Paris Métro Line 8
Paris Métro Line 8 is one of 16 lines of the Paris Métro. It connects the Balard station in southwestern Paris to Créteil – Pointe du Lac station in Créteil, following a parabolic route on the right bank of the Seine; the last line of the original 1898 Paris Métro plan, which opened in December 1913, it was intended to link the Porte d'Auteuil and Opéra stations. The line was modified during the 1930s as line 10 took over the western section; the current route serves the southwestern part of the city, the Grands Boulevards and the Bois de Vincennes, ending in the southeastern inner suburbs through the cities of Charenton-le-Pont, Maisons-Alfort and Créteil. The underground line was the first to connect the prefecture of one of the new departments of Île-de-France; the only Paris underground line to cross the Seine and its principal tributary in the air via a bridge between Charenton - Écoles and École Vétérinaire de Maisons-Alfort, it crosses the Seine underground between Concorde and Invalides.
With 89 million travellers in 2004, it is the network's eighth-busiest line. 13 July 1913: Line 8 opened between Beaugrenelle and Opéra. 30 September 1913: Line extended from Beaugrenelle to Porte d'Auteuil. 30 June 1928: Northern extension from Opéra to Richelieu-Drouot 5 May 1931: Line extended from Richelieu-Drouot to Porte de Charenton. 27 July 1937: Section between La Motte-Picquet and Porte d'Auteuil transferred to Line 10. 2 September 1939: Like many other stations, service to Saint-Martin and Champ de Mars was halted because of World War II. 5 October 1942: Line extended eastbound from Porte de Charenton to Charenton – Écoles. 19 September 1970: Line extended from Charenton – Écoles to Maisons-Alfort – Stade. 27 April 1972: Line extended from Maisons-Alfort – Stade to Maisons-Alfort – Les Juillottes. 24 September 1973: Line extended from Maisons-Alfort – Les Julliottes to Créteil – l'Echat. 9 September 1974: Line extended from Créteil – l'Echat to Créteil – Préfecture. 8 October 2011: Line extended from Créteil – Préfecture to Pointe du Lac.
Line 8 was the last line created by the concession of 30 March 1898, the déclaration d'utilité publique was approved on 6 April 1903. The project would connect Opéra with Porte d'Auteuil via Grenelle with a shuttle, similar to the network's other lines. In accordance with the plan to operate Line 7 with a junction on the outskirts of Paris, a branch towards the Porte de Sèvres starting from the Grenelle station was planned to be built subsequently; the trains would alternately run on the two branches. Construction of the underwater crossing of the Seine began in April 1908 between the Concorde and Invalides stations, at the level of Pont Mirabeau, it was finished after a lengthy delay caused by the 1910 flood. The crossing was routed with a curve 250 metres away. Although metal caissons were planned to be sunk vertically, a tunnel was drilled following a single circular tube with the aid of a shield. However, the crossing near Pont Mirabeau was made with vertical caissons; the Invalides-Javel section was completed in 1910.
The Grenelle station was planned as a double station with platforms on two levels, with the aim to send trains on the two branches. However, only one station with a central platform was built, as the Balard branch was planned to be built later. Before the completion of work near Pont Mirabeau, the line opened to the public on 13 July 1913 between Beaugrenelle and Opéra; the Invalides and Concorde stations were still unfinished and opened on 24 December 1913 and 12 March 1914, respectively. In 1914, the line had fifteen stations between Porte Opéra. Extension of the line began on 29 December 1922, intending to transform Line 8 into a parabolic axis connecting Auteuil to Porte de Charenton via Opéra, Place de la République, Place de la Bastille, Avenue Daumesnil in the 12th arrondissement and Porte de Picpus; as part of the extension, a common route with Line 9 between the Richelieu - Drouot and République stations was planned in order to limit the impact of this problematic section on street traffic.
Located on the former course of the Seine, the ground is soft and the initial plan to build two parallel tunnels generated lengthy controversy. The first new section opened on 30 June 1928, extending the line by 643 meters to Richelieu – Drouot from Opéra. With an increase in traffic forecast, at its 21 March 1926 meeting the Municipal Council of Paris decided to increase the new Line 7, 8 and 9 station length from 75 metres to 105 to use stock seven-car trains. Although lengthening the old stations was planned the work was never completed; the new Richelieu – Drouot station was the system's first 105-metre station, but train length was limited by the shorter stations. The 1931 Paris Colonial Exposition in Bois de Vincennes necessitated the completion of Line 8 for its opening; the extension of the line to Porte de Charenton, including the construction of seventeen 105-metre stations, was agreed on 25 March 1924 and work began in 1928. The configuration of Lines 8 and 9, under the Grands Boulevards in wet, unstable ground, drove the decision to extend the line on two levels.
The Line 8 stations are on the upper level: two half-stations, separated by a central supporting wall to ensure stability. The 7.8-km extension was completed in March 1931 and opened to the public on 5 May, ending at Porte de Charenton. The line now included thirty-three
Val-de-Marne is a French department, named after the Marne River, located in the Île-de-France region. The department is situated to the southeast of the city of Paris. Val-de-Marne is, together with Seine-Saint-Denis and Hauts-de-Seine, one of three small departments in Île-de-France that form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne. Since January 1, 2016 Val de Marne is included in Métropole du Grand Paris Val-de-Marne is made up of 3 departmental arrondissements and 47 communes: Val-de-Marne was created in January 1968, through the implementation of a law passed in July 1964. Positioned to the south-east of the Paris ring road, it was formed from the southern-eastern part of the Seine department, together with a small portion taken from the broken-up department of Seine-et-Oise. Communes of the Val-de-Marne department Prefecture General Council Citizen Blog
Armenian Apostolic Church
The Armenian Apostolic Church is the national church of the Armenian people. Part of Oriental Orthodoxy, it is one of the most ancient Christian communities; the Kingdom of Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as its official religion under the rule of King Tiridates in the early 4th century. The church originated in the missions of Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus in the 1st century, according to tradition, it is sometimes referred to as the Armenian Orthodox Gregorian Church. The latter is not preferred by the church itself, as it views the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus as its founders, St. Gregory the Illuminator as the first official governor of the church, it is simply known as the Armenian Church. The Armenian Church believes in apostolic succession through the apostles Thaddeus. According to legend, the latter of the two apostles is said to have cured Abgar V of Edessa of leprosy with the Image of Edessa, leading to his conversion in 30 AD. Thaddaeus was commissioned by Abgar to proselytize throughout Armenia, where he converted the king Sanatruk's daughter, martyred alongside Thaddeus when Sanatruk fell into apostasy.
After this, Bartholomew came to Armenia, bringing a portrait of the Virgin Mary, which he placed in a nunnery he founded over a former temple of Anahit. Bartholomew converted the sister of Sanatruk, who once again martyred a female relative and the apostle who converted her. Both apostles ordained native bishops before their execution, some other Armenians had been ordained outside of Armenia by James the Just. Scholars including Bart Ehrman, Han Drijvers, W. Bauer dismiss the conversion of Abgar V as fiction. According to Eusebius and Tertullian, Armenian Christians were persecuted by kings Axidares, Khosrov I, Tiridates III, the last of whom was converted to Christianity by Gregory the Illuminator. Ancient Armenia's adoption of Christianity as a state religion has been referred to by Nina Garsoïan as "probably the most crucial step in its history." This conversion distinguished it from its Iranian and Mazdean roots and protected it from further Parthian influence. According to Mary Boyce, the acceptance of Christianity by the Arsacid-Armenian rulers was in defiance of the Sassanids.
When King Tiridates III made Christianity the state religion of Armenia between 301 and 314, it was not an new religion there. It had penetrated the country from at least the third century, may have been present earlier. Tiridates declared Gregory to be the first Catholicos of the Armenian Church and sent him to Caesarea to be consecrated. Upon his return, Gregory tore down shrines to idols, built churches and monasteries, ordained many priests and bishops. While meditating in the old capital city of Vagharshapat, Gregory had a vision of Christ descending to the earth and striking it with a hammer. From that spot arose a great Christian temple with a huge cross, he was convinced. With the king's help he did so in accordance with his vision, renaming the city Etchmiadzin, which means "the place of the descent of the Only-Begotten"; the Armenian Church participated in the larger Christian world and its Catholicos was represented at the First Council of Nicea. In 353, King Papas appointed Catholicos Husik without first sending him to Caesarea for commissioning before Rome had any plans for a universal Roman church.
Its Catholicos was still represented at the First Council of Constantinople. Christianity was strengthened in Armenia in the 5th century by the translation of the Bible into the Armenian language by the native theologian and scholar, Saint Mesrop Mashtots. Before the 5th century, Armenians had a spoken language. Thus, the Bible and Liturgy were written in Syriac rather than Armenian; the Catholicos Sahak commissioned Mesrop to create the Armenian alphabet, which he completed in 406. Subsequently, the Bible and Liturgy were written in the new script; the translation of the Bible, along with works of history and philosophy, caused a flowering of Armenian literature and a broader cultural renaissance. Although unable to attend the Council of Ephesus, Catholicos Isaac Parthiev sent a message agreeing with its decisions. However, non doctrinal elements in the Council of Chalcedon caused certain problems to arise. At the First Council of Dvin in 506 the synod of the Armenian and Caucasian Albanian bishops were assembled during the reign of Catholicos Babken I.
The participation of the Catholicoi of Georgia and Albania were set to make clear the position of the churches concerning the Council of Chalcedon. The "Book of Epistles" mentions that 20 bishops, 14 laymen, many nakharars participated in the council; the involvement in the council discussion of different level of lay persons seemed to be a general rule in Armenia. A century the 3rd Council of Dvin was convened during the reign of Catholicos Abraham I of Aghbatank and Prince Smbat Bagratuni, with clergymen and laymen participating; the Georgian Church disagreed with the Armenian Church, having approved the christology of Chalcedon. This council was convened to clarify the relationship between the Georgian churches. After the Council, Catholicos Abraham wrote an encyclical letter addressed to the people, blaming Kurion and his adherents for the schism; the Council never set up canons. Despite this, the Albanian Church remained under the jurisdiction of the Armenian Church while in co
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
San Benedetto del Tronto
San Benedetto del Tronto is a city and comune in Marche, Italy. With a population of 47,349, an extension of 25.41, but population of the urban area of the city has more than 100,000 inhabitants, is one of the most densely populated area of Marche. Its port is renowned as one of the biggest on adriatic. San Benedetto is famous for its typical seafront promenade, Palms' Riviera, with over 8000 plants of Phoenix canariensis, Washingtonia and P. sylvestris. San Benedetto del Tronto was a martyr and a soldier born in Cupra during the reign of Roman Emperor Diocletian. Shortly thereafter, following the edict of Constantine in 313 AD, some believers built a chapel around the tomb. Since San Benedetto has been revered by locals, he built a small church which included an apse facing the east and its entrance facing the west, in accordance with the early Christian tradition that the east, where the sun rises, the sunrise is symbolic of Christ's resurrection. Historians argue that archaeological findings indicate Roman origins, linking San Benedetto to the ancient city of Alba Picena on the right bank of the Albula river.
The first document which indicated the name of the village dates from 998. The document was an act concerning the investiture of the benefice of SS. Vincent and Anastasius in the territory of Acquaviva Piceno by Hubert bishop of Fermo; the document contains referring to the city. In 1211, Emperor Otto IV granted the territories ranging from the Tronto River to the Potenza river to the town of Fermo. In 1245, Emperor Frederick II granted Ascoli Piceno a stretch of coast between the Ragnola river and Tronto river to build a fortified port. In the following years, there were disputes between Fermo. In 1478, there was a plague epidemic; the area remained uninhabited until refugees from Romagna repopulated San Benedetto where they were granted land leases. From the 16th century until the 19th century, the Turks invaded the city where they captured sailors and forced them into slavery. Since 1650, the urban center expanded beyond the city walls. In 1754, the first marine suburbs, Sant'Antonio da Padova and Marina, were created.
In 1860, the "Cacciatori delle Alpi" freed the city from the dominion of the church. The Royal Decree giving San Benedetto the "del Tronto" attribute was in 1896. In 1936, the village of Porto d'Ascoli was absorbed into the city of San Benedetto del Tronto. From 1943 to 1944, during the Second World War, the city suffered 144 air raids and 6 naval shellings. Following the end of the war, the city's economy and businesses prospered. Fishing became a cornerstone of the local economy and in the 1960s and 1970s, the city became one of the largest fishing ports in Italy. After the war, San Benedetto became a popular destination on the Adriatic coast; the city has an ancient nucleus on a modest relief not far from the sea, at the foot of which develops the original settlement of the most recent part " Navy'. This is crossed by the Albula torrent and has developed over the years up to the river Tronto, to the south, incorporating the locality Porto d'Ascoli, while at north it joins with the Ischia district of Grottammare, with which it constitutes a single urban agglomeration that reaches until Tesino.
Southwest following the river bank Tronto merges with a frazione of Monteprandone. The municipality borders with Acquaviva Picena, Grottammare and Monteprandone; the municipality of San Benedetto del Tronto and the neighboring municipalities of Grottammare, Acquaviva Picena, Monteprandone and Martinsicuro are not a single urban entity there being a solution of continuity between the settlements. This agglomeration has undergone a considerable and constant development since the post-war period to the present day: in 1951 it had 47.337 inhabitants, 70.140 in 1971, 96.012 in 2007 and 100.611 in July 2010 distributed on a territory of 125 km2 and with a population density of 805 ab / km2. However, the Metropolitan area of San Benedetto del Tronto, based on commuter flows and identified with the'Functional Urban Regions' methodology, is much larger. According to this methodology, all the neighboring municipalities that have at least 10% commuting rate towards it must be aggregated to the metropolitan pole.
The metropolitan area of San Benedetto del Tronto thus reaches a population of 175,818 inhabitants, distributed in 23 municipalities within a radius of 15 km from the city over a territory of 472 km2 and with a population density of 366 inhabitants / km2. San Benedetto del Tronto enjoys a benign climate Mediterranean, with winters myths and Summer C about seasonal average; the temperature annual average is about 15 ° C while the Precipitation are between 700 and 800 & nbsp. The Gualtieri Tower is an old observatory dating back to the 12th–13th century located on the highest and oldest part of the city known as San Benedetto Alta; the tower provides a complete view of the city. This statue is located at the point where the waterfront joins the southern dock of the harbor basin and reproduces the fishermen's estate during storms, when, to draw attention to the danger deriving from the looming fog over the sea, they used the trumpet, it is the work of a Grottammarese artist. The Jonathan seagull monument, created by the artist Mario Lupo in 1986.
Created by the artist Mario Lupo in 1986, the monument to the seagull Jonathan
École Vétérinaire de Maisons-Alfort (Paris Métro)
École Vétérinaire de Maisons-Alfort is a station on line 8 of the Paris Métro in the commune of Maisons-Alfort, named after the nearby École nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort, the national veterinary school founded in 1765. The station opened on 19 September 1970 with the extension of the line from Porte de Charenton - Écoles to Maisons-Alfort - Stade. Nearby is the Musée Fragonard d'Alfort, a museum of anatomical oddities. Roland, Gérard. Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram. Éditions Bonneton
In many countries, Kilometre Zero or similar terms in other languages is a particular location from which distances are traditionally measured. They were markers where drivers could set their odometers to follow the directions in early guide books. One such marker is the Milliarium Aureum of the Roman Empire, believed to be the literal origin for the maxim that "all roads lead to Rome". Argentina marks Kilometre Zero with a monolith in Plaza Congreso in Buenos Aires; the work of the brothers Máximo and José Fioravanti, the structure was placed on the north side of Plaza Lorea on October 2, 1935. An image of Our Lady of Luján appears on the monolith's north face, a relief map of Argentina is on the south face, plaques in honor of José de San Martín are west, on its eastern side, the date of the decree and the name of the relevant authorities. Highways in Australia are built and maintained by the states and territories. In the state of New South Wales, highway distances were traditionally measured from a sandstone obelisk in Macquarie Place in Sydney, designed by Francis Greenway in 1818.
The obelisk lists the distances to various locations in New South Wales at the time. For the railway, it is located at platform 1 of Sydney Central Station; the General Post Office building in Melbourne traditionally serves this purpose in Victoria. In Western Australia, road distances are measured from Point Zero, by the old Treasury Building on the corner of Cathedral Avenue and St George's Terrace in Perth; the Byzantine Empire had an arched building, the Milion of Constantinople, as the starting-place for the measurement of distances for all the roads leading to the other cities. In the 1960s, some fragments were discovered and erected in its original location, now in the district of Eminönü, Turkey; the kilometre zero marker of the eastern origin of the Trans-Canada Highway is located in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′39.78″N 52°42′44.33″W Altitude: 14.02 m The western origin of the Trans-Canada Highway in Victoria, British Columbia, is located on the southern end of Vancouver Island.
Mile zero of the Trans Canada Trail is located adjacent to the Railway Coastal Museum in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′14.0″N 52°42′50.5″W Altitude: 4.5 m Mile zero for the Alaska Highway is located in Dawson Creek, British Columbia. All national distances from Santiago originate at the Km. 0 plaque, located at the Plaza de Armas main square in downtown Santiago. Chile's Autopista Central – Eje Norte-Sur has its Kilometre Zero at the intersection with the Alameda del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, the capital's main avenue. China Railway's 0 km is located at the entrance to the Fengtai Yard on the Jingguang Line just outside Beijing; this point was the start of the line. There is no ceremonial plaque; the kilometre zero point for highways is located at Tiananmen Square, just outside the Zhengyangmen Gate. It is marked with a plaque in the ground, with the four cardinal points, four animals, "Zero Point of Highways, China" in English and Chinese. Cuba's Kilometre Zero is located in its capital Havana in El Capitolio.
Embedded in the floor in the centre of the main hall is a replica 25 carat diamond, which marks Kilometre Zero for Cuba. The original diamond, said to have belonged to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and have been sold to the Cuban state by a Turkish merchant, was stolen on 25 March 1946 and mysteriously returned to the President, Ramón Grau San Martín, on 2 June 1946, it was replaced in El Capitolio by a replica in 1973. Copenhagen Town hall square is the zero point. DR-1, DR-2, DR-3 all depart from Kilometre Zero from Santo Domingo's Parque de Independencia. Kilometre Zero in Egypt is located at the Attaba Square Post Office in 1st of Abdel Khaliq Sarwat Pasha Street, Cairo. Kilometre Zero in Ethiopia is in Addis Ababa, in front of St. George's Cathedral; the point was designated by Emperor Haile Selassie in 1930. Kilometre Zero of Finland is located at the Erottaja square in central Helsinki. Kilometre Zero of French national highways located in Paris on the square facing the main entrance of Notre-Dame is considered the official centre of Paris.
48.8534°N 2.3488°E / 48.8534. 52.510788°N 13.398964°E / 52.510788. Distances from London to most parts of the country are measured in miles from the original site of Charing Cross, on the southern side of Trafalgar Square. In Scotland, distances from Edinburgh are measured from the GPO building in Princes Street. See also: London Stone, Hicks Hall, St Mary-le-Bow, a church from which the distance of the original London to Lewes road is measured. In ancient Greece, distances were measured from the altar of twelve gods, located in the ancient agora of Athens. So, that altar can be considered the first kilometre zero in human history. Nowadays, the kilometre zero for Greek high