaw". Taylor teamed Shaw with songwriter Chris Andrews, who wrote her first single, "As Long as You're Happy Baby", which failed to make the charts. However, for her second single Taylor gave her the Bacharach and David song " Always Something There to Remind Me", a No. 49 US pop hit for singer Lou Johnson.
Shaw's version rose to No. 1 in the UK Singles Chart in the autumn of 1964, charted in the United States at No. 52 on the Billboard Hot 100 early the following year."I'd Be Far Better Off Without You" was issued as the follow-up, but DJs preferred its B-side, "Girl Don't Come" written by Andrews, the sides were switched. "Girl Don't Come" reached No. 3 in the UK and became her biggest US hit, reaching No. 42. It was followed by further hits in the UK including "I'll Stop at Nothing", "Long Live Love", her second UK No. 1 in 1965, "Message Understood". The singles were produced by Taylor and Shaw herself, with help from Pye Records arranger Ken Woodman. Sandie Shaw was a regular on popular British TV programmes of the time such as Top of the Pops, Ready Steady Go! and Thank Your Lucky Stars. She was seen as epitomising the "swinging Sixties", her trademark barefoot performances endeared her to the public at large, she recorded most of her hit singles in Italian, French and Spanish boosting her popularity in Europe.
Shaw released several original albums in the 1960s: Sandie. These albums consisted of Andrews-penned songs mixed with cover versions of songs made popular by other musicians. By 1967 Shaw's record sales were declining and her manager decided on more of a cabaret appeal, she was invited by the BBC to represent the UK in that year's Eurovision Song Contest in Vienna. She had reservations as she felt it would destroy her credibility, but performed five songs on The Rolf Harris Show, with the public voting that the one that should represent the country was the Bill Martin/Phil Coulter composition "Puppet on a String". Although she disliked the song and thought it was unrepresentative of her material, the song won the contest by a near-record margin of votes, made Shaw the first person to win the contest for the UK, it gave her a record for a female at the time. "Puppet on a String" became an international hit and the largest-selling single of the year in Germany, qualifying for a gold disc for one million plus sales in the UK and Europe.
Globally, the single achieved sales in excess of 4 million, making it the biggest selling winning Eurovision track to date. Some estimates suggest this makes the track the biggest selling single by a British female artist of all time, her Eurovision success did not happen. Fashion had become another of Shaw's trademarks, in 1968 she began the Sandie Shaw fashion label, selling her own brand of clothing and shoes. In the same year she hosted her own TV show, The Sandie Shaw Supplement, issued an LP of the same title. Shaw was to have made her film debut in Mrs. Brown, You've Got a Lovely Daughter, but she walked out of the production before filming began, her last UK Top 10 hit came in the form of 1969's "Monsieur Dupont," sung by German artist Manuela with German lyrics. At the end of 1969, the single "Heaven Knows I'm Missing Him Now" was released, which would become the inspiration for a hit by The Smiths 15 years later. Shaw produced her own album, Reviewing the Situation, which contained versions of songs by less mainstream artists such as Bob Dylan and The Rolling Stones and made Shaw the first known artist to cover a Led Zeppelin song.
Shaw ended 1969 by appearing on the BBC's rated review of the'60s music scene Pop Go The Sixties, performing "There's Always Something There To Remind Me" and the German version of "Puppet on a String", "Wiedehopf Im Mai", live on the show broadcast on BBC1, 31 December 1969. Although she began writing songs, her contract with Pye expired in 1972, she retired from life as a pop singer and began working on other ventures, including co-writing a full-length rock musical, acting in stage productions and writing children's books. In 1972 she further demonstrated her versatility as an artist appearing on BBC Television's long running music hall programme, The Good Old Days. In 1973, Shaw was one of eight artists each given their own TV special in the BBC1 series Music My Way, where her guests included Blue Mink. By her own choice, Shaw left the music business and took work in a central London restaurant as a waitress, but in 1977, she released two singles on the CBS label and the following year began a lifelong commitment to Sōka Gakkai Buddhism.
Her second husband, Nik Powell, introdu
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time, it has been contrasted with classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has not been applied to the new music created during those revivals; this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, others. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, in U.
S. English it shares the same name, it shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music; the terms folk music, folk song, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes"; the term further derives from the German expression volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive; some do not agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning given is that of "old songs, with no known composers", another is that of music, submitted to an evolutionary "process of oral transmission....
The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character". Such definitions depend upon " processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of, found not only in the lower layers of feudal and some oriental societies but in'primitive' societies and in parts of'popular cultures'". One used definition is "Folk music is what the people sing". For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear" in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favour of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him true folk music was, in Charles Seeger's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and stratified societies.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types:'primitive' or'tribal'. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music, not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most indigenous music. From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were illiterate; this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh; the music was related to national culture. It was culturally particular. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion.
It is conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from, they commemorate personal events. On certain days of the year, such as Easter, May Day, Christmas, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Weddings and funerals may be noted with songs and special costumes. Religious festivals have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding, unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music; the songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time several generations. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing.
This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today every folk song, recorded is credited with an arranger. Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time