Clapboard or clabbard called bevel siding, lap siding, weatherboard, with regional variation in the definition of these terms, is wooden siding of a building in the form of horizontal boards overlapping. Clapboard in modern American usage is a word for long, thin boards used to cover walls and roofs of buildings, it has been called clawboard and cloboard. In Australia and New Zealand, the term weatherboard is always used. An older meaning of clapboard is small, split pieces of oak imported from Germany for use as barrel staves, the name is a partial translation of Middle Dutch klapholt and related to German Klappholz. Clapboards were riven radially producing triangular or "feather-edged" sections, attached thin side up and overlapped thick over thin to shed water; the boards were radially sawn in a type of sawmill called a clapboard mill, producing vertical-grain clapboards. The more used boards in New England are vertical-grain boards. Depending on the diameter of the log, cuts are made from 4½" to 6½" deep along the full length of the log.
Each time the log turns for the next cut, it is rotated ⅝" until it has turned 360°. This gives the radially sawn clapboard its true vertical grain. Flat-grain clapboards are cut tangent to the annual growth rings of the tree; as this technique was common in most parts of the British Isles, it was carried by immigrants to their colonies in the Americas and in Australia and New Zealand. Flat-sawn wood does not hold paint as well as radially sawn wood. Chamferboards are an Australian form of weatherboarding using tongue-and-groove joints to link the boards together to give a flatter external appearance than regular angled weatherboards; some modern clapboards are made up of shorter pieces of wood finger jointed together with an adhesive. In North America clapboards were made of split oak and spruce. Modern clapboards are available in red pine. In some areas, clapboards were traditionally left as raw wood, relying upon good air circulation and the use of'semi-hardwoods' to keep the boards from rotting.
These boards go grey as the tannins are washed out from the wood. More clapboard has been tarred or painted—traditionally black or white due to locally occurring minerals or pigments. In modern clapboard these colors remain popular, but with a hugely wider variety due to chemical pigments and stains. Clapboard houses may be found in most parts of the British Isles, the style may be part of all types of traditional building, from cottages to windmills, shops to workshops, as well as many others. In New Zealand, clapboard housing dominates buildings before 1960. Clapboard, with a corrugated iron roof, was found to be a cost-effective building style. After the big earthquakes of 1855 and 1931, wooden buildings were perceived as being less vulnerable to damage. Clapboard is always referred to as'weatherboard' in New Zealand. Newer, cheaper designs imitate the form of clapboard construction as "siding" made of vinyl, fiber cement, or other man-made materials. Clinker Shiplap Siding § Wood siding Tongue and groove Research report containing photos of a clapboard roof in Virginia, U.
City of Sydney
The City of Sydney is the local government area covering the Sydney central business district and surrounding inner city suburbs of the greater metropolitan area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Established by Act of Parliament in 1842, the City of Sydney is the oldest, the oldest-surviving, local government authority in New South Wales, the second-oldest in Australia, with only the City of Adelaide being older by two years. Given its prominent position geographically and the City of Sydney has long been a source of political interest and intrigue; as a result of this, the boundaries and legal basis of the council has changed many times throughout its history to suit the governing party of the State of New South Wales. The City of Sydney is governed under the City of Sydney Act, 1988, which defines and limits the powers, election method and boundaries of the council area. On 6 February 2004, the former local government area of the City of South Sydney, which itself had been created in 1989 from areas part of the City of Sydney, was formally merged into the City of Sydney and the current city boundaries date from this merger.
The leader of the City of Sydney is known as the Lord Mayor of Sydney held since 27 March 2004 by Clover Moore, who served concurrently as the state Member of Parliament for Sydney and Bligh from 1988 to 2012. Suburbs within or within the City of Sydney are: Localities in the City of Sydney are: The name Sydney comes from "Sydney Cove", where the English Governor Arthur Phillip established the first settlement, after arriving with the First Fleet. On 26 January 1788, he named it after Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney, the home secretary at the time, the man responsible for the plan for the convict colony in Australia; the "City of Sydney" was established on 20 July 1842 by the Corporation Act which encompasses present-day Woolloomooloo, Surry Hills and Pyrmont, an area of 11.65 km². There were six wards established by boundary posts. A boundary post still exists in front of Sydney Square; the boundaries of the City of Sydney have changed regularly since 1900. The bankrupt Municipality of Camperdown was merged with the city in 1909.
As a result of the Local Government Act 1948, the municipalities of Alexandria, Erskineville, Redfern, The Glebe and Paddington were added to the City. In 1968 the boundaries were changed and many of these suburbs moved to be part of a new municipality of South Sydney. South Sydney was brought back into the city in 1982, but became separate again under the City of Sydney Act of 1988 and became smaller than its original size at 6.19 km². It grew again in February 2004 with the merger of the two council areas, now has a population of 170,000 people; these changes in boundaries have resulted in control of the council by the governing party in the Parliament of New South Wales at the time. A 1987 re-organisation initiated by a Labor state government and completed in 1989 under a Liberal Coalition government saw the City of Sydney split again, with southern suburbs forming the City of South Sydney, a moved that advantaged the government of the day, as the southern suburbs now in South Sydney Council had traditionally voted Labor.
In 2004, the Labor state Government undid this change, again merging the councils of the City of Sydney and the South Sydney Council. Critics claimed that this was performed with the intention of creating a "super-council" which would be under the control of Labor, which controlled the NSW Government. Subsequent to this merger, an election took place on 27 March 2004 which resulted in the independent candidate Clover Moore defeating the high-profile Labor candidate, former federal minister Michael Lee and winning the position of Lord Mayor. At the 2016 Census, there were 208,374 people in the Sydney local government area, of these 51.8% were male and 48.2% were female. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 1.2% of the population. The median age of people in the City of Sydney was 32 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 6.7% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 8.2% of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over, 25.7% were married and 9.1% were either divorced or separated.
Population growth in the City of Sydney between the 2006 Census and the 2011 Census was 4.57%. When compared with total population growth of Australia of 8.81% between 2011 and 2016, population growth in the Sydney local government area was triple the national average. The median weekly income for residents within the City of Sydney was just under 1.5 times the national average. The proportion of dwellings in the City of Sydney that are apartments or units is 77.1%, different from the Australian average of 13.1%. The proportion of residents in the Sydney local government area that claimed Australian ancestry was one-quarter the national average. ^a 1996 Census figures refer to the City of Sydney prior to its merger with the City of South Sydney. ^b 2001 Census data comprise the sum of the former South Sydney and the former Sydney local government areas. Sydney City Council is composed of ten Councillors, including the Lord Mayor, for a fixed four-year term of office
27a-35a Dalgety Road, Millers Point
27a-35a Dalgety Road, Millers Point are heritage-listed terrace houses located at 27a, 29a, 31a, 33, 35a Dalgety Road, in the inner city Sydney suburb of Millers Point in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The property is known as Dalgety Terrace and Dalgety Terraces, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Millers Point is one of the earliest areas of European settlement in Australia, a focus for maritime activities; these are a group of early twentieth century workman's terraces built c. 1911 as part of the post plague redevelopment by the Sydney Harbour Trust. First tenanted by the NSW Department of Housing in 1986; these large terraces feature elaborate timber verandahs with ornamental brackets in the Federation style. They have teracotta Marsailles roofs; the terrace consists of a two bedroom units on both the first floor. The stairs leading to the upper units are shared by two units, with the entry to the lower units directly to the sides of them.
Storeys: Two. Style: Federation; the external condition of the property is good. As at 23 November 2000, this terrace is one of a group of early twentieth century workmen's terraces built as part of the post plague redevelopment, it is part of an intact residential and maritime precinct. It contains residential buildings and civic spaces dating from the 1830s and is an important example of 19th century adaptation of the landscape.27a-35a Dalgety Road, Millers Point was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Australian residential architectural styles 15-25 Dalgety Road, Millers Point Brooks & Associates. Department of Housing s170 Register; this Wikipedia article was based on Terraces, entry number 923 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 13 October 2018. Paul Davies Pty Ltd. "Millers Point and Walsh Bay Heritage Review". City of Sydney
Darlinghurst, New South Wales
Darlinghurst is an inner-city, eastern suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Darlinghurst is located east of the Sydney central business district and Hyde Park, within the local government area of the City of Sydney. Darlinghurst is a densely populated suburb with the majority of residents living in apartments or terraced houses. Once a slum and red-light district, Darlinghurst has undergone urban renewal since the 1980s to become a cosmopolitan area composed of many unique precincts. Places such as Victoria Street, Stanley Street and Crown Street are known as culturally rich destinations; these high street areas are connected by a network of lane-ways and street corners replete with small bars and boutique indie retail. Demographically, Darlinghurst is home to the highest percentage of generation Y in Australia; the vast majority of businesses in Darlinghurst are independently owned and operated small businesses with over 50% of all commercial activity in the area being consumer oriented: indie retail, drink, dining and personal services.
Darlinghurst is home to large number of off-street creative industries. This business mix coupled with the area's history of inclusion and acceptance give Darlinghurst an eclectic and vibrant flair. Darlinghurst's main street is Oxford Street; this major Sydney road runs east from the south-eastern corner of Hyde Park through Darlinghurst and Paddington and terminates at Bondi Junction. Oxford Street is one of Sydney's most famous dining strips; the Darlinghurst end is well-known around the world as the centre of Sydney's gay community, is the yearly parade route of the Sydney Mardi Gras and the spiritual birthplace of the LGBT rights movement. It is home to a number of prominent gay venues and businesses, while more broadly Darlinghurst is a centre of Sydney's burgeoning small bar scene. From the 1990s onwards Oxford Street began to garner a reputation for being Sydney's primary "nightclub strip", popular with both gay and straight clubbers, surpassing the notorious red-light district of Kings Cross in popularity.
As a result of the influx of revellers, crime rates increased in the area around 2007 for assaults and robberies. This reported increase should be understood in terms of a low background crime rate in East Sydney in general. There are a number of named localities in and around Darlinghurst including Taylor Square, Three Saints Square, Kings Cross and confusingly East Sydney. Locals have used this name to refer to the area around Stanley Street in the suburb's west, however the title is used more broadly throughout the area from Wooloomooloo up to Taylor Square where the old Darlinghurst Gaol still has the words East Sydney in brass lettering above the main entrance; this is because from 1900 to 1969 the entire area to the east of Sydney's CBD, from the harbour to Redfern, was an electorate known as the Division of East Sydney. In 1820 the entire ridge line running from Potts Point to Surry Hills was known as Eastern Hill. Darlinghurst shares a postcode and an extensive soft southern border with neighbouring suburb Surry Hills which, with Paddington to the east and Woolloomooloo, Rushcutters Bay and Potts Point to the north, comprise the metropolitan region of East Sydney.
Although only minutes walk away from the Sydney CBD, this region is geographically distinct from it. East Sydney hosts numerous restaurants that garner local and international media attention. Sydney's Eastern Suburbs cover all the land from the east of Darlinghurst up to the Pacific Ocean; the suburb was known as Eastern Hill and Henrietta Town, after Governor Lachlan Macquarie's wife, whose second name was Henrietta. The loyalties changed with the change of governors and the suburb became Darlinghurst in honour of Elizabeth Darling, the popular wife of Governor Ralph Darling, during the early 19th century; the suffix ` hurst' is derived from the Old English word hyrst. Darlinghurst has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Bourke Street: St Peter's Church 348a Bourke Street: Bourke Street Wesleyan Chapel 411a Bourke Street: Bourke Street Congregational Church and School 1 Darley Street: Stoneleigh 2 Darley Street: Iona 120 Darlinghurst Road: St John's Anglican Church 56 Oxford Street: GA Zink and Sons Building Taylor Square: Darlinghurst Courthouse intersection of Taylor Square, Oxford and Bourke Street: Taylor Square Substation No. 6 and Underground Conveniences Darlinghurst has two of Sydney's museums: the Australian Museum and the Sydney Jewish Museum.
The suburb features St Vincent's Hospital, is associated with the Sacred Heart Hospice on Darlinghurst Road, the Garvan Institute of Medical Research. Darlinghurst Gaol, the large sandstone penal complex in the middle of Darlinghurst was built between 1836 and 1840; the large sandstone walls still bear convict markings, the complex features six wings surrounding a circular chapel. Australian poet Henry Lawson spent time incarcerated here during some of the turbulent years of his life; the last hanging at the gaol was in 1907. The site became East Sydney Technical College in 1921, but was turned into the National Art School from 1995. Darlinghurst Fire Station was completed in 1912, this three-storey brick and stone building occupies a prominent location at the corner of Darlinghurst Road and Victoria Street, it was designed in 1910 by Walter Liberty Vernon. It still functions as a fire station and
49-51 Kent Street, Millers Point
49-51 Kent Street, Millers Point is a heritage-listed residence located at 49-51 Kent Street, in the inner city Sydney suburb of Millers Point in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1855 to 1862; the property was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Millers Point is one of the earliest areas of European settlement in Australia, a focus for maritime activities; this site was vacant in 1854 and these terraces were shown on a map c. 1862. They remain intact. Georgian style mid-Victorian face sandstone terrace in good condition; this residence has five bedrooms. Features of the terrace include attics with dormers, an arched passageway between dwellings, stone parapets and 12 pane windows. Storeys: Two. Slate roof, painted brick chimney. Painted timber roof. Style: Victorian Georgian; the external condition of the building is good. As at 20 August 2015, this residence is one of a two large mid Victorian, face sandstone terraces in intact condition.
It is part of an intact residential and maritime precinct. It contains residential buildings and civic spaces dating from the 1830s and is an important example of C19th adaptation of the landscape.49-51 Kent Street, Millers Point was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Australian residential architectural styles Alfred's Terrace: 37-47 Kent Street 53-55 Kent Street Brooks & Associates. Department of Housing s170 Register. Robertson and Hindmarsh. 49-51 Kent Street, Millers Point - Conservation Management Plan. This Wikipedia article was based on Stone House, entry number 876 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 13 October 2018. Paul Davies Pty Ltd. "Millers Point and Walsh Bay Heritage Review". City of Sydney
Undercliffe Terrace is a heritage-listed row of terrace houses located at 52-60 Argyle Place, in the inner city Sydney suburb of Millers Point in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The property is known as Grimes' Buildings. was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Millers Point is one of the earliest areas of European settlement in Australia, a focus for maritime activities. Argyle Place, a primitive version of a London Square, was commenced by Governor Macquarie but not formed until after quarrying of the adjacent rock face had ceased in about 1865. In 1958 architect John Fisher, with the help of artist Cedric Flower, convinced Taubmans to paint the central bungalow at 50 Argyle Place; this drew attention to the importance of The Rocks for the first time. As a result, Fisher was able to negotiate leases for Bligh House and houses in Windmill Street for various medical societies; the terrace was first tenanted by the NSW Department of Housing in 1991.
Large Victorian Georgian terrace with Victorian detail added, contains seven bedsitting rooms and is last of a row constructed c. 1840. This two storey building has double hung sash windows with stone sills, a bull-nose galvanised iron verandah roof, a simple parapet above, cast iron balustrades and columns, french doors on second storey and fan lights above doorways. Storeys: Three. Painted timber verandah beams with iron lace with frieze underneath. Corrigated galvanised iron roof, painted timber joinery. Style: Georgian Orientation: Overlooking Argyle Place; the terraces are believed to have been completed in the Victorian Filigree style. The external condition of the property is good. External: Dormer windows added, late Victorian Italianate two-storey verandahs and render to exterior walls. 20th century addition at rear. Last inspected: 19 February 1995. Internal: Repairs needed to some verandah boards, dormer structure and ironwork; as at 23 November 2000, this 1840's terrace, altered in Victorian times to include Italianate verandahs and windows, forms part of an important streetscape element facing Argyle Place.
It is part of an intact residential and maritime precinct. It contains residential buildings and civic spaces dating from the 1830s and is an important example of 19th century adaptation of the landscape. Undercliffe Terrace was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Australian residential architectural styles Undercliffe Cottage, 50 Argyle Place 62-64 Argyle Place Brooks & Associates. Department of Housing s170 Register. Lucas, Clive & McGinness, Mark.'John Fisher, 1924-2012 - champion of the state's structures'. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Orwell & Peter Phillips. 52, 54 & 60 Argyle Place - Conservation Management Plan. This Wikipedia article was based on Undercliffe Terrace, entry number 902 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 13 October 2018. Paul Davies Pty Ltd. "Millers Point and Walsh Bay Heritage Review". City of Sydney
Corrugated galvanised iron
Corrugated galvanised iron or steel is a building material composed of sheets of hot-dip galvanised mild steel, cold-rolled to produce a linear corrugated pattern in them. Although it is still popularly called "iron" in the UK, the material used is steel, only the surviving vintage sheets may be made up of 100% iron; the corrugations increase the bending strength of the sheet in the direction perpendicular to the corrugations, but not parallel to them, because the steel must be stretched to bend perpendicular to the corrugations. Each sheet is manufactured longer in its strong direction. CGI is lightweight and transported, it was and still is used in rural and military buildings such as sheds and water tanks. Its unique properties were used in the development of countries like Australia from the 1840s, it is still helping developing countries today. CGI was invented in the 1820s in Britain by Henry Robinson Palmer and engineer to the London Dock Company, it was made from wrought iron. It proved to be light, corrosion-resistant, transported, lent itself to prefabricated structures and improvisation by semi-skilled workers.
It soon became a common construction material in rural areas in the United States, New Zealand and Australia and India, in Australia and Chile became a common roofing material in urban areas. In Australia and New Zealand it has become part of the cultural identity, fashionable architectural use has become common. CGI is widely used as building material in African slums and informal settlements. For roofing purposes, the sheets are laid somewhat like tiles, with a lateral overlap of one and half corrugations, a vertical overlap of about 150 millimetres, to provide for waterproofing. CGI is a common construction material for industrial buildings throughout the world. Wrought iron CGI was replaced by mild steel from around the 1890s, iron CGI is no longer obtainable but the common name has not been changed. Galvanized sheets with simple corrugations are being displaced by 55% Al-Zn coated steel or coil-painted sheets with complex profiles. CGI remains common. Today the corrugation process is carried out using the process of roll forming.
This modern process is automated to achieve high productivity and low costs associated with labour. In the corrugation process sheet metal is pulled off huge rolls and through rolling dies that form the corrugation. After the sheet metal passes through the rollers it is automatically sheared off at a desired length; the traditional shape of corrugated material is the round wavy style, but different dies form a variety of shapes and sizes. Industrial buildings are build with and covered by trapezoidal sheet metal. Many materials today undergo the corrugation process; the most common materials for corrugated iron are ferrous alloys and copper. Regular ferrous alloys are the most common availability. Common sizes of corrugated material can range from a thin 30 gauge to a thick 6 gauge. Thicker or thinner gauges may be produced. Other materials such as plastic and fibreglass are given the corrugated look. Many applications are available for these products including using them with metal sheets to allow light to penetrate below.
The corrugations are described in terms of depth. It is important for the pitch and depth to be quite uniform, in order for the sheets to be stackable for transport, to overlap neatly when joining two sheets. Pitches have ranged from 25 mm to 125 mm, it was once common for CGI used for vertical walls to have a shorter pitch and depth than roofing CGI. This shorter pitched material was sometimes called "rippled" instead of "corrugated"; however nowadays, nearly all CGI produced has the same pitch of 3 inches. Clapping hands or snapping one’s fingers whilst standing next to perpendicular sheets of corrugated iron will produce a high-pitched echo with a falling pitch; this is due to a sequence of echoes from adjacent corrugations. If sound is traveling at 344 metres per second and the corrugated iron has a wavelength of 3 inches this will produce an echo with a maximum wavelength of that order, which corresponds to a frequency of 4500 Hz or so; the first part of the echo will have a much higher pitch because the sound impulses from iron nearly opposite the clapper will arrive simultaneously.
Although galvanising inhibits the corrosion of steel, rusting is inevitable in marine areas - where the salt water encourages rust - and areas where the local rainfall is acidic. Corroded corrugated steel roofs can last for many many years if the sheetings are protected by a layer of paint. Chattel house Metal roof Nissen hut Tin tabernacle Theorema Egregium, for more information on why corrugation increases strength Heritage Roofing in Victoria, Australia Corrugated Metal Roofing & Paneling