Coon songs were a genre of music that presented a stereotyped image of black people. They were popular in the United States and the United Kingdom from around 1880 to 1920, though the earliest such songs date from minstrel shows as far back as 1848; the first explicitly coon-themed song, published in 1880, may have been "The Dandy Coon's Parade" by J. P. Skelley. Other notable early coon songs included "The Coons Are on Parade", "New Coon in Town", "Coon Salvation Army", "Coon Schottische". By the mid-1880s, coon songs were a national craze; the most successful songs sold millions of copies. To take advantage of the fad, composers "add words typical of coon songs to published songs and rags". After the turn of the century, coon songs began to receive criticism for their racist content. In 1905, Bob Cole, an African-American composer who had gained fame by writing coon songs, made somewhat unprecedented remarks about the genre; when asked in an interview about the name of his earlier comedy A Trip to Coontown, he replied, "That day has passed with the flowing tide of revelations."
Following further criticism the use of "coon" in song titles decreased after 1910. On August 13, 1920, the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League created the Red and Green flag as a response to the song "Every Race Has a Flag but the Coon" by Heelan and Helf; that song along with "Coon, Coon" and "All Coons Look Alike to Me" were identified by H. L. Mencken as being the songs which established the derogatory term "coon" in the American vocabulary. In the 1830s, the term had been associated with the Whig Party; the Whigs used a raccoon as its emblem, but had a more tolerant attitude towards blacks than the other political factions. The latter opinion is what transformed the term "coon" from mere political slang into a racial slur, it is possible that the popularity of coon songs may be explained in part by their historical timing: coon songs arose as the popular music business exploded in Tin Pan Alley. However, James Dormon, a former professor of history and American studies at the University of Southwestern Louisiana, has suggested that coon songs can be seen as "a necessary sociopsychological mechanism for justifying segregation and subordination."
The songs portrayed Blacks as posing a threat to the American social order, implied that they had to be controlled. At the height of their popularity, "just about every songwriter in the country" was writing coon songs "to fill the insatiable demand". Writers of coon songs included some of the most important Tin Pan Alley composers, including Gus Edwards, Fred Fisher, Irving Berlin. One of John Philip Sousa's assistants, Arthur Pryor, composed coon songs. Many coon songs were written by whites. Important black composers of coon songs include Ernest Hogan. Classic ragtime composer Scott Joplin wrote at least one coon song, may have composed the music for several more, using lyrics written by others. Coon songs always aimed to be funny and incorporated the syncopated rhythms of ragtime music. A coon song's defining characteristic, was its caricature of African Americans. In keeping with the older minstrel image of blacks, coon songs featured "watermelon- and chicken-loving rural buffoon". However, "blacks began to appear as not only ignorant and indolent, but devoid of honesty or personal honor, given to drunkenness and gambling, utterly without ambition, libidinous lascivious."
Blacks were portrayed as making money through gambling and hustling, rather than working to earn a living, as in the Nathan Bivins song "Gimme Ma Money": Coon songs portrayed blacks as "hot", in this context meaning promiscuous and libidinous. They suggested that the most common living arrangement was a "honey" relationship, rather than marriage. Blacks were portrayed as inclined toward acts of provocative violence. Razors were featured in the songs and came to symbolize blacks' wanton tendencies. However, violence in the songs was uniformly directed at blacks instead of whites. Hence, the spectre of black-on-white violence remained but an allusion; the street-patrolling "bully coon" was used as a stock character in coon songs. The songs showed the social threats. Passing was a common theme, blacks were portrayed as seeking the status of whites, through education and money. However, blacks except during dream sequences succeeded at appearing white. Coon songs were popular in vaudeville theater, where they were delivered by "coon shouters", who were White women.
Notable coon shouters included Artie Hall, Sophie Tucker, May Irwin, Mae West, Fanny Bric
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
Strike Up the Band (film)
Strike Up the Band is a 1940 American musical film produced by the Arthur Freed unit at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The film was directed by Busby Berkeley and stars Mickey Rooney and Judy Garland, in the second of a series of musicals they co-starred in, after Babes in Arms, all directed by Berkeley. Jimmy Connors, a student at Riverwood High School, plays the drums in the school band but dreams of playing in a dance band, he and his "pal" Mary Holden sell the school principal on the idea of forming a dance orchestra and putting on a dance to raise money. The principal is doubtful but agrees to buy the first ticket; the event is a success, the school's debt for the instruments is paid off. Famous band leader Paul Whiteman sponsors a contest in Chicago for the best high school musical group, Jimmy decides that the band must compete. In three weeks, the kids write and put on a show; the melodrama, called "Nell from New Rochelle", is a success and raises enough money for the band to go to Chicago, but they're still short.
A loan from Whiteman himself solves that problem. However, when a member of the band is injured and needs a critical and urgent operation, the band uses the money so that the injured student can be flown to Chicago for the operation; the band gets a last minute gift of a free ride on a fast train to Chicago. The band wins the $500 prize. Jimmy gets the honor of leading all of the bands in a grand finale performance. Uncredited In keeping with MGM's practice of the time, the film soundtrack was recorded in stereophonic sound but released with conventional monaural sound. At least some of the original stereo recording has survived and been included in some home video releases, including the Mickey Rooney - Judy Garland Collection. "Strike up the Band" – music by George Gershwin, lyrics by Ira Gershwin Played during the opening credits, sung by Judy Garland, Mickey Rooney, chorus in the finale "Our Love Affair" – music by Roger Edens, lyrics by Arthur Freed Played during the opening and end credits Played on piano by Mickey Rooney and sung by Judy Garland and Mickey Rooney with orchestral accompaniment Reprised by the animated fruit orchestra Reprised by the band at rehearsal and at the dance Reprised by Judy Garland and Mickey Rooney in the finale Played as background music "Do the La Conga" – music and lyrics by Roger Edens Performed by Judy Garland, Mickey Rooney, Sidney Miller William Tracy and chorus at the dance Reprised by the cast in the finale "Nobody" – music and lyrics by Roger Edens Sung by Judy Garland "Oh Where, Oh Where Has My Little Dog Gone?"
– traditional Played as background music at the start of the fair sequence "The Gay Nineties" – music and lyrics by Roger Edens Performed by Judy Garland, Mickey Rooney, William Tracy, Margaret Early and chorus at the Elks Club show "Nell of New Rochelle" – music and lyrics by Roger Edens Performed by Judy Garland, Mickey Rooney and chorus in the Elks club show "Walking Down Broadway" – traditional, arranged by Roger Edens Sung by the chorus in the "Nell of New Rochelle" sequence "A Man Was the Cause of It All" – music and lyrics by Roger Edens Sung by Judy Garland in the "Nell of New Rochelle" sequence "After the Ball" – music by Charles Harris Played as dance music in the "Nell of New Rochelle" sequence "Sobre las olas" – music by Juventino Rosas Played as background music in the "Nell of New Rochelle" sequence "Heaven Will Protect the Working Girl" – music by A. Baldwin Sloane, yrics by Edgar Smith Sung by Judy Garland, Mickey Rooney and chorus in the "Nell of New Rochelle" sequence "Home, Sweet Home" – music by H.
R. Bishop Played as background music when Nell rocks the cradle "Ta-ra-ra Boom-de-ay" – by Henry J. Sayers Danced to and sung by June Preisser and sung by the chorus in the "Nell of New Rochelle" sequence Reprised in the finale of the'Nell of New Rochelle' sequence "Come Home, Father"' – music and lyrics by Henry Clay Work Sung by Larry Nunn and Judy Garland in the "Nell of New Rochelle" sequence "The Light Cavalry Overture" – music by Franz von Suppé Played in the "Nell of New Rochelle" sequence several times "Rock-a-Bye Baby" – music by Effie I. Canning Played as background music when Willie is told to go home "Five Foot Two, Eyes of Blue" – music by Ray Henderson Played as background music when Jimmy and Barbara wait for her parents "When Day is Done" – music by Robert Katscher Opening number played by Paul Whiteman and Orchestra at Barbara's party "Wonderful One" – music by Paul Whiteman and Ferde Grofé Sr. Played as dance music by Paul Whiteman and Orchestra at Barbara's party "Drummer Boy" – music by Roger Edens, lyrics by Roger Edens and Arthur Freed Performed at Barbara's party by Judy Garland, Mickey Rooney and other band members Reprised by the cast in the finale "China Boy" – by Dick Winfree and Phil Boutelje Played as background music during the travel and contest montage "Hands Across the Table" – music by Jean Delettre Played as background music during the travel and contest montage "Limehouse Blues" – music by Philip Braham Played as background music during the travel and contest montage "Tiger Rag" – by Edwin B.
Edwards, Nick LaRocca, Tony Sbarbaro, Henry Ragas and Larry Shields Played as background music during the travel and contest montage "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean" – arranged by Thomas A. Beckett Played as background music whe
The Lambs, Inc. is a social club in New York City for actors and others involved in the theatre. It is America's oldest theatrical organization. "The Lambs" is a registered trademark of The Lambs, Inc.. In 1868 The Lambs was founded in London by actors, led by John Hare, the first Shepherd, looking to socialize with like-minded people. Several of those, most notably Henry James Montague, came to the United States and formed The Lambs of New York during Christmas week of 1874, it was incorporated in 1877 in New York City. Shortly afterward the London Lambs closed; the club's name honors the essayist Charles Lamb and his sister Mary, who during the early 19th century played host to actors and literati at their famed salon in London. In 1924 they celebrated their golden jubilee at the Earl Carroll Theatre; the Lambs, the New York Friars' Club and The Players in New York are confused. In 1964 long-time syndicated columnist Earl Wilson put it this way: "Long ago a New Yorker asked the difference between the Lambs and Players, since the membership was, at the time, predominantly from Broadway."
It was left to "a wit believed to have been George S. Kaufman" to draw the distinction: "The Players are gentlemen trying to be actors, the Lambs are actors trying to be gentlemen, the Friars are neither trying to be both." The president of The Lambs is called "The Shepherd". The Club displays the portraits of all its presidents, painted by artists such as James Montgomery Flagg and Everett Raymond Kinstler. 1874: Founded and first dinner at Delmonico's Restaurant 1875: Morton House 1875: Union Square Hotel 1876: Wallack's Theater 848 Broadway 1877–78: 6 Union Square 1878: 19 East 16th Street 1880–1892: 34 West 26th St 1891: Gilsey House, 1200 Broadway 1892: 8 West 29th St 1893–1896: 26 West 31st St 1897–1905: 70 West 36th St 1905–1975: 130 West 44th Street 1975: Guest in Lotos Club, 5 East 66th St 1976: Current: 3 West Club, 3 West 51st Street, 5th Floor The Lambs has had many Manhattan homes since 1874, beginning with Delmonico's Restaurant in Union Square. In 1875 they met at the Maison Doree on the south side of 14th St. opposite Union Square.
Until 1974 the Club remained at the building at 128 West 44th St. The building was designed by Stanford White, was erected in 1904–1905; when the club relocated to its current nine-story quarters at 3 West 51st St. adjacent to Rockefeller Center, it sold its own quarters to the Church of the Nazarene which intended to use the old building as a mission in Times Square. The church leased part of the building for what would become the Off Broadway Lamb's Theatre, not related to the Club except for the name of the building; the building was designated a New York City Landmark in September 1974. In 2006 the Church of the Nazarene sold the building and theatre, renovated by the Chatwal Hotel, they operate a restaurant in the hotel and named it The Lambs Club, although there is no relation between the hotel and The Lambs other than what was left of the building. The Lambs, Inc. is still active in its nine-story quarters at 3 West 51st St. adjacent to Rockefeller Center. Its members have been instrumental in the formation of ASCAP, Actors' Equity and The Actors' Fund of America, Screen Actors Guild and in the merger that created SAG-AFTRA.
Of the first 21 Council members of Actors' Equity, 20 were members of The Lambs. The meetings to form Actors' Equity were held at The Players, a club similar to The Lambs, because there were too many producer members of The Lambs; the Actors' strike of 1919 was settled in The Lambs, referred to as "Local One." The Lambs has been the spawning ground of plays and partnerships. Mark Twain Tonight and Stalag 17 were first performed at The Lambs prior to their national successes. Alan J. Lerner and Frederick Loewe first met at The Lambs trying works-in-progress on their fellow Lambs. Loewe left a percentage of his share of Brigadoon royalties to The Lambs' Foundation. Since its founding, there have been more than 6,000 Lambs including Spencer Tracy, Fred Astaire, Irving Berlin, George M. Cohan, W. C. Fields, Will Rogers, John Philip Sousa, Conrad Nagel, Fred Waring and Albert Hague, Cliff Robertson, Abe Vigoda and Ken Howard. Current members include Joyce Randolph of "The Honeymooners," Jim Dale, Matthew Broderick and Tony Award-winning conductor/arranger Donald Pippin.
The Lambs' website contains a listing of its past members. The Lambs, Inc. website "The Lambs Club" – the NYC Chapter of the American Guild of Organists. Lambs Club records, 1880–1973, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
M. Witmark & Sons
M. Witmark & Sons was a leading publisher of sheet music for the United States "Tin Pan Alley" music industry; the firm of Marcus Witmark & Sons was established in New York City in 1886. The father, Marcus Witmark, was the legal head of the company, they started out publishing their own compositions. They were adept at plugging songs, within a few years were publishing the works of such composers as Victor Herbert, George M. Cohan, Ben Harney and John Walter Bratton. Witmark originated the practice of giving free "professional copies" of their new music to famous and established singers and bands, which proved so successful an advertising method that it was copied by the rest of the music publishers; when the International Copyright Law was passed in 1891, Witmark pioneered publishing versions of British music in the United States and arranging for American hits to be published in the UK. Tams-Witmark In 1922, Sargent Aborn, brother of Milton Aborn, both of the Aborn Opera Company, acquired the Arthur W. Tams music library, a collection that had become the largest circulating music library in the world — and by extension, Witmark's biggest competitor in the music-rental field.
In January of 1925, M. Witmark & Sons acquired the music Tams library, ending 30 years of intense rivalry; the combined Tams-Witmark library, operating as the Tam-Witmark Music Library Inc. secured its position as the largest source of musical-comedy and operatic music for amateur and professional productions. Sargent Aborn was president of Tams-Witmark from its founding until his death in 1957. In 1942, Sargent Aborn and his son, Louis Henry Aborn, acquired the rights to the Tams Library; as of 2014, the co-chairmen were Robert Aborn Hut and Sargent Louis Aborn and the executive vice-president was Peter Aborn Hut. All three are grandchildren of Sargent Aborn. Tams-Witmark was acquired by Concord Music Company in 2018. In the 1960s, Tams-Witmark donated several lots of its old inventory to the special collections of 5 libraries known for music research: the Library of Congress, the Eastman School of Music, Westminster Choir College, the largest part of its inventory to the University of Wisconsin–Madison, through the initiative of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research and the School of Music.
The consolidation of Tams and Witmark affected operatic music and musical theatre. It did not affect the separate concern of M. Witmark & Sons, music publishers, who continued publishing popular and classical music. Warner Bros. In 1929, M. Witmark was purchased by Warner Bros. Warner Bros. merged its music publishing companies into Warner Bros.. Music. Alfred Music In 2005, Alfred Music purchased Warner Bros. Publications — acquiring the rights to Warner/Chappell Music, Inc. and the EMI Catalogue Partnership. Through this deal, Alfred Music gained the print rights of publishers that include M. Witmark & Sons, Remick Music Corp. and T. B. Harms, Inc. Among the EMI holdings are the Robbins and Leo Feist catalogs, plus film music from United Artists, MGM, 20th Century Fox. American popular music Tams-WitmarkCompetitor music publishing firms in Tin Pan Alley Leo Feist, Inc. – 231 W 40th St, New York, NY T. B. Harms & Francis, Day & Hunter, Inc. – 62 W. 45th St. New York, NY Shapiro, Bernstein & Co. Inc. – 218 W. 47th St.
New York, NY Watterson, Berlin & Snyder, Inc. – 1571 Broadway, New York, NY Mills Music Library Special Collections, Tams-Witmark / Wisconsin Collection Pro Culture Editions Tin Pan Alley Publishing House