Aloysius Alzheimer was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin. Alzheimer is credited with identifying the first published case of "presenile dementia", which Kraepelin would identify as Alzheimer's disease. Aloysius Alzheimer was born in Marktbreit, Bavaria on June 14, 1864, his father served in the office of notary public in the family's hometown. The Alzheimers moved when Alois was still young in order to give their children an opportunity to attend the Royal Humanistic Gymnasium. Alois studied medicine at Aschaffenburg and at the universities of Tübingen, Würzburg. In his final year of school he was on the fencing team and a member of a fraternity, received a fine for disturbing the peace while out with his team. In 1887, Alois Alzheimer graduated from Würzburg with a degree in medicine; the following year, he spent five months assisting mentally ill women before he took an office in the city mental asylum in Frankfurt am Main, the Städtische Anstalt für Irre und Epileptische.
Emil Sioli, a noted psychiatrist, was the dean of the asylum. Another neurologist, Franz Nissl, began to work in the same asylum with Alzheimer. Together, they conducted research on the pathology of the nervous system the normal and pathological anatomy of the cerebral cortex. Alzheimer was the co-founder and co-publisher of the journal Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, though he never wrote a book that he could call his own. While at the Frankfurt asylum, Alzheimer met Emil Kraepelin, one of the best-known German psychiatrists of the time. Kraepelin became a mentor to Alzheimer, the two worked closely for the next several years; when Kraepelin moved to Munich to work at the Royal Psychiatric Hospital in 1903, he invited Alzheimer to join him. At the time, Kraepelin was doing clinical research on psychosis in senile patients; the two men would face many challenges involving the politics of the psychiatric community. For example, both formal and informal arrangements would be made among psychiatrists at asylums and universities to receive cadavers.
In 1908 he was a professor at the Ludwig Maximilian University and the Neurological and Psychiatric Clinic of the week Friedrich-Wilhelm University from 1912 until he fell ill. In 1901, Alzheimer observed a patient at the Frankfurt Asylum named Auguste Deter; the 51-year-old patient had strange behavioral symptoms, including a loss of short-term memory. Auguste Deter was a victim of the politics of the time in the psychiatric community. Herr Deter made several requests to have his wife moved to a less expensive facility, but Alzheimer intervened in these requests. Frau Deter remained at the Frankfurt asylum, where Alzheimer had made a deal to receive her records and brain upon her death. On 8 April 1906, Frau Deter died, Alzheimer had her medical records and brain brought to Munich where he was working in Kraepelin's laboratory. With two Italian physicians, he used the staining techniques of Bielschowsky to identify amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles; these brain anomalies would become identifiers of what became known as Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer discussed his findings on the brain pathology and symptoms of presenile dementia publicly on 3 November 1906, at the Tübingen meeting of the Southwest German Psychiatrists. The attendees at this lecture seemed uninterested in; the lecturer that followed Alzheimer was to speak on the topic of "compulsive masturbation", which the audience was so eagerly awaiting that they sent Alzheimer away without any questions or comments on his discovery of the pathology of a type of senile dementia. Following the lecture, Alzheimer published a short paper summarizing his lecture; the disease would not become known as Alzheimer's disease until 1910, when Kraepelin named it so in the chapter on "Presenile and Senile Dementia" in the 8th edition of his Handbook of Psychiatry. By 1911, his description of the disease was being used by European physicians to diagnose patients in the US. American Solomon Carter Fuller gave a report similar to that of Alzheimer at a lecture five months before Alzheimer.
Oskar Fischer was a fellow German psychiatrist, 12 years Alzheimer's junior, who reported 12 cases of senile dementia in 1907 around the time that Alzheimer published his short paper summarizing his lecture. The two men had different interpretations of the disease, but due to Alzheimer's short life, they never had the opportunity to meet and discuss their ideas. In 1894, he married Cecilie Simonette Nathalie Geisenheimer. Cecilie died in 1901. In August 1912, Alzheimer fell ill on the train on his way to the University of Breslau, where he had been appointed professor of psychiatry in July 1912. Most he had a streptococcal infection and subsequent rheumatic fever leading to valvular heart disease, heart failure and kidney failure, he never recovered from this illness. He died of heart failure on December 19, 1915 in Breslau, Silesia, he was buried on December 23. In the early 1990s, critics began to question Alzheimer's findings and form their own hypotheses based on Alzheimer's notes and papers.
Amaducci and colleagues hypothesized that Auguste Deter had metachromatic leukodystrophy, a rare condition in which accumulations of fats affect the
Franz Alexander Nissl was a German psychiatrist and medical researcher. He was a noted neuropathologist. Nissl was born in Frankenthal to Maria Haas. Theodor wanted Franz to become a priest; however Franz entered the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich to study medicine. He specialized in Psychiatry. One of Nissl's university professors was Bernhard von Gudden, his assistant, Sigbert Josef Maria Ganser suggested that Nissl write an essay on the pathology of the cells of the cortex of the brain. When the medical faculty offered a competition for a prize in neurology in 1884, Nissl undertook the brain-cortex study, he used alcohol as a fixative and developed a staining technique that allowed the demonstration of several new nerve-cell constituents. Nissl won the prize, wrote his doctoral dissertation on the same topic in 1885. Professor von Gudden was the judge in Nissl's college-essay competition, he was so impressed with the study that he offered Nissl an assistantship at the Furstenried castle southwest of Munich, where one of his responsibilities would be to care for the mad Prince Otto.
Nissl accepted, remained in that post from 1885 until 1888. There was a small laboratory at the castle, which enabled Nissl to continue with his neuropathological research. In 1888 Nissl moved to the Institution Blankenheim. In 1889 he went to Frankfurt as second in position under Emil Sioli at the Städtische Irrenanstalt. There he met neurologist Ludwig Edinger and neuropathologist Karl Weigert, developing a neuroglial stain; this work motivated Nissl to study mental and nervous diseases by relating them to observable changes in glial cells, blood elements, blood vessels and brain tissue in general. In Frankfurt Nissl became acquainted with Alois Alzheimer, they collaborated over seven years, they became close friends, jointly editing the Histologische und histopathologische Arbeiten über die Grosshirnrinde. In 1895 Emil Kraepelin invited Nissl to become assistant physician at the University of Heidelberg. By 1904 he was a full professor at that institution, became director of the Department of Psychiatry when Kraepelin moved to Munich.
The burden of teaching and administration, combined with poor research facilities, forced Nissl to leave many scientific projects unfinished. He suffered from a kidney disease. During World War I he was charged with administering a large military hospital. In 1918 Kraepelin again invited Nissl to accept a research position at the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie in Munich. After one year at that position, where he performed research alongside Korbinian Brodmann and Walther Spielmeyer, he died in 1919 of kidney disease. Nissl was with poor posture, he had a birthmark on his left face. He never married, his life revolved around his work. One day, for a practical joke, Nissl placed a row of empty beer bottles outside his laboratory and made sure that Kraepelin heard that he could be found lying under his desk, dead drunk. Nissl was a competent pianist. Hugo Spatz told of his first meeting. Nissl asked the student to come to his home at twelve; when Spatz came to the house at noon, Nissl was not there, the housekeeper opined that the Professor must have meant twelve midnight, so Spatz returned that night.
Nissl was at home but Spatz had to wait in the anteroom for half an hour until Nissl had finished the piano sonata that he was playing. The conversation lasted until daybreak. Nissl was the greatest neuropathologist of his day and a fine clinician who popularised the use of spinal puncture, introduced by Heinrich Quincke. Nissl examined the neural connections between the human cortex and thalamic nuclei. An example of his research philosophy is taken from his 1896 writings: As soon as we agree to see in all mental derangements the clinical expression of definite disease processes in the cortex, we remove the obstacles that make impossible agreement among alienists; the Nissl method refers to staining of the cell body, in particular endoplasmic reticulum. This is done by using various basic dyes to stain the negatively charged RNA blue, is used to highlight important structural features of neurons; the Nissl substance appears dark blue due to the staining of ribosomal RNA, giving the cytoplasm a mottled appearance.
Individual granules of extranuclear RNA are named Nissl granules. DNA present in the nucleus stains a similar color. Nissl bodies More information from the University of Illinois at Chicago Works by or about Franz Nissl at Internet Archive Nissl staining method and protocol link
University of Strasbourg
The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, France, is a university in France with nearly 51,000 students and over 3,200 researchers. The French university traces its history to the earlier German-language Universität Straßburg, founded in 1538, was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University, Marc Bloch University, Robert Schuman University. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of these three universities reconstituted a united University of Strasbourg. With as many as 19 Nobel laureates, the university is now ranked among the best in the League of European Research Universities; the university emerged from a Lutheran humanist German Gymnasium, founded in 1538 by Johannes Sturm in the Free Imperial City of Strassburg. It was transformed to a university in 1621 and elevated to the ranks of a royal university in 1631. Among its earliest university students was Johann Scheffler who studied medicine and converted to Catholicism and became the mystic and poet Angelus Silesius.
The Lutheran German university still persisted after the annexation of the City by King Louis XIV in 1681, but turned into a French speaking university during the French Revolution. The university was refounded as the German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Universität in 1872, after the Franco-Prussian war and the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany provoked a westwards exodus of Francophone teachers. During the German Empire the university was expanded and numerous new buildings were erected because the university was intended to be a showcase of German against French culture in Alsace. In 1918, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, so a reverse exodus of Germanophone teachers took place. During the Second World War, when France was occupied and equipment of the University of Strasbourg were transferred to Clermont-Ferrand. In its place, the short-lived German Reichsuniversität Straßburg was created. In 1971, the university was subdivided into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University Marc Bloch University Robert Schuman University These were, reunited in 2009, were able to be among the first twenty French universities to gain greater autonomy.
The university campus covers a vast part near the center of the city, located between the "Cité Administrative", "Esplanade" and "Gallia" bus-tram stations. Modern architectural buildings include: Escarpe, the Doctoral College of Strasbourg, Pangloss, PEGE and others; the student residence building for the Doctoral College of Strasbourg was designed by London-based Nicholas Hare Architects in 2007. The structures are depicted on the main inner wall of the Esplanade university restaurant, accompanied by the names of their architects and years of establishment; the administrative organisms, attached to the university, are located in the "Agora" building. Karl Ferdinand Braun Paul Ehrlich Hermann Emil Fischer Jules Hoffmann Albrecht Kossel Martin Karplus Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Jean-Marie Lehn Otto Loewi Otto Fritz Meyerhof Louis Néel Wilhelm Röntgen Albert Schweitzer Hermann Staudinger Adolf von Baeyer Max von Laue Pieter Zeeman Jean-Pierre Sauvage Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire Jardin botanique de l'Université de Strasbourg List of early modern universities in Europe Observatory of Strasbourg On the Poverty of Student Life Musée de minéralogie Musée zoologique de la ville de Strasbourg Reichsuniversität Straßburg University of Strasbourg The Art and Science collections of the University of Strasbourg
Anatomical pathology or Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty, concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, biochemical and molecular examination of organs and tissues. Over the last century, surgical pathology has evolved tremendously: from historical examination of whole bodies to a more modernized practice, centered on the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer to guide treatment decision-making in oncology, its modern founder was the Italian scientist Giovan Battista Morgagni from Forlì. Anatomical pathology is one of two branches of pathology, the other being clinical pathology, the diagnosis of disease through the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids and/or tissues. Pathologists practice both anatomical and clinical pathology, a combination known as general pathology. Similar specialties exist in veterinary pathology. Anatomic pathology relates to the processing and diagnosis of surgical specimens by a physician trained in pathological diagnosis. Clinical pathology is the division that processes the test requests more familiar to the general public.
Its subsections include chemistry, microbiology, immunology and blood bank. Anatomical pathology is itself divided in subspecialties, the main ones being surgical pathology, hematopathology cytopathology, forensic pathology. To be licensed to practice pathology, one has to complete medical school and secure a license to practice medicine. An approved residency program and certification is required to obtain employment or hospital privileges; the procedures used in anatomic pathology include: Gross examination – the examination of diseased tissues with the naked eye. This is important for large tissue fragments, because the disease can be visually identified, it is at this step that the pathologist selects areas that will be processed for histopathology. The eye can sometimes be aided with a magnifying glass or a stereo microscope when examining parasitic organisms. Histopathology – the microscopic examination of stained tissue sections using histological techniques; the standard stains are haematoxylin and eosin.
The use of haematoxylin and eosin-stained slides to provide specific diagnoses based on morphology is considered to be the core skill of anatomic pathology. The science of staining tissues sections is called histochemistry. Immunohistochemistry – the use of antibodies to detect the presence and localization of specific proteins; this technique is critical to distinguishing between disorders with similar morphology, as well as characterizing the molecular properties of certain cancers. In situ hybridization – Specific DNA and RNA molecules can be identified on sections using this technique; when the probe is labeled with fluorescent dye, the technique is called FISH. Cytopathology – the examination of loose cells spread and stained on glass slides using cytology techniques Electron microscopy – the examination of tissue with an electron microscope, which allows much greater magnification, enabling the visualization of organelles within the cells, its use has been supplanted by immunohistochemistry, but it is still in common use for certain tasks, including the diagnosis of kidney disease and the identification of immotile cilia syndrome.
Tissue cytogenetics – the visualization of chromosomes to identify genetic defects such as chromosomal translocation Flow immunophenotyping – the determination of the immunophenotype of cells using flow cytometry techniques. It is useful to diagnose the different types of leukemia and lymphoma. Surgical pathology is the most significant and time-consuming area of practice for most anatomical pathologists. Surgical pathology involves the gross and microscopic examination of surgical specimens, as well as biopsies submitted by non-surgeons such as general internists, medical subspecialists and interventional radiologists. Surgical pathology requires technologies and skills traditionally associated with clinical pathology such as molecular diagnostics. In the United States, subspecialty-trained doctors of dentistry, rather than medical doctors, can be certified by a professional board to practice Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Cytopathology is a sub-discipline of anatomical pathology concerned with the microscopic examination of whole, individual cells obtained from exfoliation or fine-needle aspirates.
Cytopathologists are trained to perform fine-needle aspirates of superficially located organs, masses, or cysts and are able to render an immediate diagnosis in the presence of the patient and consulting physician. In the case of screening tests such as the Papanicolaou smear, non-physician cytotechnologists are employed to perform initial reviews, with only positive or uncertain cases examined by the pathologist. Cytopathology is a board-certifiable subspecialty in the U. S. Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within anatomical and clinical pathology, focused on the use of nucleic acid-based techniques such as in-situ hybridization, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, nucleic acid microarrays for specialized studies of disease in tissues and cells. Molecular pathology shares some aspects of practice with both anatomic and clinical pathology, is sometimes considered a "crossover" discipline. Forensic pathologists receive specialized training in determining the cau
Aschaffenburg is a town in northwest Bavaria, Germany. The town of Aschaffenburg is not considered part of the district of Aschaffenburg, but is the administrative seat. Aschaffenburg belonged to the Archbishopric of Mainz for more than 800 years; the town is located at the westernmost border of Lower Franconia and separated from the central and eastern part of the Regierungsbezirk by the Spessart hills, whereas it opens towards the Rhine-Main plain in the west and north-west. Therefore, the inhabitants speak neither Bavarian nor East Franconian but rather a local version of Rhine Franconian; the town is located on both sides of the Main in the southwest part of Germany, 41 kilometers southeast of Frankfurt am Main. In the western part of the municipal territory, the smaller Aschaff flows into the Main; the region is known as Bayerischer Untermain. Aschaffenburg lies in the far northwest of the state of Bavaria, close to the border to the state of Hesse; the climate is continental with warm, dry summers and cold, damp winters.
Aschaffenburg receives less snowfall during the winter than the nearby Spessart. Aschaffenburg comprises 10 Stadtteile: Damm Gailbach Leider Nilkheim Obernau Obernauer Kolonie Österreicher Kolonie Schweinheim Stadtmitte StrietwaldNilkheim and Leider are the only Stadtteile which are located on the left bank of the river Main; the following municipalities border Aschaffenburg: Johannesberg, Goldbach, Bessenbach, Sulzbach am Main, Großostheim, Stockstadt am Main and Mainaschaff. The name Aschaffenburg meant "castle at the ash tree river" deriving from the river Aschaff that runs through parts of the town; the earliest remains of settlements in the area of Aschaffenburg date from the Stone Age. Aschaffenburg was a settlement of the Alamanni. Roman legions were stationed here. In c. 700 AD, the Ravenna Cosmography names two settlements in region: Ascapha. Around 550, the area had been conquered by the Franks, their Hausmeier built a castle here. In the 8th century, a Benedictine monastery was founded, dedicated to St. Michael by Saint Boniface.
This became the Kollegiatstift St. Peter und Alexander in the second half of the 10th century. In 869, King Louis the Younger married Liutgard of Saxony at Aschaffenburg, she died here in 885 and was laid to rest with her daughter Hildegard in the Stiftskirche. Ascaffinburg is mentioned first in 974 in a gift document by Otto II, in which he gave several villages including Wertheim am Main and a stretch of forest in the Spessart to the collegiate church. In the Middle Ages the town was known as Ascapha or Ascaphaburg. A stone bridge over the Main was built by Archbishop Willigis in 989, who made the town his second residence; the town was part of the Archbishopric of Mainz from 982. A Vizedom is mentioned for the first time in 1122 as the top local representative of the Archbishop. In 1292 a synod was held here, in 1447 an imperial diet, preliminary to that of Vienna, approved a concordat. In the German Peasants' War, the town backed the losing side. In 1552, the late-Gothic castle of Johannisburg was destroyed.
It was replaced in 1605-14 by the Renaissance Schloss Johannisburg. The town suffered during the Thirty Years' War, being held in turn by the various belligerents. During the Battle of Dettingen, which took place to the north, the town was occupied by French troops, it formed part of the electorate of the Archbishop of Mainz, in 1803 was made over to Archbishop Karl Theodor von Dalberg as the Principality of Aschaffenburg. Aschaffenburg was the site of the "Forstliche Hochschule Aschaffenburg", established in 1807, "made famous by the researches of Professor Dr Ernst Ebermayer." The Academy was "dissolved in 1832, but re-organized under the Ministry of Finance in 1874". In 1814 the town was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria by an Austrian-Bavarian treaty. In 1817 it was included within Bavarian Lower Franconia. From 1840–1848, King Ludwig I of Bavaria had a Roman villa built to the west of town, it was named Pompejanum after its model, the house of Pollux at Pompeii. In 1866, the Prussian Army inflicted a severe defeat on the Austrians in the vicinity during the Austro-Prussian War.
In World War II, Aschaffenburg was damaged by Allied area bombing, including Schloss Johannisburg, restored several years later. The Germans chose to defend Aschaffenburg with particular steadfastness, which resulted in the "Battle of Aschaffenburg" fought 28 March – 3 April 1945; the U. S. 45th Infantry Division was forced to take the fortified town against stiff German resistance in a series of frontal assaults that involved house-to-house fighting and vicious close combat. The resulting widespread urban destruction was quite severe, as cannon fire was used point-blank to blast through structures. At the end of World War II the United States Army occupied military facilities used and controlled by the Wehrmacht; these were converted for use by U. S. military personnel as processing centres for displaced persons at the end of the war. From 1945 7,000 Ukrainians were accommodated in four displa
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012