Alfonso XIII known as El Africano or the African, was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Alfonso was monarch from birth as Alfonso XII, had died the previous year. Alfonso's mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902. During Alfonso's reign Spain experienced four major problems that contributed to the end of the liberal monarchy: the lack of real political representation of broad social groups; the political and social turbulence that began with the Spanish–American War prevented the turnaround parties from establishing a true liberal democracy, which led to the establishment of the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera. With the political failure of the dictatorship, Alfonso impelled a return to the democratic normality with the intention of regenerating the regime, it was abandoned by all political classes, as they felt betrayed by the king's support of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera.
He left Spain voluntarily after the municipal elections of April 1931, which were taken as a plebiscite on abolishing the monarchy. Alfonso was born at Royal Palace of Madrid in Madrid on 17 May 1886, he was the posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, who had died in November 1885, became King of Spain upon his birth. Just after he was born, he was carried naked to the Spanish prime minister on a silver tray. Five days he was carried in a solemn court procession with a golden fleece round his neck and was baptized with water specially brought from the River Jordan in Palestine; the French newspaper Le Figaro described the young king in 1889 as "the happiest and best-loved of all the rulers of the earth". His mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as his regent until his 16th birthday. During the regency, in 1898, Spain lost its colonial rule over Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines to the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War; when he came of age in May 1902, the week of his majority was marked by festivities, bullfights and receptions throughout Spain.
He took his oath to the constitution before members of the Cortes on 17 May. By 1905, Alfonso was looking for a suitable consort. On a state visit to the United Kingdom, he stayed at Buckingham Palace with King Edward VII. There he met Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, the daughter of Edward's youngest sister Princess Beatrice, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria, he found her attractive, she returned his interest. There were obstacles to the marriage. Victoria was a Protestant, would have to become a Catholic. Victoria's brother Leopold was a haemophiliac, so there was a 50 percent chance that Victoria was a carrier of the trait. Alfonso's mother Maria Christina wanted him to marry a member of her family, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, or some other Catholic princess, as she considered the Battenbergs to be non-dynastic. Victoria was willing to change her religion, her being a haemophilia carrier was only a possibility. Maria Christina was persuaded to drop her opposition. In January 1906 she wrote an official letter to Princess Beatrice proposing the match.
Victoria met Maria Christina and Alfonso in Biarritz, France that month, converted to Catholicism in San Sebastián in March. In May, diplomats of both kingdoms executed the agreement of marriage. Alfonso and Victoria were married at the Royal Monastery of San Jerónimo in Madrid on 31 May 1906, with British royalty in attendance, including Victoria's cousins the Prince and Princess of Wales; the wedding was marked by an assassination attempt on Alfonso and Victoria by Catalan anarchist Mateu Morral. As the wedding procession returned to the palace, he threw a bomb from a window which killed or injured many bystanders and members of the procession. On 10 May 1907, the couple's first child, Prince of Asturias, was born. However, Victoria was in fact a haemophilia carrier, Alfonso inherited the condition. Neither of the two daughters born to the King and Queen were haemophilia carriers, but another of their sons, had the condition. Alfonso distanced himself from his wife for transmitting the condition to their sons.
From 1914 on, he had several mistresses, fathered five illegitimate children. A sixth illegitimate child had been born before his marriage. During World War I, because of his family connections with both sides and the division of popular opinion, Spain remained neutral; the King established an office for assistance to prisoners of war on all sides. This office used the Spanish diplomatic and military network abroad to intercede for thousands of POWs – transmitting and receiving letters for them, other services; the office was located in the Royal Palace. Alfonso became gravely ill during the 1918 flu pandemic. Spain was neutral and thus under no wartime censorship restrictions, so his illness and subsequent recovery were reported to the world, while flu outbreaks in the belligerent countries were concealed; this gave the misleading impression that Spain was the most-affected area and led to the pandemic being dubbed "the Spanish Flu." Following World War I, Spain entered the lengthy yet victorious Rif War to preserve its colonial rule over northern Morocco.
Critics of the monarchy thought the war was an unforgivable loss of money and lives, nicknamed Alfonso el Africano. Alfonso had not acted as a strict constitutional monarch, supported the Africanists who wanted to conquer for Spain a new empire in Africa to compensate for the lost empire in the Americas and Asia. The
The Kuku language called Kutuk na Kuku belongs to the Karo language group, of the Southeastern Nilotic branch of the Nilotic language family of the Southern Sudan and Northern Uganda. There is no standardized writing system for Kuku. For example, the Bari alphabet can be adjusted for use in Kuku by adding the digraphs gb and kp to represent the voiced and voiceless labiovelar stops, respectively. Kuku Alphabets A E I O U Ö – B D G J K L – M N P R S T – W Y ’B ’D Ý Ŋ – NY GB KP a e i o ö – b d g j k l – m n p r s t – w y ’b ’d ý ŋ – ny gb kp...which has two digraphs not found in the Bari alphabet. Kuku is a tone language, it has agglutinative verbal morphology, with extensive suppletion. Nouns are divided into two genders. There is a vowel harmony system that involves an ATR distinction. Differences between Kuku and Bari include the phoneme inventory, tonal phonology, tense formation; the most striking difference may be in the function of the qualitative morpheme, used to indicate a definite/indefinite contrast in Bari, but indicates an aspectual contrast in Kuku.
Kuku language have a variety of borrowed words. Some words are of Kisawahili, Arabic language that are altered a little to sound different. Today a number of words seem to be derived from English too by the more educated Kuku people. More educated Kuku people mix the language with some English in it for example if they want to say "you are not serious" they say "Do mb'an sirias"; the traditional folk songs of the Kuku people are Kore. The songs are sung and traditional drums and the horn are played as instruments; the dance include shuffling of feet and stumping for the Bula, some form of rhythmic jumping for the Kore. Modern music is common among the Kuku. Due to the many years of the civil war, the culture is influenced by the countries neighboring South Sudan. Most Kuku fled to Kenya and Uganda where they interacted with the nationals and learnt their languages and culture. For most of those who remained in the country, or went North to Sudan and Egypt, they assimilated Arabic culture, it is worth noting that most Kuku kept the core of their culture while in exile and diaspora.
Traditional culture is upheld and a great focus is given to knowing one's origin and dialect. Although the common languages spoken are Arabi Juba and English, Kuku is the unifying language. Many music artists from Central Equatoria use English, Arabi Juba, their Kuku or a mix of all. Popular artists from Kuku are like Reflections BYG, a beautiful fresh voice rocking the Zouk floor with her first single Ng'ume which means Smile received high hits in the first few days of its release, she has an amazing strong voice for the popular Jazz as well as Hip Hop. Although the women are underrepresented, these two talents are putting the state back on the charts. Emmanuel Lasu is one of the popular male talent. Voßen, The Eastern Nilotes. Linguistics and Historical Reconstructions, Kölner Beiträge zur Afrikanistik n° 9, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1982. ISBN 3-496-00698-6 飛内悠子, 私の研究とその社会的意義, グローバル・スタディーズ研究科地域研究専攻博士前期課程, available at http://www.st.sophia.ac.jp/T.de. Chardin/pdf/08_hiuchi.pdf
Matan Uziel is an Israeli journalist, filmmaker and a former modeling agent who represented Yves Saint Laurent's muse Maayan Keret among other fashion models. Founder of Real Women Real Stories. In November 22, BuzzFeed News published an article about unsettling videos that depict children in disturbing and abusive situations; the information on the article came with the assistance of Matan Uziel whose investigation and report to the Federal Bureau of Investigation on that matter were sent on September 22, informing its leadership about "tens of thousands of videos available on YouTube that we know are crafted to serve as eye candy for perverted, creepy adults, online predators to indulge in their child fantasies."In November 27, YouTube announced in a statement to BuzzFeed News that it had "terminated more than 270 accounts and removed over 150,000 videos", "turned off comments on more than 625,000 videos targeted by child predators" and "removed ads from nearly 2 million videos and over 50,000 channels masquerading as family-friendly content".
Uziel is a vocal proponent of the Censorship of YouTube and gave numerous interviews about YouTube's removal of content that "might be sensitive, but serves a public good." In December 2017, Polanski filed a ₪1.5 million suit in Herzliya Magistrates' Court against Matan Uziel. Polanski maintained that Uziel, through his website, www.imetpolanski.com, falsely reported that five women had come forward to accuse him of raping them. Polanski was suing for defamation of character. Herzliya Magistrates' Court rejected Polanski's request to be exempt from appearing in court after filing the libel suit. While Polanski gave various reasons for his inability to appear, the presiding judge, Gilad Hess, dismissed these one by one and ordered Polanski to pay Uziel ₪10,000 in costs. In November 2018, it was published that Polanski decided to drop the lawsuit, was ordered by the court to pay Uziel ₪30,000 for court costs; the court accepted Uziel's request that the suit not be dropped, but rather that it be rejected, making Polanski unable to sue Uziel again over the same issue in the future.
In late December 2019, in Polanski's interviews with Paris Match and Gazeta Wyborcza, the latter accused Uziel of orchestrating the attacks on his character and for playing a major role in designing an international campaign to besmirch his name and reputation in order to make his career fall from grace. Founded by Uziel in March 8, 2016, Real Women Real Stories is an international collection of filmed testimonies of women around the world, who submit and discuss different contents and topics. Through these documentaries, Uziel's Real Women Real Stories intends to bring viewers face to face with different subjects and enable women raise their voice on what they feel needs attention. Since its launch, the project has been featured internationally to great acclaim; the project features Kate del Castillo, Bree Olson, Kiran Chetry, Esther de Jong, Vanessa Noel, Hoda Ali, Khoudia Diop, Shandra Woworuntu, Amy Paulin, Brooke Axtell, Nikki DuBose, Leah Vincent, Charlotte Lewis. Matan Uziel served as an ambassador for the National Eating Disorders Association.
During his tenure, he created a Change.org petition against Spreadshirt, accusing the e-commerce company for selling shirts that appeared to glamorize eating disorders. In August 2017, Uziel started a petition calling for convicted child rapist and former priest Paul Shanley to live in a treatment facility where he will have no access to children; as of August 5, 2017, more than 15,000 people had signed the petition, which called for Shanley’s whereabouts to be monitored with a GPS bracelet. More than a decade ago, a video appeared on the web in which Mexican actress Michelle Vieth appeared naked, a situation that she still considers heartbreaking and difficult to overcome. In July 2017, Vieth contacted Uziel. In August 2019, Uziel and its organization Real Women Real Stories discovered that shirts bearing iconic photographs of the Holocaust of a man being shot to death while perched over a mass grave are sold on Amazon UK; the items in question featured an infamous photograph known as The Last Jew in Vinnitsa.
Uziel forwarded the information to Israel's Channel 2 and following the channel's inquiry, Amazon has removed the items, however, it was reported that other controversial items are still available on Amazon. Matan Uziel has two sisters, he is the grandson of Moshe Gueron