Peter Paul Rubens
Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish artist. He is considered the most influential artist of Flemish Baroque tradition. Rubens's charged compositions reference erudite aspects of classical and Christian history, his unique and immensely popular Baroque style emphasized movement and sensuality, which followed the immediate, dramatic artistic style promoted in the Counter-Reformation. Rubens specialized in making altarpieces, portraits and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects. In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat, knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England. Rubens was a prolific artist; the catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were "history paintings", which included religious and mythological subjects, hunt scenes.
He painted portraits of friends, self-portraits, in life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed prints, as well as his own house, he oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria in 1635. His drawings are predominantly forceful and without great detail, he made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. He was one of the last major artists to make consistent use of wooden panels as a support medium for large works, but he used canvas as well when the work needed to be sent a long distance. For altarpieces he sometimes painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Maria Pypelincks, he was named in honour of Saint Paul, because he was born on their solemnity. His father, a Calvinist, mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Habsburg Netherlands by the Duke of Alba. Jan Rubens became the legal adviser of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange, settled at her court in Siegen in 1570, fathering her daughter Christine, born in 1571.
Following Jan Rubens's imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577. The family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his father's death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, where he was raised as a Catholic. Religion figured prominently in much of his work, Rubens became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting. In Antwerp, Rubens received a Renaissance humanist education, studying Latin and classical literature. By fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the city's leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort and Otto van Veen. Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier artists' works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger and Marcantonio Raimondi's engravings after Raphael. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at which time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master.
In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy. He stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga; the colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an immediate effect on Rubens's painting, his mature style was profoundly influenced by Titian. With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601. There, he copied works of the Italian masters; the Hellenistic sculpture Laocoön and His Sons was influential on him, as was the art of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. He was influenced by the recent naturalistic paintings by Caravaggio. Rubens made a copy of Caravaggio's Entombment of Christ and recommended his patron, the Duke of Mantua, to purchase The Death of the Virgin. After his return to Antwerp he was instrumental in the acquisition of The Madonna of the Rosary for the St. Paul's Church in Antwerp. During this first stay in Rome, Rubens completed his first altarpiece commission, St. Helena with the True Cross for the Roman church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme.
Rubens travelled to Spain on a diplomatic mission in 1603, delivering gifts from the Gonzagas to the court of Philip III. While there, he studied the extensive collections of Raphael and Titian, collected by Philip II, he painted an equestrian portrait of the Duke of Lerma during his stay that demonstrates the influence of works like Titian's Charles V at Mühlberg. This journey marked the first of many during his career that combined diplomacy, he returned to Italy in 1604, where he remained for the next four years, first in Mantua and in Genoa and Rome. In Genoa, Rubens painted numerous portraits, such as the Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria, the portrait of Maria di Antonio Serra Pallavicini, in a style that influenced paintings by Anthony van Dyck, Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough, he began a book illustrating the palaces in the city, published in 1622 as Palazzi di Genova. From 1606 to 1608, he was in Rome. During this period Rubens received, with the assistance of Cardinal Jacopo Serra, his most important commission to
Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is one of the home counties; the county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. Inhabited by about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, both the third most populous home county and the third most populous county in the South East. Guildford is considered to be the county town; however despite the town's designation, Surrey County Council has never been based there, being instead seated throughout its history in London. Since the borders of Surrey were altered in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 which created Greater London, none of these places are now in Surrey, marking an example of a de facto capital, located outside of its administrative area. Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge and Ewell, Mole Valley and Banstead, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge and Woking.
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth and death registration, social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and small parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 plus Bromley and Hounslow; the form of Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county due to economic, aesthetic and logistical factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland in England, having been rural since it was shorn in 1965 of the urbanised swathes of South London which had hitherto been part of the county, it has large protected green spaces. It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs; the ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking.
It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057, they are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county counc
Adoration of the Magi (Rubens, Cambridge)
For other treatments of this subject by the same artist, see Adoration of the Magi. The Adoration of the Magi is a 1633-34 painting by the Flemish Baroque artist Peter Paul Rubens, made as an altarpiece for a convent in Louvain, it is now in King's College Cambridge, in England. It measures 4.2 m × 3.2 m. It was painted in 1633-34 as an altarpiece for the chapel at the Convent of the White Nuns in Louvain in the Spanish Netherlands and now in Belgium. A preparatory oil sketch for this painting is in The Wallace London, it was engraved by Hans Witdoeck in 1638. The painting was sold after the 1780 suppression of convents, came into the collection of William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne in England in 1788. After his death it was sold in 1806 to Robert Grosvenor, 2nd Earl Grosvenor and descended through the Grosvenor family; the painting was sold from the estate of Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster at Sotheby's in 1959 and bought for a world-record price of £250,000 by the property millionaire Alfred Ernest Allnatt.
Two years he offered it to King's College, Cambridge. The college accepted "this munificent gift" with the intention of displaying the painting in the college chapel as an altarpiece; the painting was displayed in the college's antechapel, but the decision was taken to modify the east end of the main chapel so it could be installed as an altarpiece. The floor at the east end was lowered by removing the three steps leading up to the altar so the painting would not obscure the chapel's stained glass windows, wooden fittings - oak panelling, a communion rail and reredos installed in 1906 to designs by Detmar Blow - were removed; the changes remain controversial, with criticism of the destruction of "irreplaceable features" causing "incalculable" damage to the buildings spirituality, just so the painting would look good in television broadcasts of the chapel's annual Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols. A wooden triptych frame was created for the painting, which included a new harlequin grisaille, Rubens' painting was installed at the east end of the chapel in 1968, where it remains.
In June 1974 the painting was vandalised, with two-foot-high letters. Adoration of the Magi Adoration of the Magi Adoration of the Magi of 1475 Adoration of the Magi Adoration of the Magi Adoration of the Magi Adoration of the Magi
Turville is a village and civil parish in Buckinghamshire, England. It is in the Chiltern Hills, 5 miles west of High Wycombe and 5 miles north of Henley-on-Thames; the name is Anglo-Saxon in origin and means'dry field'. It was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 796 as Thyrefeld; the manor of Turville once belonged to the abbey at St Albans, but was seized by the Crown in the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1547. The manor house has since been rebuilt as Turville Park; the present incumbent of the manor is Lord Sainsbury. Turville was home to Ellen Sadler, who fell asleep in 1871, aged eleven, purportedly did not wake for nine years, becoming known as the "Sleeping Girl of Turville"; the case attracted international attention from newspapers, medical professionals and the public. Rumours persist in the region that Sadler was visited by royalty for a "laying on of hands"; the local pub is the Bull and Butcher. Turville Hill is a Site of Special Scientific Importance, it includes Cobstone Windmill.
Geoffrey de Turville, Lord Chancellor of Ireland Charles François Dumouriez, French royalist general Ellen Sadler, tourist attraction Lord Sainsbury of Turville, businessman and philanthropist Sir John Mortimer, playwright, novelist The 1942 Ealing Studios film Went the Day Well?, in which German paratroopers invade a small English village, was filmed in Turville, as were many of the scenes from the 1963 comedy film Father Came Too!. Additionally many of the outdoor scenes of television show Goodnight Mr Tom were filmed in Turville, as was the dream scene in Bride and Prejudice, a brief scene from I Capture the Castle. Scenes have been shot in the village for Midsomer Murders, Marple, the 2008 Christmas special of Jonathan Creek, the British drama An Education and the 2009 BBC adaptation of The Day Of The Triffids. Cobstone Windmill in the neighbouring parish of Ibstone, used in Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, overlooks the village of Turville; the village was the location for outdoor scenes in the sitcom The Vicar of Dibley.
In the series, the church of St Mary the Virgin was renamed "St Barnabus". The music video for the song "Apparition" by Stealing Sheep was shot in the village; the fourth episode of the TV series Killing Eve was shot in the village. Turville TV TrailMap sources for Turville
Buckinghamshire, abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county in South East England which borders Greater London to the south east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north east and Hertfordshire to the east. Buckinghamshire is one of the home counties and towns such as High Wycombe, Amersham and the Chalfonts in the east and southeast of the county are parts of the London commuter belt, forming some of the most densely populated parts of the county. Development in this region is restricted by the Metropolitan Green Belt. Other large settlements include the county town of Aylesbury, Marlow in the south near the Thames and Princes Risborough in the west near Oxford; some areas without direct rail links to London, such as around the old county town of Buckingham and near Olney in the northeast, are much less populous. The largest town is Milton Keynes in the northeast, which with the surrounding area is administered as a unitary authority separately to the rest of Buckinghamshire.
The remainder of the county is administered by Buckinghamshire County Council as a non-metropolitan county, four district councils. In national elections, Buckinghamshire is considered a reliable supporter of the Conservative Party. A large part of the Chiltern Hills, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, runs through the south of the county and attracts many walkers and cyclists from London. In this area older buildings are made from local flint and red brick. Many parts of the county are quite affluent and like many areas around London this has led to problems with housing costs: several reports have identified the market town of Beaconsfield as having among the highest property prices outside London. Chequers, a mansion estate owned by the government, is the country retreat of the incumbent Prime Minister. To the north of the county lies rolling countryside in the Vale of Aylesbury and around the Great Ouse; the Thames forms part of the county’s southwestern boundary. Notable service amenities in the county are Pinewood Film Studios, Dorney rowing lake and part of Silverstone race track on the Northamptonshire border.
Many national companies have offices in Milton Keynes. Heavy industry and quarrying is limited, with agriculture predominating after service industries; the name Buckinghamshire means The district of Bucca's home. Bucca's home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, is named after an Anglo-Saxon landowner; the county has been so named since about the 12th century. The history of the area predates the Anglo-Saxon period and the county has a rich history starting from the Celtic and Roman periods, though the Anglo-Saxons had the greatest impact on Buckinghamshire: the geography of the rural county is as it was in the Anglo-Saxon period. Buckinghamshire became an important political arena, with King Henry VIII intervening in local politics in the 16th century and just a century the English Civil War was reputedly started by John Hampden in mid-Bucks; the biggest change to the county came in the 19th century, when a combination of cholera and famine hit the rural county, forcing many to migrate to larger towns to find work.
Not only did this alter the local economic situation, it meant a lot of land was going cheap at a time when the rich were more mobile and leafy Bucks became a popular rural idyll: an image it still has today. Buckinghamshire is a popular home for London commuters, leading to greater local affluence; the expansion of London and coming of the railways promoted the growth of towns in the south of the county such as Aylesbury and High Wycombe, leaving the town Buckingham itself to the north in a relative backwater. As a result, most county institutions are now based in the south of the county or Milton Keynes, rather than in Buckingham; the county can be split into two sections geographically. The south leads from the River Thames up the gentle slopes of the Chiltern Hills to the more abrupt slopes on the northern side leading to the Vale of Aylesbury, a large flat expanse of land, which includes the path of the River Great Ouse; the county includes parts of two of the four longest rivers in England.
The River Thames forms the southern boundary with Berkshire, which has crept over the border at Eton and Slough so that the river is no longer the sole boundary between the two counties. The River Great Ouse rises just outside the county in Northamptonshire and flows east through Buckingham, Milton Keynes and Olney; the main branch of the Grand Union Canal passes through the county as do its arms to Slough, Aylesbury and Buckingham. The canal has been incorporated into the landscaping of Milton Keynes; the southern part of the county is dominated by the Chiltern Hills. The two highest points in Buckinghamshire are Haddington Hill in Wendover Woods at 267 metres above sea level, Coombe Hill near Wendover at 260 metres. Quarrying has taken clay for brickmaking and gravel and sand in the river valleys. Flint extracted from quarries, was used to build older local buildings. Several former quarries, now flooded, have become nature reserves; as can be seen from the table, the Vale of Aylesbury and the Borough of Milton Keynes have been identified as growth areas, with a projected population surge of 40,000 in Aylesbury Vale between 2011 and 2026 and 75,000 in Milton Keynes within the same 15 years.
The population of the Borough of Milton Keynes is expected to reach 350,000 by 2031. Buckinghamshire is sub-divided into civil parishes. Today Bucking
King's College, Cambridge
King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. Formally The King's College of Our Lady and Saint Nicholas in Cambridge, the college lies beside the River Cam and faces out onto King's Parade in the centre of the city. King's was founded in 1441 by Henry VI. However, the King's plans for the college were disrupted by the Wars of the Roses and resultant scarcity of funds, his eventual deposition. Little progress was made on the project until in 1508 Henry VII began to take an interest in the college, most as a political move to legitimise his new position; the building of the college's chapel, begun in 1446, was finished in 1544 during the reign of Henry VIII. King's College Chapel, Cambridge is regarded as one of the greatest examples of late Gothic English architecture, it has the world's largest fan vault, the chapel's stained-glass windows and wooden chancel screen are considered some of the finest from their era. The building is seen as emblematic of Cambridge.
The chapel's choir, composed of male students at King's and choristers from the nearby King's College School, is one of the most accomplished and renowned in the world. Every year on Christmas Eve the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols is broadcast from the chapel to millions of listeners worldwide. On 12 February 1441 King Henry VI issued letters patent founding a college at Cambridge for a rector and twelve poor scholars; this college was to be named upon whose saint day Henry had been born. The first stone of the college's Old Court was laid by the King on Passion Sunday, 2 April 1441, on a site which lies directly north of the modern college and, a garden belonging to Trinity Hall. William Millington, a fellow of Clare College was installed as the rector. Henry directed the publication of the college's first governing statutes in 1443, his original modest plan for the college was abandoned, provision was instead made for a community of seventy fellows and scholars headed by a provost. Henry had belatedly learned of William of Wykeham's 1379 twin foundation of New College and Winchester College, wanted his own achievements to surpass those of Wykeham.
The King had in fact founded Eton College on 11 October 1440, but up until 1443 King's and Eton had been unconnected. However, that year the relationship between the two was remodelled upon Wykeham's successful institutions and the original sizes of the colleges scaled up to surpass Wykeham's. A second royal charter which re-founded the now much larger King's College was issued on 12 July 1443. On 1 September 1444, the Provosts of King's and Eton, the Wardens of Winchester and New College formally signed the Amicabilis Concordia in which they bound their colleges to support one another and financially. Members of King's were to be recruited from Eton; each year, the provost and two fellows travelled to Eton to impartially elect the worthiest boys to fill any vacancies at the college, always maintaining the total number of scholars and fellows at seventy. Membership of King's was a vocation for life. Scholars were eligible for election to the fellowship after three years of probation, irrespective of whether they had achieved a degree or not.
In fact, undergraduates at King's – unlike those from other colleges – did not have to pass university examinations to achieve their BA degree and instead had only to satisfy the college. Every fellow was to study theology, save for two who were to study astronomy, two civil law, four canon law, two medicine. In 1445 a Papal Bull from Eugenius IV exempted college members from parish duties, in 1457 an agreement between the provost and chancellor of the university limited the chancellor's authority and gave the college full jurisdiction over internal matters; the original plans for Old Court were too small to comfortably accommodate the larger college community of the second foundation, so in 1443 Henry began to purchase the land upon which the modern college now sits. The gateway and south range of Old Court had been built, but the rest was completed in a temporary fashion to serve until the new court was ready. However, the new college site would itself be left unfinished and the "temporary" Old Court buildings, arranged to accommodate seventy, served as the permanent residential fabric of the college until the beginning of the 19th century.
Henry's grand design for the new college buildings survives in the 1448 Founder's Will which describes his vision in detail. The new college site was to be centred on a great courtyard, bordered on all sides by adjoining buildings: a chapel to the north. Behind the hall and buttery was to be another courtyard, behind the library a cloistered cemetery including a magnificent bell tower; the first stone of the chapel was laid by the King on St James' Day, 25 July 1446. However, within a decade Henry's engagement in the Wars of the Roses meant that funds began to dry up. By the time of Henry's deposition in 1461, the chapel walls had been raised 60 ft high at the east end but only 8 ft at the west. Work proceeded sporadically until a generation in 1508 when the Founder's nephew Henry VII was prevailed upon to finish the shell o
Newmarket is a market town in the English county of Suffolk 65 miles north of London. It is considered the birthplace and global centre of thoroughbred horse racing and a potential World Heritage Site, it is a major local business cluster, with annual investment rivalling that of the Cambridge Science Park, the other major cluster in the region. It is the largest racehorse training centre in Britain, the largest racehorse breeding centre in the country, home to most major British horseracing institutions, a key global centre for horse health. Two Classic races, an additional three British Champions Series races are held at Newmarket every year; the town has had close royal connections since the time of James I, who built a palace there, was a base for Charles I, Charles II, most monarchs since. The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, visits the town to see her horses in training. Newmarket has over fifty horse training stables, two large racetracks, the Rowley Mile and the July Course, one of the most extensive and prestigious horse training grounds in the world.
The town is home to over 3,500 racehorses, it is estimated that one in every three local jobs is related to horse racing. Palace House, the National Heritage Centre for Horseracing and Sporting Art, the National Horseracing Museum, Tattersalls racehorse auctioneers, two of the world's foremost equine hospitals for horse health, are in the town, surrounded by over sixty horse breeding studs. On account of its leading position in the multibillion-pound horse racing and breeding industry, it is a major export centre. 1200: Newmarket's name was recorded as Novum Forum, a Latin phrase meaning "new market", the English translation was applied to give the town its present name. February 1605: James I first visited, describing it as a "poor little village". 1606 to 1610: James I built the Newmarket Palace, an estate covering an acre of land from the High Street to All Saints’ churchyard, thus established the town as a royal resort. This made Newmarket into a horseracing town. 1619: Inigo Jones was commissioned to build a new lodge for the Prince of Wales.
It was Italianate in style. 1642: In Newmarket Charles I met a parliamentary deputation that demanded his surrender of the armed forces. "By God not for an hour", Charles replied, "You have asked such of me, never asked of a King!" This started the English Civil War. Newmarket remained Royalist throughout the war. Early June 1647: Charles was captured at Holdenby House in Northamptonshire and brought to Newmarket as a prisoner, he was placed under house arrest in the palace while the whole of Cromwell's New Model Army kept guard over the town. 30 January 1649: Charles I was executed. 1649: A survey showed that the palace was in disrepair. 1650: The palace was sold to John Okey, who demolished most of the buildings. 1660: Restoration of Charles II. 1666 to 1685: Charles II visited Newmarket. 1668: Charles II commissioned William Samwell to build a new palace on the High Street. 1670: John Evelyn said that the palace was "meane enough, hardly capable for a hunting house, let alone a royal palace!" October 1677, October 1695: William of Orange visited Newmarket.
Start of the 19th century: The palace was torn down, but a part survives and is now named Palace House. 19th century: Newmarket south of the High Street spread into the parishes of Woodditton and Cheveley in Cambridgeshire. 1894: The county border was moved to accommodate this, has been further altered since. 15 December 1977: An F111-F jet fighter crashed at Exning near Newmarket because of hydraulic failure. About 2011: Time Team excavated on the site of Charles II's palace at Newmarket, found foundations of racehorse stables; the area of Suffolk containing Newmarket is nearly an exclave, with only a narrow strip of territory linking it to the rest of the county. The town was split with one parish - St Mary - in Suffolk, the other - All Saints - in Cambridgeshire; the Local Government Act 1888 made the entirety of Newmarket urban sanitary district part of the administrative county of West Suffolk. The town falls in the Parliamentary constituency West Suffolk and as of 2010 has been represented by Conservative MP Matthew Hancock, the secretary of state for Health & Social Care.
The 1972 Local Government Bill as proposed would have transferred the town to Cambridgeshire. The Local Government Commission for England had suggested in the 1960s that the border around Newmarket be altered, in West Suffolk's favour. Newmarket Urban District Council supported the move to Cambridgeshire, but the government decided to withdraw this proposal and keep the existing boundary, despite intense lobbying from the UDC. Racing at Newmarket has been dated as far back as 1174, making it the earliest known racing venue of post-classical times. King James I increased the popularity of horse racing there, King Charles I followed this by inaugurating the first cup race in 1634; the Jockey Club's clubhouse is in Newmarket. Around 3,000 race horses are stabled around Newmarket. By comparison, the human population is of the order of 15,000 and it is estimated that one in three jobs are connected to horseracing in one way or another. Newmarket has 3 main sections of Heath; the grassland of Newmarket's training grounds has been developed over hundreds of years of careful maintenance, is regarded as some of the finest in the world.
"Racecourse side" is located next to the Rowley Mile Racecourse and is a pr