William Addison Dwiggins
William Addison Dwiggins, was an American type designer and book designer. He attained prominence as an illustrator and commercial artist, he brought to the designing of type and books some of the boldness that he displayed in his advertising work, his work can be described as ornamented and geometric, similar to the Art Moderne and Art Deco styles of the period, using Oriental influences and breaking from the more antiquarian styles of his colleagues and mentors Updike and Goudy. Dwiggins is credited with coining the term'graphic designer' in 1922 to describe his various activities in printed communications, like book design, typography and calligraphy; the term did not achieve widespread usage until after the Second World War. Dwiggins began his career in Chicago, working in lettering. With his colleague Frederic Goudy, he moved east to Hingham, where he spent the rest of his life, he gained recognition as a lettering artist and wrote much on the graphic arts, notably essays collected in MSS by WAD, his Layout in Advertising remains standard.
During the first-half of the twentieth century he created pamphlets using the pen name "Dr. Hermann Puterschein", his scathing attack on contemporary book designers in An Investigation into the Physical Properties of Books led to his working with the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. Alblabooks, a series of finely conceived and executed trade books followed and did much to increase public interest in book format. Having become bored with advertising work, Dwiggins was more responsible than any other designer for the marked improvement in book design in the 1920s and 1930s. An additional factor in his transition to book design was a 1922 diagnosis with diabetes, at the time fatal, he commented "it has revolutionised my whole attack. My back is turned on the more banal kind of advertising... I will produce art on paper and wood after my own heart with no heed to any market."In 1926, the Chicago Lakeside Press recruited Dwiggins to design a book for the Four American Books Campaign. He said he welcomed the chance to "do something besides waste-basket stuff" which would be "promptly thrown away" and chose the Tales of Edgar Allan Poe.
The Press considered his fee of $2,000 to be low for an illustrator of his commercial power. Many of Dwiggins' designs used celluloid stencils to create repeating units of decoration, he and his wife Mabel Hoyle Dwiggins are buried in the Hingham Center Cemetery, Hingham Center, near their home at 30 Leavitt Street, Dwiggins' studio at 45 Irving Street. After Dwiggins' wife's death, many of Dwiggins' works and assets passed to his assistant Dorothy Abbe. A full-length biography of Dwiggins by Bruce Kennett, believed to be the first, was published in 2018 by the Letterform Archive museum of San Francisco. Dwiggins' interest in lettering led to the Mergenthaler Linotype Company, sensing Dwiggins' talent and knowledge, hiring Dwiggins in March 1929 as a consultant to create a sans-serif typeface, which became Metro, in response to similar type being sold from European foundries such as Erbar and Gill Sans, which Dwiggins felt failed in the lower-case. Dwiggins went on to have a successful working relationship with Chauncey H. Griffith, Linotype's Director of Typographic Development, all his typefaces were created for them.
His most used book typefaces and Caledonia, were designed for Linotype composition and have a clean spareness. The following list of his typefaces is thought to be complete. Dwiggins had the misfortune of entering the field of type design during a period that encompassed, the Great Depression and the Second World War, as a result, many of his designs did not progress beyond experimental castings. Several of his typefaces saw commercial release only after his death, or, while not released themselves, have been used as inspiration for other designers. Metro series Metrolite + Metroblack Metrothin + Metromedium Metrolite No.2 + Metroblack No.2 Metrolite No.2 Italic + Lining Metrothin + Lining Metromedium Metromedium No.2 Italic + Metroblack No.2 Italic Metrolight No.4 Italic + Metrothin No.4 Italic The Metro series was redesigned on entering production, with several characters changed to better echo the then-popular Futura. This formed the Metro No. 2 series. Some revivals offer them as alternates.
Electra seriesElectra + Electra Oblique Electra Bold + Italic Electra Cursive Matching ornaments, sometimes called the Caravan series Charter Hingham Caledonia series Caledonia + Italic Caledonia Bold + Italic Arcadia Tippecanoe + Italic, Dwiggins's take on Bodoni Winchester Roman + Italic + Winchester Uncials + Italic Stuyvesant + Italic, based on type cut by Jacques-François Rosart in Holland c.1750. Eldorado + Italic (1950, Linotype.
William Henry Hudson
William Henry Hudson was an author and ornithologist. Hudson was born in Quilmes, near Buenos Aires, Argentina, he was the son of Daniel Hudson and his wife Catherine née Kemble, United States settlers of English and Irish origin. He spent his youth studying the local flora and fauna and observing both natural and human dramas on what was a lawless frontier, publishing his ornithological work in Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society in an English mingled with Spanish idioms, he had a special love of Patagonia. Hudson settled in England during 1874, he produced a series of ornithological studies, including Argentine Ornithology and British Birds, achieved fame with his books on the English countryside, including Hampshire Days, Afoot in England and A Shepherd's Life, which helped foster the back-to-nature movement of the 1920s and 1930s. It was set in Wiltshire and inspired James Rebanks' 2015 book The Shepherd's Life about a Lake District farmer. Hudson was an advocate of Lamarckian evolution.
He defended vitalism. He was influenced by the non-Darwinian evolutionary writings of Samuel Butler, he was a founding member of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Hudson's best-known novel is Green Mansions, his best-known non-fiction is Far Away and Long Ago, made into a film. Ernest Hemingway referred to Hudson's The Purple Land in his novel The Sun Also Rises, to Far Away and Long Ago in his posthumous novel The Garden of Eden. In Argentina, Hudson is considered to belong to the national literature as Guillermo Enrique Hudson, the Spanish version of his name. A town in Berazategui Partido and several other public places and institutions are named after him. In 1876 he married Emily Wingrave in London. Towards the end of his life, Hudson moved to Worthing in England, his grave is in Worthing Cemetery in Worthing. The Purple Land that England Lost: Travels and Adventures in the Banda Oriental, South America A Crystal Age Argentine Ornithology Fan–The Story of a Young Girl's Life, as Henry Harford The Naturalist in la Plata Idle Days in Patagonia Birds in a Village Lost British Birds, pamphlet British Birds, with a chapter by Frank Evers Beddard Osprey.
A Naturalist's Impressions in West Cornwall Afoot in England A Shepherd's Life: Impressions of the South Wiltshire Downs Adventures Among Birds Tales of the Pampas Far Away and Long Ago - A History of My Early Life The Book of a Naturalist Birds in Town and Village Birds of La Plata two volumes Dead Man's Plack and An Old Thorn - see Dead Man's Plack A Traveller in Little Things Tired Traveller, essay Seagulls In London. Why They Took To Coming To Town, essay Hind in Richmond Park The Collected Works, 24 volumes 153 Letters from W. H. Hudson, edited by Edward Garnett Rare Vanishing & Lost British Birds Ralph Herne Men and Birds The Disappointed Squirrel from The Book of a Naturalist Mary's Little Lamb South American Romances The Purple Land. H. Hudson's Letters to R. B. Cunninghame Graham Tales of the Gauchos Letters on the Ornithology of Buenos Ayres, edited by David W. Dewar Diary Concerning his Voyage from Buenos Aires to Southampton on the Ebro Gauchos of the Pampas and Their Horses, with R.
B. Cunninghame Graham English Birds and Green Places: Selected Writings ISBN 0-575-07207-5 Birds of A Feather: Unpublished Letters of W. H. Hudson, edited by D. Shrubsall G. F. Wilson Bibliography of the Writings of W. H. Hudson John R. Payne W. H. Hudson. A Bibliography Morley Roberts W. H. Hudson Ford Madox Ford Portraits from Life Robert Hamilton W. H. Hudson:The Vision of Earth Richard E. Haymaker. From Pampas to Hedgerows and Downs: A Study of W. H. Hudson John T. Frederick William Henry Hudson D. Shrubsall W. H. Hudson and Naturalist Ruth Tomalin W. H. Hudson – a biography Amy D. Ronner W. H. Hudson: The Man, The Novelist, The Naturalist David Miller W. H. Hudson and the Elusive Paradise Felipe Arocena William Henry Hudson: Life and Science Jason Wilson: Living in the sound of the wind, London: Constable, 2016 ISBN 978-1-4721-2205-6 Works by William Henry Hudson at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William Henry Hudson at Internet Archive Works by William Henry Hudson at LibriVox Tales of the Pampas, illustrated 1939.
William Henry Hudson at Find a Grave Reserva Hudson Archival Material at Leeds University Library W. H. Hudson at Library of Congress Authorities, with 202 catalogue records
Bertelsmann is a German multinational corporation based in Gütersloh, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is one of the world's largest mass media companies and active in the service sector and education. Bertelsmann was founded as a publishing house by Carl Bertelsmann in 1835. After World War II, under the leadership of Reinhard Mohn, went from being a medium-sized enterprise to a major conglomerate, offering not only books but television, music and business services. Bertelsmann is an unlisted and capital market-oriented company, which remains controlled by the Mohn family. Since 2016, major divisions of Bertelsmann are RTL Group, Penguin Random House, Gruner + Jahr, BMG, Bertelsmann Printing Group, Bertelsmann Education Group and Bertelsmann Investments; the nucleus of the corporation is the C. Bertelsmann Verlag, a publishing house established in 1835 by Carl Bertelsmann in Gütersloh. Carl Bertelsmann was a representative of the "Minden-Ravensberger Erweckungsbewegung", a Protestant revival movement, whose writings he published.
The C. Bertelsmann Verlag specialized in theological literature, expanded its publications to include school and textbooks, in the 1920s and 1930s entered into the field of light fiction. During the Third Reich, the publishing house gained a prominent position with its affordable "Bertelsmann Volksausgaben". In particular, war adventure books such as Werner von Langsdorff's "Fliegerbuch" on aviation were a commercial success. Heinrich Mohn belonged to the patrons' circle of the paramilitary Schutzstaffel organization and sought to turn his company into a National Socialist model enterprise. During World War II, the C. Bertelsmann Verlag became a leading supplier to the Wehrmacht surpassing the central publishing house of the NSDAP Franz Eher. In the years between 1939 and 1941, the revenues of the C. Bertelsmann Verlag skyrocketed. Jewish slave laborers were not forced to work in Gütersloh, but in printing plants in Lithuania with which the C. Bertelsmann Verlag cooperated. In 1944, the Reichsschrifttumskammer closed the publishing house to "mobilize all powers for victory".
Another essential reason for this was criminal paper racketeering by some publisher's employees, which led to a trial in 1944. After the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler and World War II, the company portrayed itself to the Allied Control Authority as a Christian publisher, part of the resistance to Nazism and persecuted. Ties to National Socialist organizations were denied. After it became known that erroneous, or at least inadequate, statements had been made, Heinrich Mohn stepped down as the head of the publishing house. Reinhard Mohn, one of his three sons, took over the C. Bertelsmann Verlag, as Hans Heinrich Mohn had been killed in the war and Sigbert Mohn was still a prisoner of war. In 1947, the Allies granted the company a publishing license. After the currency reform in 1948, there was a market slump in the book trade that led to the next existential crisis for the C. Bertelsmann Verlag. Under these conditions, in 1950 Bertelsmann launched the Lesering to stimulate sales; the customers ordered books via subscription, in return, received discounted prices.
The business shifted from the publishing house to the sale of books, decisive to further growth. In 1959, the C. Bertelsmann Verlag was restructured: From that point on, theological literature was published in the Gütersloher Verlagshaus, a new publishing house, consolidated with the Rufer Verlag. Fiction and art came under the roof of Sigbert Mohn Verlag; the C. Bertelsmann Verlag focused on nonfiction books, in particular dictionaries, reference books and journals; the 1950s and 1960s, Bertelsmann expanded its activities into new business areas: Thus, 1956, the company entered the music market with the Bertelsmann Schallplattenring. Two years Ariola, one of the most successful German record labels was launched, at the same time, the Sonopress record pressing plant was established. With the Kommissionshaus Buch & Ton, from which the Vereinigte Verlagsauslieferung emerged, Bertelsmann laid the cornerstone for its service business. In 1964, Bertelsmann purchased the broken-up UFA from the Deutsche Bank and built on its presence in cinema and television.
In 1969, Bertelsmann acquired shares in the magazine publisher Gruner + Jahr. A merger with Axel Springer planned at the time, for which a loan for millions had been taken out temporarily from Westdeutsche Landesbank, failed in 1970. Starting in 1971, Bertelsmann operated as a joint-stock company, becoming Bertelsmann AG; the diversifying book publishers were bundled in the Verlagsgruppe Bertelsmann publishing group at the end of the 1960s. In 1972, this company moved from Gütersloh to Munich. Key divisions remained in Gütersloh, for which a new office building was built in 1976 at the Group's official location. To this day, it has remained the Bertelsmann headquarters, referred to as the Bertelsmann Corporate Center; the rapid growth of Bertelsmann led to financial problems. In the 1970s, financing requirements reached their peak. From 1975 to 1980, for example, the return on sales fell below one percent. Bertelsmann encountered new regulatory rules in its home market, in particular through laws governing mergers.
Larger acquisitions became impossible. At the same time, there was an increasing saturation of the German market for the Bertelsmann Lesering, whereas the foreign book clubs earned the lion's share of revenues in this corporate division; the int
The American Mercury
The American Mercury was an American magazine published from 1924 to 1981. It was founded as the brainchild of H. L. Mencken and drama critic George Jean Nathan; the magazine featured writing by some of the most important writers in the United States through the 1920s and 1930s. After a change in ownership in the 1940s, the magazine attracted conservative writers. A second change in ownership a decade turned the magazine into a virulently anti-Semitic publication, it was published monthly in New York City. The magazine went out of business in 1981, having spent the last 25 years of its existence in decline and controversy. H. L. Mencken and George Jean Nathan had edited The Smart Set literary magazine, when not producing their own books and, in Mencken's case, regular journalism for The Baltimore Sun. With their mutual book publisher Alfred A. Knopf, Sr. serving as the publisher and Nathan created The American Mercury as "a serious review, the gaudiest and damnedest seen in the Republic", as Mencken explained the name to his old friend and contributor, Theodore Dreiser: What we need is something that looks respectable outwardly.
The American Mercury is perfect for that purpose. What will go on inside the tent is another story. You will recall that the late P. T. Barnum got away with burlesque shows by calling them moral lectures. From 1924 through 1933, Mencken provided what he promised: elegantly irreverent observations of America, aimed at what he called "Americans realistically", those of sophisticated skepticism of enough, popular and much that threatened to be. Simeon Strunsky in The New York Times observed that, "The dead hand of the yokelry on the instinct for beauty cannot be so heavy if the handsome green and black cover of The American Mercury exists." The quote was used on the subscription form for the magazine during its heyday. The January 1924 issue sold more than 15,000 copies and by the end of the first year, the circulation was over 42,000. In early 1928 the circulation reached a height of over 84,000, but declined after the stock market crash of 1929; the magazine published writing by Conrad Aiken, Sherwood Anderson, James Branch Cabell, W. J. Cash, Lincoln Ross Colcord, Thomas Craven, Clarence Darrow, W. E. B.
Du Bois, John Fante, William Faulkner, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Albert Halper, Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, Sinclair Lewis, George Schuyler, Meridel LeSueur, Edgar Lee Masters, Albert Jay Nock, Eugene O'Neill, Carl Sandburg, William Saroyan. Nathan provided theater criticism, Mencken wrote the "Editorial Notes" and "The Library", the last being book reviews and social critique, placed at the back of each volume; the magazine published other writers, from newspapermen and academics to convicts and taxi drivers, but its primary emphasis soon became non-fiction and satirical essays. Its "Americana" section—containing items clipped from newspapers and other magazines nationwide—became a much-imitated feature. Mencken spiced the package with aphorisms printed in the magazine's margins. H. L. Mencken flinched from controversy, he was in the thick of it after the Mercury's April 1926 issue published "Hatrack," a chapter from Herbert Asbury's Up From Methodism. The chapter described purportedly true events: a prostitute in Asbury's childhood in Farmington, nicknamed Hatrack because of her angular physique, was a regular churchgoer who sought forgiveness.
Shunned by the town's "good people," she returned to her sinful life. The Rev. J. Frank Chase of the Watch and Ward Society, which monitored material sold in Boston, Mass. for obscenity, concluded that "Hatrack" was immoral and had a Harvard Square magazine peddler arrested for selling a copy of that American Mercury issue. That provoked Mencken to visit Boston and sell Chase a copy of the magazine, the better to be arrested for the cameras. Tried and acquitted, Mencken was praised for his courageous stance for freedom of the press. Mencken sued Chase and won, a federal judge ruling the minister's organization committed an illegal restraint of trade, he held if anyone should. But following the trial, the Solicitor of the U. S. Post Office Department Donnelly ruled the April 1926 American Mercury was obscene under the federal Comstock Law, barred that issue from delivery through the U. S. Post Office. Mencken challenged Donnelly, aroused by the prospect of a landmark free speech case before the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and legendary Judge Learned Hand.
But, because the April 1926 Mercury had been mailed, an injunction was no longer an appropriate remedy and the case was moot. Mencken retired as editor of the magazine at the end of 1933, his chosen successor was literary critic Henry Hazlitt. Differences with the publisher, Alfred A. Knopf, Sr. however, led Hazlitt to resign after four months. The American Mercury was next edited by Charles Angoff. At first, the magazine was considered to be moving to the Left. In January 1935, The American Mercury was purchased from Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. by Lawrence E. Spivak; the magazine's longtime business manager, Spivak announced that he would take an active role as publisher. Paul Palmer, former Sunday editor of the New York World, replaced Angoff as editor, playwright Laurence Stallings was named literary editor. Spivak revived the Mercury for a brief but vigorous period — Mencken and Angoff contributed essays to the magazine again. Spivak created a company to publish the magazine, Merc
The borzoi called the Russian wolfhound, is a breed of domestic dog. Descended from dogs brought to Russia from central Asian countries, it is similar in shape to a greyhound, is a member of the sighthound family; the system by which Russians over the ages named their sighthounds was a series of descriptive terms, not actual names. Borzói is the masculine singular form of an archaic Russian adjective that means "fast". Borzáya sobáka is the basic term used by Russians, though sobáka is dropped; the name psovaya derived from the word psovina, which means "wavy, silky coat", just as hortaya means shorthaired. In Russian today the breed we know as the borzoi is known as russkaya psovaya borzaya. Other Russian sighthound breeds are stepnaya borzaya, called stepnoi; the most used plural form is the regular formation borzois, the only plural cited in most dictionaries. However, the Borzoi Club of America and the Borzoi Club UK both prefer borzoi as the form for both singular and plural forms. Borzois are large Russian sighthounds that resemble some central Asian breeds such as the Afghan hound and the Kyrgyz Taigan.
Borzois can be described as "long-haired greyhounds". Borzois come in any colour; the borzoi coat is silky and flat wavy or curly. The long top-coat is quite flat, with varying degrees of waviness or curling; the soft undercoat thickens during winter or in cold climates, but is shed in hot weather to prevent overheating. In its texture and distribution over the body, the borzoi coat is unique. There should be a frill on its neck, as well as feathering on its hindquarters and tail. Borzoi males weigh more than 100 pounds. Males stand at least 30 inches at the shoulder. Despite their size, the overall impression is of streamlining and grace, with a curvy shapeliness and compact strength; the borzoi is an independent breed of dog. Most borzois are quiet, barking on rare occasions, they do not have strong territorial drives and cannot be relied on to raise the alarm upon sighting a human intruder. The borzoi requires experienced handling, they are gentle and sensitive dogs with a natural respect for humans, as adults they are decorative couch potatoes with remarkably gracious house manners.
Borzois do not display dominance or aggression towards people, but can turn aggressive if handled roughly. They are rather reserved with strangers but affectionate with people they know well, their sensitivity to invasion of their personal space can make them nervous around children unless they are brought up with them. Borzois adapt well to suburban life, provided they have a spacious yard and regular opportunities for free exercise. A common misunderstanding about the intelligence of breeds in the Hound group stems from their independent nature, which conflicts with the frequent confusion between the concepts of "intelligence" and "obedience" in discussions of canine brainpower. Stanley Coren's survey of canine obedience trainers published in The Intelligence of Dogs reported that borzois obeyed the first command less than 25% of the time. Coren's test, was by his own admission weighted towards the "obedience" interpretation of intelligence and based on a better understanding of "working" breeds than hounds.
The publicity given to this report has led to unfair denigration of breeds which are under-represented in obedience clubs and poorly understood by the average obedience trainer. "Work" for hound breeds is done out of hearing and out of sight of the human companion. In terms of obedience, borzois are selective learners who become bored with repetitive pointless and they can be stubborn when they are not properly motivated. For example, food rewards, or "baiting", may work well for some individuals, but not at all for others. Borzois are capable of enjoying and performing well in competitive obedience and agility trials with the right kind of training. Like other sighthounds, they are sensitive and do not cope well with harsh treatment or training based on punishment, will be unhappy if raised voices and threats are a part of their daily life. However, like any intelligent dog, borzois respond well to the guidance and clear communication of a benevolent human leadership. Borzois were bred to pursue or "course" game and have a powerful instinct to chase things that run from them, including cats and small dogs.
Built for speed and endurance, they can cover long distances in a short time. A fenced yard is a necessity for maintaining any sighthound, they are independent and will range far and wide without containment, with little regard for road traffic. For off-leash exercise, a borzoi needs a large field or park, either fenced or well away from any roads, to ensure its safety. Borzois are born with specialized coursing skills, but these are quite different from the dog-fighting instincts seen in some breeds, it is quite common for borzois at play to course another dog, seize it by the neck and hold it immobile. Young pups do this with their littermates, trading off as to, the prey, it is not a fighting or territorial domination behavior. Borzois can be raised successfully to live with cats and other small animals provid
Willa Sibert Cather was an American writer who achieved recognition for her novels of frontier life on the Great Plains, including O Pioneers!, The Song of the Lark, My Ántonia. In 1923 she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for One of Ours, a novel set during World War I. Cather graduated from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, she lived and worked in Pittsburgh for ten years, supporting herself as a magazine editor and high school English teacher. At the age of 33 she moved to New York City, her primary home for the rest of her life, though she traveled and spent considerable time at her summer residence on Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick. Cather was born Wilella Sibert Cather in 1873 on her maternal grandmother's farm in the Back Creek Valley near Winchester, Virginia, her father was Charles Fectigue Cather, whose family had lived on land in the valley for six generations. Cather's family originated in Wales, the family name deriving from Cadair Idris, a mountain in Gwynedd.:13 Her mother was Mary Virginia Boak, a former school teacher.
Within a year of Cather's birth, the family moved to Willow Shade, a Greek Revival-style home on 130 acres given to them by her paternal grandparents. At the urging of Charles Cather's parents, the family moved to Nebraska in 1883 when Willa was nine years old; the rich, flat farmland appealed to Charles' father, the family wished to escape the tuberculosis outbreaks that were rampant in Virginia. Willa's father tried his hand at farming for eighteen months. Cather's time in the western state, still on the frontier, was a formative experience for her, she was intensely moved by the dramatic environment and weather, the vastness of the Nebraska prairie, the various cultures of the European-American and Native American families in the area. Like Jim Burden in My Antonia, the young Willa Cather saw the Nebraska frontier as a "place where there was nothing but land: not a country at all, but the materials out of which countries were made... Between that earth and that sky I felt erased, blotted out".
Mary Cather had six more children after Willa: Roscoe, Jessica, James and Elsie.:5–7 Cather was closer to her brothers than to her sisters whom, according to biographer Hermione Lee, she "seems not to have liked much.":36 Cather read having made friends with a Jewish couple, the Weiners, who offered her free access to their extensive library. She made house calls with the local physician, Dr. Robert Damerell, decided to become a doctor. After Cather's essay on Thomas Carlyle was published in the Nebraska State Journal during her freshman year at the University of Nebraska,:72–3 she became a regular contributor to the Journal. In addition to her work with the local paper, Cather served as the managing editor of The Hesperian, the University of Nebraska's student newspaper, associated at the Lincoln Courier, she changed her plans to major in science and become a physician, instead graduating with a B. A. in English in 1894. In 1896, Cather moved to Pittsburgh after being hired to write for the Home Monthly, a women's magazine patterned after the successful Ladies' Home Journal.:114 A year she became a telegraph editor and drama critic for the Pittsburgh Leader and contributed poetry and short fiction to The Library, another local publication.
In Pittsburgh, she taught Latin and English composition:150 at Central High School for one year. During her first year in Pittsburgh, Cather wrote a number of short stories, including "Tommy, the Unsentimental," about a Nebraskan girl with a boy's name, who looks like a boy and saves her father's bank business. Janis P. Stout calls this story one of several Cather works that "demonstrate the speciousness of rigid gender roles and give favorable treatment to characters who undermine conventions." Cather's first collection of short stories, The Troll Garden, was published in 1905 by McClure and Company. It contains several of Cather's best-known stories—"A Wagner Matinee," "The Sculptor's Funeral," and "Paul's Case." In 1906 Cather moved to New York City after being offered a position on the editorial staff of McClure's Magazine, a periodical connected with the publisher of The Troll Garden the year before. During her first year at McClure's, she wrote a critical biography of Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science, although Georgine Milmine, a freelance researcher, was named as the sole author.
Milmine had performed copious amounts of research, but she did not have the resources to produce a manuscript on her own.:194 "Mary Baker G. Eddy: The Story of Her Life and the History of Christian Science" was published in McClure's in fourteen installments over the next eighteen months, in book form as The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science. McClure's serialized Cather's first novel, Alexander's Bridge. Most reviews were favorable; the New York Times praised "the dramatic situations and the clever conversations,":225 and The Atlantic called the writing "deft and skillful."Cather followed Alexander's Bridge with her Prairie Trilogy: O Pioneers!, The Song of the Lark, My Ántonia. These works became both popular and critical successes. Cather was celebrated by national critics such as H. L. Mencken for writing in plainspoken language about ordinary people. Si