University of Melbourne
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is the oldest in Victoria. Melbourne's main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb north of the Melbourne central business district, with several other campuses located across Victoria. Melbourne is a sandstone university and a member of the Group of Eight, Universitas 21 and the Association of Pacific Rim Universities. Since 1872 various residential colleges have become affiliated with the university. There are 10 colleges located on the main campus and in nearby suburbs offering academic and cultural programs alongside accommodation for Melbourne students and faculty. Melbourne comprises 11 separate academic units and is associated with numerous institutes and research centres, including the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research and the Grattan Institute.
Amongst Melbourne's 15 graduate schools the Melbourne Business School, the Melbourne Law School and the Melbourne Medical School are well regarded. Times Higher Education ranked Melbourne 32nd globally in 2017-2018, while the Academic Ranking of World Universities places Melbourne 38th in the world, in the QS World University Rankings 2019 Melbourne ranks 39th globally and ranked sixth in the world according to the 2019 QS Graduate Employability Rankings. Four Australian prime ministers and five governors-general have graduated from the University of Melbourne. Ten Nobel laureates have been the most of any Australian university; the University of Melbourne was established by Hugh Childers, the Auditor-General and Finance Minister, in his first Budget Speech on 4 November 1852, who set aside a sum of £10,000 for the establishment of a university. The university was established by Act of Incorporation on 22 January 1853, with power to confer degrees in arts, medicine and music; the act provided for an annual endowment of £9,000, while a special grant of £20,000 was made for buildings that year.
The foundation stone was laid on 3 July 1854, on the same day the foundation stone for the State Library Classes commenced in 1855 with three professors and sixteen students. The original buildings were opened by the Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Victoria, Sir Charles Hotham, on 3 October 1855; the first chancellor, Redmond Barry, held the position until his death in 1880. The inauguration of the university was made possible by the wealth resulting from Victoria's gold rush; the institution was designed to be a "civilising influence" at a time of rapid settlement and commercial growth. In 1881, the admission of women was a seen as victory over the more conservative ruling council; the university's 150th anniversary was celebrated in 2003. The Melbourne School of Land and Environment was disestablished on the first of January, 2015, its agriculture and food systems department moved alongside veterinary science to form the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, while other areas of study, including horticulture, forestry and resource management, moved to the Faculty of Science in two new departments.
As of May 2009 the university "suspended" the Bachelor of Music Theatre and Puppetry courses at the college and there were fears they may not return under the new curriculum. A 2005 heads of agreement over the merger of the VCA and the university stated that the management of academic programs at the VCA would ensure that "the VCA continues to exercise high levels of autonomy over the conduct and future development of its academic programs so as to ensure their integrity and quality" and that the college's identity will be preserved. New dean Sharman Pretty outlined drastic changes under the university's plan for the college in early April 2009; as a result, it is now being called into question. Staff at the college responded to the changes, claiming the university did not value vocational arts training, voicing fears over the future of quality training at the VCA. Former Victorian arts minister Race Mathews has weighed in on the debate expressing his hope that, "Melbourne University will not proceed with its proposed changes to the Victorian College of the Arts", for'good sense' to prevail.
In 2011, the Victorian State Government allocated $24 million to support arts education at the VCA and the faculty was renamed the Faculty of the Victorian College of the Arts and the Melbourne Conservatorium of Music. The Parkville Campus is the primary campus of the university. Established in a large area north of Grattan Street in Parkville, the campus has expanded well beyond its boundaries, with many of its newly acquired buildings located in the nearby suburb of Carlton; the university is undertaking an'ambitious infrastructure program' to reshape campuses. Melbourne University has 10 residential colleges in total, seven of which are located in an arc around the cricket oval at the northern edge of the campus, known as College Crescent; the other three are located outside of university grounds. The residential colleges aim to provide accommodation and holistic education experience to university students. Most of the university's residential colleges admit students from RMIT University and Monash University, Parkville campus, with selected colleges accepting students from the Australian Catholic University and Victoria University.
Several of the earliest campus buildings, such as the Old Quadrangle and Baldwin Spencer buildings, feature period architecture. The new Wilson Hall replaced th
H. V. Evatt
Herbert Vere Evatt known as H. V. Evatt or Bert Evatt, as "Doc" Evatt on account of his Doctor of Laws degree, was an Australian judge, lawyer and writer. Evatt was a Justice of the High Court of Australia from 1930 to 1940. Evatt was born on 30 April 1894 at the Bank Hotel in New South Wales, he was the fifth of eight sons born to John Ashmore Hamilton Evatt. On his father's side, Evatt was descended from an Anglo-Irish family with a history of military service – his paternal grandfather was Captain George Evatt of the 70th Regiment of Foot, while an uncle was Major-General Sir George Evatt, his father was born in Cawnpore, but grew up in Dublin, Ireland. He arrived in Australia at the age of 16, settled in Morpeth, where in 1882 he married Jeanie Gray, the daughter of a marine engineer from Sydney. Evatt's maternal grandfather was born in Shoreditch, England, while his maternal grandmother was born in County Limerick, Ireland, his parents – both Anglicans – moved to East Maitland in 1885, where they managed the Hunter River Hotel until 1891 and took over the smaller Bank Hotel.
Evatt began his education at a local state school. His father suffered a protracted bout of ill health and died in October 1901, when his son was seven; the family stayed in Maitland for three more years, but moved to Sydney to be closer to his mother's family, who lived on the North Shore. She bought a home in Milsons Point overlooking Sydney Harbour, within walking distance of her parents' home in Kirribilli; the house was demolished to make way for the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Evatt was enrolled in the Fort Street Model School, located directly across the harbour on Observatory Hill, he attended the school from 1905 to 1911, in his final year serving as head prefect and captain of the cricket and rugby union teams. He finished second in the state senior examinations, was dux of his school. In 1912, Evatt began studying at the University of Sydney, where he was a resident of St Andrew's College, he graduated in 1919 with a Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics, Logic and English with First-Class Honours and the University Medal in Philosophy in 1915, a Master of Arts in 1916, a Bachelor of Laws with First-Class Honours and the University Medal in 1918.
At university Evatt played cricket, rugby league football and baseball. He was the Editor of Hermes, the annual student literary journal, was a Tutor at St Andrew's College, the President of the University of Sydney Union from 1916–17, he graduated Legum Doctor in 1924 from the University of Sydney with a thesis on the royal prerogative. Because of poor eyesight, Evatt was unable to serve in the First World War, in which two of his brothers were killed, he became a prominent industrial lawyer in Sydney, working for trade union clients. In 1925 Evatt was elected as an Australian Labor Party member for Balmain in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. Re-elected as an "Independent Labor" candidate in 1927, Evatt served in the Legislative Assembly until 1930. In 1930 the Labor government headed by James Scullin appointed Evatt as the youngest-ever justice of the High Court of Australia. Regarded by some as a brilliant and innovative judge, he delivered a number of minority judgments, several of which were adopted by High Court majorities decades later.
Evatt could, however, be partial on the bench. Sir Owen Dixon noted in Australian Woollen Mills Ltd v F. S. Walton & Co. Ltd that Evatt was on that occasion "full of antagonism to the respondent... Most unjudicial." Whenever Evatt was not interested in a case he appears to have gone along with Dixon. Evatt was one of six justices of the High Court who had served in the Parliament of New South Wales, along with Edmund Barton, Richard O'Connor, Adrian Knox, Albert Piddington and Edward McTiernan. In 1934 Evatt played an important part in the Egon Kisch exclusion when he ruled that the Lyons Government's ban on Kisch entering Australia had been incorrectly executed and that Kisch was free to enter the country. In 1940, Evatt resigned from the High Court to return to politics, was elected federal MP for the Sydney seat of Barton in the House of Representatives.. When Labor came to power under John Curtin in 1941, Evatt became Attorney-General and Foreign Minister, he became deputy leader of the Labor Party after the 1946 election, under the leadership of Ben Chifley.
While in London, Evatt acted as the spokesperson for the Australian Board of Control for International Cricket and made personal representations to the Marylebone Cricket Club who were reluctant to send a cricket team to tour Australia so soon after the war. He put forward convincing arguments as to the need to re-establish sporting relations and the financial benefits of the tour and the MCC agreed to the 1946–47 Ashes series. Don Bradman would aver that the "quick resumption of Anglo-Australian Tests had justified itself in every way, technically, financially". Evatt was a defender of the White Australia Policy. There was a strong view in Australia that any softening of the White Australia stance might result in cheaper labour being imported from overseas. Another prevailing sentiment was. Evatt, opposi
Quadrant is an Australian literary and cultural journal. Quadrant reviews literature, as well as featuring essays on ideas and topics such as politics, history and the arts, it publishes poetry and short stories. The magazine was founded in Sydney in 1956 by Richard Krygier, a Polish–Jewish refugee, active in social-democrat politics in Europe and James McAuley, a Catholic poet, known for the anti-modernist Ern Malley hoax, it was an initiative of the Australian Committee for Cultural Freedom, the Australian arm of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, an anti-communist advocacy group funded by the CIA. It has had many notable contributors including Les Murray, its literary editor from 1990 to 2019, Peter Ryan, who wrote a column from 1994 to 2015, Heinz Arndt, Sir Garfield Barwick, Frank Brennan, Ian Callinan, Hal Colebatch, Peter Coleman, Sir Zelman Cowen, Anthony Daniels, Joe Dolce, David Flint, Lord Harris of High Cross, Paul Hasluck, Dyson Heydon, Sidney Hook, A. D. Hope, Barry Humphries, Clive James, John Kerr, Michael Kirby, Frank Knopfelmacher, Peter Kocan, Christopher Koch, Andrew Lansdown, John Latham, Douglas Murray, Patrick O'Brien, Sharon Olds, George Pell, Pierre Ryckmans, Roger Sandall, Roger Scruton, Greg Sheridan, James Spigelman, Sir Ninian Stephen and Tom Switzer, as well as several Labor and Liberal political figures, including Bob Hawke, John Howard, Tony Abbott, Mark Latham and John Wheeldon.
In the immediate aftermath of the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing Quadrant's online editor Roger Franklin wrote an article titled "The Manchester Bomber's ABC Pals" Referring to the Manchester bombing and Monday night's Q&A television program, the article said, "Had there been a shred of justice, that blast would have detonated in an Ultimo TV studio" and continued, "Unlike those young girls in Manchester, their lives snuffed out before they could begin, none of the panel’s casualties would have represented the slightest reduction in humanity’s intelligence, empathy or honesty." ABC Managing Director Michelle Guthrie called the article a "vicious and offensive attack" and called for the article to "be removed and apologised for". Quadrant editor-in-chief Keith Windschuttle acknowledged that the article was "intemperate" and "a serious error of judgment", he apologised for the offence it had caused; the article was removed from the Quadrant website on 25 May 2017. The magazine holds a conservative stance on social issues.
In October 1992, Dame Leonie Kramer the Chairman of the magazine's Board of Directors, discussed the "deep values" of Quadrant: "the intrinsic value of cultural and intellectual freedom and of inquiry..." "cultural and intellectual freedoms, indeed negative liberties depend upon an abundance of autonomous institutions and an open society..." "political democracy... support of particular democratic institutions, a culture that accepts peaceful and democratic modes of government and change of government..." "liberal democracy, democracy that respects individual liberty... insists that government be limited: by other holders of political and economic resources, by protected private property, by free media, most of all by the rule of law, the restraint and channelling of power by law..." "the virtues, the wisdom, borne by traditions in social and moral life... It has not pretended that traditions have all the answers or should be treated with uncritical reverence... It has, recommended that... long established moral and social practices be treated with respect and caution."
"an economic order in which markets are allowed to work - within the rule of law - as sources of information, as ingredients and supporters of liberty and as facilitators of competitive private enterprise and individual choice..."In March 2008, the magazine was describing itself as sceptical of "unthinking Leftism, or political correctness, its'smelly little orthodoxies'". Editor Quadrant magazine: Keith Windschuttle Editor, Quadrant magazine: John O'Sullivan Editor, Quadrant Online: Roger Franklin Literary Editor: Barry Spurr Deputy Editor: George Thomas List of literary magazines Encounter The Dorchester Review Congress for Cultural Freedom - CIA program to fund European magazines Official website CIA as Culture Vultures, an essay by Cassandra Pybus, Jacket Magazine, No. 12, July 2000, as an extract from her non-fictional account of the life of James McAuley Quadrant's 50th anniversary - ABC Radio National Counterpoint 2006 feature interview with Martin Krygier, Dame Leonie Kramer AC DBE, Paddy McGuinness: transcript located here
Major General Victor Paul Hildebrandt Stantke, was a senior officer in the Australian Army, serving during the First World War and Second World War. His appointments were to staff and administrative postings, including holding the position of Adjutant-General from 1940 to 1943, commander Queensland Lines of Communication Area from 1943 to 1946. Stantke was born in Fitzroy, Victoria, on 15 August 1886. Educated at the University of Melbourne, he served in the Australian Military Forces as a senior cadet from 1906, was commissioned through this scheme, reaching the rank of captain by 1909. However, after working as teacher at Brighton Grammar School, in 1911 he relinquished his previous rank and joined the Permanent Military Forces. In the Permanent Force, he was appointed to the Administrative and Instructional Staff, as a lieutenant, before transferring to the Australian Imperial Force during the First World War, being posted as the adjutant of the 29th Battalion on the Western Front during 1917 and 1918.
Promoted to captain, in 1919 he served as Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General, 1st Division before returning to Australia that year. In the inter-war years Stantke returned to the Permanent Force and as a member of the Australian Staff Corps held various staff and administrative posts. In 1928 Stanke, by a major, was part of a committee which examined the mechanization of the Australian Military Forces. Postings included that of Director and Personnel Services, Director, Mobilisation at Army Headquarters in Melbourne from 1933 to 1935, during which time he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. In 1935 he was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire. In 1936 and 1937 he undertook training in Great Britain at the Senior Officers' School in Sheerness. From 1937 to 1939 he was posted to the 4th Military District as both the Assistant Adjutant & Quartermaster-General and as Instructional Group Commander, before being posted to same positions in the 2nd Military District in 1939. Following the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, he was raised in rank to colonel.
In October that year he was appointed Brigadier in Charge of Administration, Eastern Command after temporary promotion to brigadier. During this time he directed the assembly of a Court of Inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the events of the Japanese landings in New Britain and Ambon in 1942, including the subsequent massacre of Australian personnel and civilians at Tol plantation, he supported proposals which resulted in the establishment of Directorate of Research and Civil Affairs and of the Australian Army Education Service. In 1943 he was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Yet, the Commander-in-Chief, General Sir Thomas Blamey had not been "satisfied" with Stantke's performance as Adjutant-General and he was replaced by Major General Charles Lloyd. Blamey had felt that Stantke was "obstructionist and was unwilling to visit forward areas, or leave Melbourne." Stantke subsequently served as commander of the Queensland Lines of Communication Area during 1943–46.
Stantke retired from the permanent forces in 1946. He died in 1967, his funeral was held on 31 May at St Alban's Church of England in Armadale and was attended by the Minister for the Army, Malcolm Fraser. He was cremated at Springvale Crematorium. Major General Robert Nimmo at the Cabinet farewell to Major General Stantke, Brisbane, 1946
John Kerr (governor-general)
Sir John Robert Kerr, was the 18th Governor-General of Australia. He dismissed the Labor government of Gough Whitlam on 11 November 1975, marking the climax of the most significant constitutional crisis in Australian history, he had been the 13th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Kerr was born in Balmain, New South Wales, on 24 September 1914, he was the eldest of three children born to Harry Kerr. Kerr's parents and maternal grandparents were Australian-born, while his paternal grandparents came from Sunderland, arriving in Sydney in 1886, he came from a line of waterside workers—his father was a boilermaker, his grandfather was a stevedore, his great-grandfather was a shipwright. At the time of his son's birth, Kerr's father was employed at the Eveleigh Railway Workshops, he was sacked three months but soon found work at the Cockatoo Island Dockyard, which were at full capacity due to the ongoing war. He was involved in the union movement, participated in a number of strikes, including the 1917 general strike, during which he went without pay for two months.
Work at the docks became irregular after the war's end, he rejoined the railways in 1925. For the first two years of his life and his parents lived with his paternal grandparents in a weatherboard cottage in Balmain, they rented cottages in Rozelle and Dulwich Hill, buying the latter outright only in 1949. Kerr began his education at the Birchgrove Public School, he won a scholarship to attend the prestigious Fort Street Boys' High School, where he excelled academically. He topped the school in English and chemistry in his final year, his contemporaries remembered him as quite aloof. In deciding to pursue law as a career, Kerr found a role model in H. V. Evatt, a fellow Fortian who in 1930 became the youngest-ever High Court judge. Kerr's father knew Evatt through his membership of the Labor Party, had helped him on his successful campaign for the state seat of Balmain in 1925. Evatt became the first in a series of patrons who helped Kerr progress in his career despite a humble background. In 1932, Kerr began studying law at the University of Sydney.
He again excelled academically, winning a number of prizes, but had little interest in extra-curricular activities. One of his closest friends was Ken Gee, who joined him on the judiciary but was known for his flirtation with Trotskyism. Kerr graduated in 1936 with first-class honours and the University Medal, he was called to the New South Wales bar in 1938. The same year, Kerr married Alison "Peggy" Worstead, he spent World War II working for the Australian intelligence organisation and think tank, the Directorate of Research and Civil Affairs. In 1946 he became principal of the Australian School of Pacific Administration and the first Secretary-General of the South Pacific Commission. Kerr returned to the bar in 1948, becoming a prominent lawyer representing trade union clients and a member of the Labor Party, he intended to seek Labor endorsement for a parliamentary seat at the 1951 election, but withdrew in favour of another candidate. After the Labor Party split of 1955, however, he became disillusioned with party politics.
He disliked what he saw as the Labor Party's leftward trend under Evatt's leadership, but was not attracted to the breakaway group, the Democratic Labor Party. In the 1950s, he joined the anti-communist advocacy group established by the United States' CIA, the Association for Cultural Freedom, joining its executive board in 1957. In the 1960s Kerr became one of Sydney's leading industrial lawyers. In the 1950s he had become a QC. In 1964 he was one of a group of lawyers who lent their expertise to the defence of the publishers of the satirical magazine Oz when they were prosecuted for obscenity. In 1966 Kerr was appointed a judge of the Commonwealth Industrial Court and to several other judicial positions. During this period his political views became more conservative, he became a friend of Sir Garfield Barwick, the Liberal attorney-general who became Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia in 1964. Kerr was the first chairman of the Law Association for Asia and the Western Pacific, founded by Justice Paul Toose and John Bruce Piggot in 1966.
Kerr served as chairman of that organisation until 1970. Kerr was appointed Chief Justice of New South Wales in 1972. Sir Paul Hasluck was due to retire as Governor-General in July 1974, the prime minister, Gough Whitlam, needed to find a suitable replacement, his first choice, Ken Myer, declined. These discussions commenced in September 1973. Kerr was announced as Governor-General-designate on 27 February 1974, by which time he had become Sir John Kerr, he been knighted in the New Year's Honours of 1974, on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales, Sir Robert Askin, after Whitlam had declined to endorse his predecessor William McMahon's recommendation for that honour, which Hasluck had wisely held back pending the outcome of the December 1972 election. Kerr did not know Whitlam well, although they had shared legal chambers some years earlier, but he had remained friends with several ministers in Whitlam's government, such as Jim McClelland and Joe Riordan
Archive.today is an archive site which stores snapshots of web pages. It retrieves one page at a time similar to WebCite, smaller than 50MB each, but with support for modern sites such as Google Maps and Twitter. Archive.is uses headless browsing to record what embedded resources need to be captured to provide a high-quality memento, creates a PNG image to provide a static and non-interactive visualization of the representation. Archive.today can capture individual pages in response to explicit user requests. Since July 2013, archive.is supports the Memento Project application programming interface. Archive.today was founded in 2012. The site branded itself as archive.today, but in May 2015 changed the primary mirror to archive.is. In January 2019, it began to deprecate the archive.is domain in favor of the archive.today mirror. In March 2019 the site was blocked by several Australian internet providers in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in an attempt to limit distribution of the footage of the attack.
According to GreatFire.org, archive.is has been blocked in China since March 2016, archive.li since September 2017, archive.fo since July 2018. On July 21, 2015, the operators blocked access to the service from all Finnish IP addresses, stating on Twitter that they did this in order to avoid escalating a dispute they had with the Finnish government. In Russia, only HTTP access is possible. CloudFlare's 126.96.36.199 does not resolve archive.is domains. Archive.is records only text and images, excluding video, xml and other non-static content. It keeps track of the history of snapshots saved, returning to the user a request for confirmation before adding a new snapshot of an saved Internet address; the research toolbar enables advanced keywords operators. A couple of quotation marks address the search to an exact sequence of keywords present in the title or in the body of the webpage, whereas the insite operator restricts it to a specific Internet domain. Once a web page is archived, it cannot be deleted directly by any Internet user.
Nevertherless, archive.is controls or deletes web pages saved some days before, without any policy or right of discussion and appeal. While saving a dynamic list, archive.is searchbox shows only a result that links the previous and the following section of the list. The other web pages saved are filtered, sometimes may be found by one of their occurrences. Digital preservation Internet Archive Link rot Perma.cc Wayback Machine Web archiving WebCite WP:Link rot Official website "Offline blog"
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo