A costume designer is a person who designs costumes for a film, stage production or television. The role of the designer is to create the characters and balance the scenes with texture and colour. The costume designer works alongside the director, scenic, lighting designer, sound designer, the costume designer may also collaborate with hair stylist, wig master, or makeup artist. In European theatre, the role is different, as the theatre designer usually designs both costume and scenic elements. Designers typically seek to enhance a characters personality, and to create a plot of colour, changing social status, or period through the visual design of garments. They may distort or enhance the body—within the boundaries of the directors vision, the designer must ensure that the designs let the actor move as the role requires. The actor must execute the directors blocking of the production without damaging the garments, garments must be durable and washable, especially for plays with extend
Costume is the distinctive style of dress of an individual or group that reflects their class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch. The term also was used to describe typical appropriate clothing for certain activities, such as riding costume, swimming costume, dance costume. Appropriate and acceptable costume is subject to changes in fashion and local cultural norms, before the advent of ready-to-wear apparel, clothing was made by hand. Costume comes from the same Italian word, inherited via French, National costume or regional costume expresses local identity and emphasizes a cultures unique attributes. They are often a source of national pride, examples include the Scottish kilt or Japanese kimono. In Bhutan there is a national dress prescribed for men and women. These have been in vogue for thousands of years and have developed into a dress style. The dress worn by men is known as Gho which is a robe worn up to knee-length and is fastened at the waist by a
Costumes of All Nations - Franks A.D. 800 (1882) Examples of a range of costumes suitable for specific individuals at a particular epoch. In later periods, once authentic costume may be revived or copied for theatrical purposes.
King of Bhutan in traditional dress and Bhutanese Women in traditional dress
Stagecraft is the technical aspect of theatrical, film, and video production. It includes constructing and rigging scenery, hanging and focusing of lighting, design and procurement of costumes, make-up, stage management, audio engineering, stagecraft is distinct from the wider umbrella term of scenography. Considered a technical rather than a field, it is primarily the practical implementation of a scenic designers artistic vision. In its most basic form, stagecraft may be executed by a person who arranges all scenery, costumes, lighting, and sound. Regional theatres and larger community theatres will generally have a technical director, modern stagecraft is highly technical and specialized, it comprises many sub-disciplines and a vast trove of history and tradition. Greeks were the earliest recorded practitioners of stagecraft, Skene is Greek, translating roughly into scene or scenery, and refers to a large scenic house, about one story tall, with three doors. On the audience-side of
Early stagecraft master Robert Edmond Jones
(1887-1954) drawing at a waist high table (c. 1920).
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, nonpersonal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are often businesses who wish to promote their products or services, Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser usually pays for and has control over the message. It is differentiated from personal selling in that the message is nonpersonal, the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement or ad. Commercial ads often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, on the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct response advertising. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations. Non-profit organizations may use free modes of persuasion, such as
Bronze plate for printing an advertisement for the Liu family needle shop at Jinan
, Song dynasty
China. It is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium.
LEL flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called Kinseitan
A 1900 advertisement for Pears soap
Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting. In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing, recitative, a style and arias, a more melodic style. Opera incorporates many of the elements of theatre, such as acting, scenery. The performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition, in the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his operas in the 1760s. The first third of the 19th century saw the point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti. It also saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer, the mid-to-late 19
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, novels, film, theater, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago also has sports teams in each of the maj
The Worlds Columbian Exposition was a worlds fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the New World in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago bested New York City, Washington, D. C. the Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture, sanitation, the arts, Chicagos self-image, and American industrial optimism. The layout of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was, in part, designed by John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham, Frederick Law Olmsted. It was the prototype of what Burnham and his colleagues thought a city should be and it was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry, balance, and splendor. The color of the generally used to cover the buildings facades gave the fairgrounds its nickname. Many prominent architects design
Chicago World's Columbian Exposition 1893, with the Republic statue
and Administration Building
The Administration Building, seen from the Agricultural Building
New York Hippodrome
It was called the worlds largest theatre by its builders and had a seating capacity of 5,300, with a 100x200ft stage. The theatre had state-of-the-art theatrical technology, including a glass water tank. The Hippodrome was built by Frederick Thompson and Elmer Dundy, creators of the Luna Park amusement park at Coney Island, blacks U. S. Realty, a dominant real estate and construction company of the time, and was acquired by The Shubert Organization in 1909. In 1933, it was re-opened as the New York Hippodrome cinema, the theatre closed in August 1939 for demolition, and in 1952 a large modern office building known as The Hippodrome Center, opened on the site. Construction of the Hippodrome began in June 1904, with Frederick Thompson and Jay H. Morgan as architects, finishing touches were still being put in place days before the April 12,1905 opening. With a seating capacity of 5300, almost twice that of the Metropolitan Operas 3000 seats and it also had an 14-foot high, 60-foot diamete
The Hippodrome in 1905
The interior of the Hippodrome
The theatre in 1907 on a hand-tinted postcard