Republic of Florence
The Republic of Florence known as the Florentine Republic, was a medieval and early modern state, centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany. The republic originated in 1115, when the Florentine people rebelled against the Margraviate of Tuscany upon the death of Matilda of Tuscany, a woman who controlled vast territories that included Florence; the Florentines formed a commune in her successors' place. The republic was ruled by a council known as the Signoria of Florence; the signoria was chosen by the gonfaloniere, elected every two months by Florentine guild members. The republic had a checkered history of counter-coups against various factions; the Medici faction gained governance of the city in 1434 under Cosimo de' Medici. The Medici kept control of Florence until 1494. Giovanni de' Medici re-conquered the republic in 1512. Florence repudiated Medici authority for a second time in 1527, during the War of the League of Cognac; the Medici re-assumed their rule in 1531 after an 11-month siege of the city.
The republican government was disestablished in 1532, when Pope Clement VII appointed Alessandro de' Medici "Duke of the Florentine Republic", making the "republic" a hereditary monarchy. The city of Florence was established in 59 B. C. by Julius Caesar. Before the death of Matilda of Tuscany in 1115, the city had been part of the Marquisate of Tuscany founded in 846 A. D; the city did not submit to her successor Rabodo, killed in a dispute with the city. It is not known when the city formed its own government independent of the marquisate; the first official mention of the Florentine republic was in 1138, when several cities around Tuscany formed a league against Henry X of Bavaria. The country was nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire. According to a study carried out by Enrico Faini of the University of Florence, there were about fifteen old aristocratic families who moved to Florence between 1000 and 1100: Amidei. Florence prospered in the 12th century through extensive trade with foreign countries.
This, in turn, provided a platform for the demographic growth of the city, which mirrored the rate of construction of churches and palazzi. This prosperity was shattered when Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa invaded the Italian peninsula in 1185; as a result, the margraves of Tuscany re-acquired its townlands. The Florentines re-asserted their independence when Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI died in 1197. Florence's population continued to grow into the 13th century, reaching a level of 30,000 inhabitants; as has been said, the extra inhabitants supported the city's vice versa. Several new bridges and churches were built, most prominently the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, begun in 1294; the buildings from this era serve as Florence's best examples of Gothic Architecture. Politically, Florence was able to maintain peace between its competing factions; the precarious peace that existed at the beginning of the century was destroyed in 1216 when two factions, known as the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, began to war.
The Ghibellines were supporters of the noble rulers of Florence. The Ghibellines, who had ruled the city under Frederick of Antioch since 1244, were deposed in 1250 by the Guelphs; the Guelphs led Florence to prosper further. Their mercantile orientation soon became evident in one of their earliest achievements: the introduction of a new coin, the florin, in 1252, it was used beyond Florence's borders due to its reliable, fixed gold content and soon became one of the common currencies of Europe and the Near East. The same year saw the creation of the Palazzo del Popolo; the Guelphs lost the reins of power after Florence suffered a catastrophic defeat at the Battle of Montaperti against Siena in 1260. The Ghibellines resumed power and undid many of the advances of the Guelphs, for example the demolition of hundreds of towers and palaces; the fragility of their rule caused the Ghibellines to seek out an arbitrator in the form of Pope Clement IV, who favoured the Guelphs, restored them to power. The Florentine economy reached a zenith in the latter half of the 13th century, its success was reflected by the building of the famed Palazzo della Signoria, designed by Arnolfo di Cambio.
The Florentine townlands were divided into administrative districts in 1292. In 1293, the Ordinances of Justice were enacted, which became the constitution of the republic of Florence throughout the Italian Renaissance; the city's numerous luxurious palazzi were becoming surrounded by townhouses built by the prospering merchant class. In 1298, the Bonsignori family of Siena, one of the leading banking families of Europe, went bankrupt, the city of Siena lost its status as the most prominent banking center of Europe to Florence. In 1304, the war between the Ghibellines and the Guelphs led to a great fire which destroyed much of the city. Napier gives the following account: The golden florin of the Republic of Florence was the first European gold coin struck in sufficient quantities to play a significant commercial role since the 7th century; as many Florentine banks were international companies with branches across Europe, the florin became the dominant trade coin of Western Europe for large scale transactions, replacing silver bars in multiples of the mark.
In fact, with the collapse of the Bonsignori family, several new banking families sprang up in Fl
Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne
Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne was a younger daughter of Jean III de La Tour, Count of Auvergne and Lauraguais, Jeanne de Bourbon, Duchess of Bourbon. She was a penultimate representative of the senior branch of the house de La Tour d'Auvergne. Madeleine is best known for being the mother of the future Queen of France; as part of his efforts to gain power in Italy, Francis I of France turned to making certain strategic alliances. On 8 December 1515, he and Pope Leo X met and signed an agreement of friendship, in which Francis agreed to ensure the Vatican's authority over the Catholic Church in France, Leo promised to support Francis' claim to the throne of Naples; this agreement, like most others of the time, was cemented with a marriage alliance. Leo's nephew Lorenzo II de' Medici had just become the leader of the Florentine republic in 1516. Francis wrote to congratulate him by stating, "I intend to help you with all my power. I wish to marry you off to some beautiful and good lady of noble birth and of my kin, so that the love which I bear you may grow and be strengthened".
The "good lady" Francis proposed: his wealthy and distant relative Madeleine. Lorenzo duly accepted, as it was a great honor to be tied to the French royal family since he was a commoner, albeit an wealthy one. For Madeleine and her family, they were delighted to be tied into the sphere of the Pope himself, she married Duke Lorenzo II de' Medicis in Château d'Amboise on 5 May 1518. Their wedding was a sumptuous festival that marked not only their union, but the birth of a dauphin for Francis I; as with the other festivities Francis put on throughout his life, dancing figured prominently. Dancing was done in the Italian style. Seventy-two ladies were disguised in Italian and other fashionable costumes, making for quite a rich display of silk and color. Francis gave Madeleine 10,000 gold coins, she died in Italy shortly before her husband on 28 April of the following year, of what is believed to have been the plague. She had just given birth to a daughter, Catherine de' Medici, the future Queen of France and consort of Henry II.
Both she and her husband were said to have been delighted at the birth of Catherine as if she were a boy. As both of their parents were deceased and her elder sister Anne shared extensive properties in Auvergne, Berry and Louraguais. Anne inherited Auvergne and married John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany in 1505, she outlived Madeleine by five years but died childless, after which the Counties of Auvergne and Boulogne as well as the barony of La Tour passed to Madeleine's daughter Catherine de' Medici and to the French Crown. House of La Tour d'Auvergne McGowan, Margaret M.. Dance in the Renaissance: European Fashion, French Obsession. Yale University Press. Wellman, Kathleen. Queens and Mistresses of Renaissance France. Yale University Press. Knecht, R. J.. Catherine de' Medici. Pearson Education Limited
Mariotto Albertinelli, in full Mariotto di Bigio di Bindo Albertinelli was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Florentine school. He was a close friend and collaborator of Fra Bartolomeo and their joint works appear as if they have been painted by one hand, his work shows the influence of Perugino, Piero di Cosimo and Lorenzo di Credi as well as of Flemish painting. Some of Albertinelli's works reveal an eccentrically archaic tendency while others show a return to conventions of the early Renaissance. Mariotto Albertinelli was born in Florence as the son of a gold beater, he was an only child and his mother died when he was just five years old. He was himself trained as a gold beater until the age of 12 when he became a pupil of Cosimo Rosselli and a fellow-pupil with Fra Bartolomeo; the two pupils formed such a close friendship. After a while Albertinelli had mastered Fra Bartolomeo’s technique to such extent that he could paint in a style that blended with that of his partner; the closeness in style was such that for many years some doubts remained over who had painted certain works.
For example, the Kress tondo, now in the Columbia Museum of Art was attributed to Fra Bartolomeo but is now thought to be the work of Albertinelli using the former's cartoon. According to the early Italian biographer Vasari, Albertinelli was in the beginning of his career working for Alfonsina Orsini, the wife of Piero II de’ Medici and mother of Lorenzo II de' Medici. Tomas, Natalie R.. The Medici Women: Gender and Power in Renaissance Florence, Ashgate, 2003. Aldershot: Ashgate. P. 91. ISBN 0754607771, his early works were small paintings destined for the homes of sophisticated patrons. He produced these works independently of Fra Bartolommeo and as a result they are stylistically distinguishable. Piero di Cosimo who worked in Cosimo Rosselli’s workshop introduced Albertinelli to Flemish techniques. From around 1500 Fra Bartolomeo renounced painting for a few years in the wake of Savonarola's morality campaign, he joined the Dominican order as Fra Bartolomeo. Albertinelli worked as an independent painter.
He received various commissions including in 1503 for the high altarpiece for the Chapel of Congregazione di San Martino in Florence. The central panel depicts the Visitation and the predella the Circumcision, the Adoration of the Child and the Annunciation; the subject depicts the story in the Gospel of Luke when Elizabeth, the cousin of the Virgin Mary visits Mary, who is, like herself, pregnant. Elizabeth features prominently in this episode and this subject was therefore chosen for a church dedicated to her. While the figural composition of the Visitation was derived from designs by Fra Bartolomeo, Albertinelli changed elements in these designs by replacing Fra Bartolomeo’s strong contrasts in light and dark with smoother gradations of tone; the work shows the influence of Perugino in its use of soft highlights and its inclusion of a classical arcade. In 1509 Albertinelli and Fra Bartolomeo, who had by resumed painting, entered again into a partnership, their partnership was on an equal footing and entitled each to half the profit of a shared commission.
The partnership was dissolved in January 1513. According to Vasari, Albertinelli was fond of good living and women, he experienced financial problems and was unable to repay some of his loans, including one to Raphael, before he died. Albertinelli’s wife Antonia whom he had married in 1506 repaid some loans. Among his many students were Jacopo da Pontormo, Innocenzo di Pietro Francucci da Imola and Giuliano Bugiardini. Albertinelli's paintings bear the imprint of varied influences: Perugino's sense of volume in space and perspective, Fra Bartolomeo's coloring, the landscape portrayal of Flemish masters like Memling and Leonardo's Sfumato technique, his chief paintings are in Florence, notably his masterpiece, the Visitation, in the collection of the Uffizi
Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II, born Giuliano della Rovere, nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope", was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1 November 1503 to his death in 1513. His nine-year pontificate was marked by an active foreign policy, ambitious building projects, patronage of the arts, his military and diplomatic interventions averted a take-over by France of the Italian States. He proved a bulwark against Venetian expansionism. Pope Julius II commissioned the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica, Michelangelo's decoration and full-scale painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, his discerning eye in hiring the artist Raphael as a young man brought numerous improvements to the Vatican. Giuliano della Rovere Albisola, was born near Savona in the Republic of Genoa, he was of a noble but impoverished family, the son of Raffaelo della Rovere. and Theodora Manerola, a lady of Greek ancestry. He had: Bartolomeo, a Franciscan friar who became Bishop of Ferrara, he had a sister, Lucina.
Giuliano was educated by Fr. Francesco della Rovere, O. F. M. among the Franciscans, who took him under his special charge. He was sent by this same uncle, to the Franciscan friary in Perugia, where he could study the sciences at the University. Della Rovere, as a young man, showed traits of being rough and given to bad language. During the late 1490s he became more acquainted with Cardinal Medici and his nephew, the two dynasties became uneasy allies in the context of papal politics. Both houses desired an end to the occupation of Italian lands by the armies of France, he seemed less enthused by theology. After his uncle was elected Pope Sixtus IV on 10 August 1471, Giuliano was appointed Bishop of Carpentras in the Comtat Venaissin on 16 October 1471. In an act of literal nepotism he was raised to the cardinalate on 16 December 1471, assigned the same titular church as that held by his uncle, San Pietro in Vincoli. Guilty of serial simony and pluralism he held several powerful offices at once: in addition to the archbishopric of Avignon he held no fewer than eight bishoprics, including Lausanne from 1472, Coutances.
In 1474, Giuliano led an army to Todi and Città di Castello as papal legate. He returned to Rome in May, in the company of Duke Federigo of Urbino, who promised his daughter in marriage to Giuliano's brother Giovanni, subsequently named Lord of Senigallia and of Mondovì. On 22 December 1475, Pope Sixtus IV created the new Archdiocese of Avignon, assigning to it as suffragan dioceses the Sees of Vaison and Carpentras, he appointed Giuliano as the first archbishop. Giuliano held the archdiocese until his election to the papacy. In 1476 the office of Legate was added, he left Rome for France in February. On 22 August 1476 he founded the Collegium de Ruvere in Avignon, he returned to Rome on 4 October 1476. In 1479, Cardinal Giuliano served his one-year term as Chamberlain of the College of Cardinals. In this office he was responsible for collecting all the revenues owed to the cardinals as a group and for the proper disbursements of appropriate shares to cardinals who were in service in the Roman Curia.
Giuliano was again named Papal Legate to France on 28 April 1480, left Rome on June 9. As Legate, his mission was threefold: to make peace between King Louis XI and the Emperor Maximilian of Austria, he reached Paris in September, on 20 December 1480, Louis gave orders that Balue be handed over to the Archpriest of Loudun, commissioned by the Legate to receive him in the name of the Pope. He returned to Rome on 3 February 1482. Shortly thereafter the sum of 300,000 ecus of gold was received from the French in subsidy of the war. On 31 January 1483 Cardinal della Rovere was promoted suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia, in succession to Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville who had died on January 22, it was the privilege of the Bishop of Ostia to consecrate an elected pope a bishop, if he were not a bishop. This occurred in the case of Pius III, ordained a priest on 30 September 1503 and consecrated a bishop on 1 October 1503 by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere. Around this time, in 1483, an illegitimate daughter was born, Felice della Rovere.
On 3 November 1483, Cardinal della Rovere was named Bishop of Bologna and Papal Legate, succeeding Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga, who had died on 21 October. He held the diocese until 1502. On 28 December 1484, Giuliano participated in the investiture of his brother Giovanni as Captain-General of the Papal Armies by Pope Innocent VIII. By 1484 Giuliano was living in the new palazzo which he had constructed next to the Basilica of the Twelve Apostles, which he had restored. Pope Sixtus IV paid a formal visit to the newly restored building on 1 May 1482, it may be that Giuliano was in residence then. Sixtus IV died on 12 August 1484 and was succeeded by Innocent VIII. After the ceremonies of the election of Pope Innocent were completed, the cardinals were dismissed to their own homes, but Cardina
Charles VIII of France
Charles VIII, called the Affable, was King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498, the seventh from the House of Valois. He succeeded his father Louis XI at the age of 13, his elder sister Anne acted as regent jointly with her husband Peter II, Duke of Bourbon until 1491 when the young king turned 21 years of age. During Anne's regency, the great lords rebelled against royal centralisation efforts in a conflict known as the Mad War, which resulted in a victory for the royal government. In a remarkable stroke of audacity, Charles married Anne of Brittany in 1491 after she had been married by proxy to the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in a ceremony of questionable validity. Preoccupied by the problematic succession in the Kingdom of Hungary, Maximilian failed to press his claim. Upon his marriage, Charles became administrator of Brittany and established a personal union that enabled France to avoid total encirclement by Habsburg territories. To secure his rights to the Neapolitan throne that René of Anjou had left to his father, Charles made a series of concessions to neighbouring monarchs and conquered the Italian peninsula without much opposition.
A coalition formed against the French invasion of 1494-98 drove out Charles' army, but Italian Wars would dominate Western European politics for over 50 years. Charles died in 1498 after accidentally striking his head on the lintel of a door at the Château d'Amboise, his place of birth. Since he had no male heir, he was succeeded by his cousin Louis XII of France from the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois. Charles was born at the Château d'Amboise in France, the only surviving son of King Louis XI by his second wife Charlotte of Savoy, his godparents were Charles II, Duke of Bourbon, Joan of Valois, Duchess of Bourbon, the teenage Edward of Westminster, the son of Henry VI of England, living in France since the deposition of his father by Edward IV. Charles succeeded to the throne on 30 August 1483 at the age of 13, his health was poor. He was regarded by his contemporaries as possessing a pleasant disposition, but as foolish and unsuited for the business of the state. In accordance with the wishes of Louis XI, the regency of the kingdom was granted to Charles' elder sister Anne, a formidably intelligent and shrewd woman described by her father as "the least foolish woman in France."
She would rule as regent, together with her husband Peter of Bourbon, until 1491. Charles was betrothed on 22 July 1483 to the 3-year-old Margaret of Austria, daughter of the Archduke Maximilian of Austria and Mary, Duchess of Burgundy; the marriage was arranged by Louis XI, the Estates of the Low Countries as part of the 1482 Peace of Arras between France and the Duchy of Burgundy. Margaret brought the Counties of Artois and Burgundy to France as her dowry, she was raised in the French court as a prospective Queen consort. In 1488, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, died in a riding accident, leaving his 11-year-old daughter Anne as his heir. Anne, who feared for the independence of her duchy against the ambitions of France, arranged a marriage in 1490 between herself and the widower Maximilian, thus making Anne a stepmother to Margaret of Austria; the regent Anne of France and her husband Peter refused to countenance such a marriage, since it would place Maximilian and his family, the Habsburgs, on two French borders.
The French army invaded Brittany, taking advantage of the preoccupation of Frederick III and his son with the disputed succession to Mathias Corvinus, King of Hungary. Anne of Brittany was forced to agree to be married to Charles VIII instead. In December 1491, in an elaborate ceremony at the Château de Langeais and Anne of Brittany were married; the 14-year-old Duchess Anne, not happy with the arranged marriage, arrived for her wedding with her entourage carrying two beds. However, Charles's marriage brought him independence from his relatives and thereafter he managed affairs according to his own inclinations. Queen Anne lived at the Clos Lucé in Amboise. There still remained the matter of the young Margaret of Austria. Although the cancellation of her betrothal meant that she by rights should have been returned to her family, Charles did not do so, intending to marry her usefully elsewhere in France, it was a difficult situation for Margaret, who informed her father in her letters that she was so determined to escape that she would flee Paris in her nightgown if it gave her freedom.
In 1493, she was returned to her family, together with her dowry – though the Duchy of Burgundy was retained in the Treaty of Senlis. Around the king there was a circle of court poets, the most memorable being the Italian humanist Publio Fausto Andrelini from Forlì, who spread the New Learning in France. During a pilgrimage to pay respects to his father's remains, Charles observed Mont Aiguille and ordered Antoine de Ville to ascend to the summit in an early technical alpine climb alluded to by Rabelais. To secure France against invasions, Charles made treaties with Maximilian I of Austria and England, buying their neutrality with large concessions; the English monarch Henry VII had forced Charles to abandon his support for the pretender Perkin Warbeck by despatching an expedition which laid siege to Boulogne. He devoted France's resources to building up a large army, including one of Europe's first siege trains with artillery. In 1489, Pope Innocent VIII being at odds with Ferdi
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans carry the letters OP after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, active sisters, affiliated lay or secular Dominicans. Founded to preach the Gospel and to oppose heresy, the teaching activity of the order and its scholastic organisation placed the Preachers in the forefront of the intellectual life of the Middle Ages; the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. In the year 2017 there were 5,742 Dominican friars, including 4,302 priests; the Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order Bruno Cadoré. A number of other names have been used to refer to its members.
In England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred to as "Black Friars" because of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits. Dominicans were "Blackfriars", as opposed to "Whitefriars" or "Greyfriars", they are distinct from the Augustinian Friars who wear a similar habit. In France, the Dominicans were known as "Jacobins" because their convent in Paris was attached to the Church of Saint-Jacques, now disappeared, on the way to Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas, which belonged to the Italian Order of Saint James of Altopascio Sanctus Iacobus in Latin, their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they were the "Domini canes", or "Hounds of the Lord". The Dominican Order came into being in the Middle Ages at a time when men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they travelled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of the primitive Church. Out of this ideal emerged two orders of mendicant friars: one, the Friars Minor, was led by Francis of Assisi.
Like his contemporary, Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization, the quick growth of the Dominicans and Franciscans during their first century of existence confirms that the orders of mendicant friars met a need. Dominic sought to establish a new kind of order, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders like the Benedictines to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but with more organizational flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy; the Order of Preachers was founded in response to a perceived need for informed preaching. Dominic's new order was to be trained to preach in the vernacular languages. Dominic inspired his followers with loyalty to learning and virtue, a deep recognition of the spiritual power of worldly deprivation and the religious state, a developed governmental structure. At the same time, Dominic inspired the members of his order to develop a "mixed" spirituality.
They were both active in preaching, contemplative in study and meditation. The brethren of the Dominican Order were urban and learned, as well as contemplative and mystical in their spirituality. While these traits affected the women of the order, the nuns absorbed the latter characteristics and made those characteristics their own. In England, the Dominican nuns blended these elements with the defining characteristics of English Dominican spirituality and created a spirituality and collective personality that set them apart; as an adolescent, he had a particular love of theology and the Scriptures became the foundation of his spirituality. During his studies in Palencia, Spain, he experienced a dreadful famine, prompting Dominic to sell all of his beloved books and other equipment to help his neighbors. After he completed his studies, Bishop Martin Bazan and Prior Diego d'Achebes appointed Dominic to the cathedral chapter and he became a Canon Regular under the Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions for the cathedral church of Osma.
At the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1203, Dominic de Guzmán joined Diego de Acebo on an embassy to Denmark for the monarchy of Spain, to arrange the marriage between the son of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and a niece of King Valdemar II of Denmark. At that time the south of France was the stronghold of the Cathar movement; the Cathars were a heretical neo-gnostic sect. They believed that matter was evil and only the spirit was good; the Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France. Dominic saw the need for a response that would attempt to sway members of the Albigensian movement back to mainstream Christian thought. Dominic became inspired into a reforming zeal after they encountered Albigensian Christians at Toulouse. Diego saw one of the paramount reasons for the spread of the unorthodox movement- the representatives of the Holy Church acted and moved with an offensive amount of pomp and ceremony.
In contrast, the Cathars led ascetic lifestyles. For these reasons, Diego suggested that the papal legates begin to live a reformed apostolic l