Andrew Johnson was the 17th president of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson assumed the presidency as he was vice president of the United States at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded, he favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union. His plans did not give protection to the former slaves, he was acquitted in the Senate by one vote. Johnson's main accomplishment as president is the Alaska purchase. Johnson was born in poverty in Raleigh, North Carolina, never attended school. Apprenticed as a tailor, he worked in several frontier towns before settling in Greeneville, Tennessee, he served as alderman and mayor there before being elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1835. After brief service in the Tennessee Senate, Johnson was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1843, where he served five two-year terms, he became Governor of Tennessee for four years, was elected by the legislature to the U.
S. Senate in 1857. In his congressional service, he sought passage of the Homestead Bill, enacted soon after he left his Senate seat in 1862; as Southern slave states, including Tennessee, seceded to form the Confederate States of America, Johnson remained with the Union. He was the only sitting senator from a Confederate state who did not resign his seat upon learning of his state's secession. In 1862, Lincoln appointed him as military governor of Tennessee. In 1864, Johnson, as a War Democrat and Southern Unionist, was a logical choice as running mate for Lincoln, who wished to send a message of national unity in his reelection campaign; when Johnson was sworn in as vice president in March 1865, he gave a rambling speech, after which he secluded himself to avoid public ridicule. Six weeks the assassination of Lincoln made him president. Johnson implemented his own form of Presidential Reconstruction – a series of proclamations directing the seceded states to hold conventions and elections to reform their civil governments.
When Southern states returned many of their old leaders, passed Black Codes to deprive the freedmen of many civil liberties, Congressional Republicans refused to seat legislators from those states and advanced legislation to overrule the Southern actions. Johnson vetoed their bills, Congressional Republicans overrode him, setting a pattern for the remainder of his presidency. Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment. In 1866, Johnson went on an unprecedented national tour promoting his executive policies, seeking to destroy his Republican opponents; as the conflict between the branches of government grew, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, restricting Johnson's ability to fire Cabinet officials. When he persisted in trying to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, he was impeached by the House of Representatives, narrowly avoided conviction in the Senate and removal from office. After failing to win the 1868 Democratic presidential nomination, Johnson left office in 1869. Returning to Tennessee after his presidency, Johnson sought political vindication, gained it in his eyes when he was elected to the Senate again in 1875, making Johnson the only former president to serve in the Senate.
He died months into his term. While some admire Johnson's strict constitutionalism, his strong opposition to federally guaranteed rights for African Americans is criticized, he is regarded by many historians as one of the worst presidents in American history. Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, on December 29, 1808, to Jacob Johnson and Mary McDonough, a laundress, he was of English, Scots-Irish, Irish ancestry. He had a brother William, four years his senior, an older sister Elizabeth, who died in childhood. Johnson's birth in a two-room shack was a political asset in the mid-19th century, he would remind voters of his humble origins. Jacob Johnson was a poor man, as had been his father, William Johnson, but he became town constable of Raleigh before marrying and starting a family. Both Jacob and Mary were illiterate, had worked as tavern servants, while Johnson never attended school. Johnson grew up in poverty. Jacob died of an apparent heart attack while ringing the town bell, shortly after rescuing three drowning men, when his son Andrew was three.
Polly Johnson became the sole support of her family. Her occupation was looked down on, as it took her into other homes unaccompanied. There were rumors that Andrew, who did not resemble his brother or sister, had been fathered by another man. Polly Johnson remarried, to Turner Doughtry, as poor as she was. Johnson's mother apprenticed her son William to James Selby. Andrew became an apprentice in Selby's shop at age ten and was bound to serve until his 21st birthday. Johnson lived with his mother for part of his service, one of Selby's employees taught him rudimentary literacy skills, his education was augmented by citizens who would come to Selby's shop to read to the tailors as they worked. Before he became an apprentice, Johnson came to listen; the readings caused a lifelong love of learning, one of his biographers, Annette Gordon-Reed, suggests that Johnson a gifted public speaker, learned the art as he threaded needles and cut cloth. Johnson was not happy at James Selby's, after about five years, both he and his brother ran away.
Selby responded by placing a r
Battle of Lewis's Farm
The Battle of Lewis's Farm was fought on March 29, 1865, in Dinwiddie County, Virginia near the end of the American Civil War. In climactic battles at the end of the Richmond–Petersburg Campaign referred to as the Siege of Petersburg, starting with Lewis's Farm, the Union Army commanded by Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant dislodged the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia commanded by General Robert E. Lee from defensive lines at Petersburg and the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. Many historians and the United States National Park Service consider the Battle of Lewis's Farm to be the opening battle of the Appomattox Campaign, which resulted in the surrender of Lee's army on April 9, 1865. In the early morning of March 29, 1865, two corps of the Union Army of the Potomac, the V Corps under Major General Gouverneur K. Warren and the II Corps under Major General Andrew A. Humphreys, moved to the south and west of the Union line south of Petersburg toward the end of the Confederate line.
The Confederate defenses were manned by the Fourth Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia under the command of Lieutenant General Richard H. Anderson; the corps only included the division of Major General Bushrod Johnson. Turning north and marching up the Quaker Road toward the Confederate line, Warren's lead brigade, commanded by Brigadier General Joshua Chamberlain, engaged three brigades of Johnson's division at the Lewis Farm. Reinforced by a four-gun artillery battery and relieved by two large regiments from the brigade commanded by Colonel Edgar M. Gregory, the Union troops forced the Confederates back to their defenses and captured an important road junction. Chamberlain narrowly escaped capture. Union Colonel Alfred L. Pearson was awarded the Medal of Honor 32 years for his heroic actions at the battle. Casualties were nearly at 381 for the Union and 371 for the Confederates, but as the battle ended, Warren's corps held an important objective, a portion of the Boydton Plank Road at its junction with the Quaker Road.
Within hours, Major General Philip Sheridan's cavalry corps, still acting apart from the Army of the Potomac as the Army of the Shenandoah, occupied Dinwiddie Court House. This action severed the Boydton Plank Road; the Union forces were close to the Confederate line and poised to attack the Confederate flank, the important road junction of Five Forks and the two Confederate railroad lines to Petersburg and Richmond that remained open to the two cities. On April 2–3, 1865, the Confederates evacuated Petersburg and Richmond and began to move to the west. After a number of setbacks and small battles, but including a significant Confederate defeat at the Battle of Sailor's Creek on April 6, 1865, Lee surrendered his army to Grant and his pursuing Union Army on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Court House, about 25 miles east of Lynchburg, Virginia. By the end of June 1865, all Confederate armies had surrendered and the Confederacy's government had collapsed. On June 15–18, 1864, two Union Army corps, moved unobserved from the stalemated battle lines just north of Richmond across the James River to the south of Petersburg, Virginia.
The Union force which joined with the Union Army of the James at Petersburg failed to seize the city from a small force of Confederate defenders at the Second Battle of Petersburg. By June 18, 1864, the Army of Northern Virginia had reinforced the defenders and the 292-day Richmond–Petersburg Campaign had begun. Grant's strategy had to become a campaign of trench warfare attrition in which the Union forces tried to wear down the Confederate Army, destroy or cut off sources of supply and supply lines to Petersburg and Richmond and to extend the lines which the outnumbered and declining Confederate force had to defend to the breaking point. During the rest of 1864 and early 1865, Grant moved his forces in the Union line south of Petersburg to the west in six more Petersburg offensives with simultaneous attacks at or near the Richmond lines; the Confederates extended their lines to compensate for these moves, but they were stretched thin. With supplies and men hard for Lee to obtain or replace, he knew that his army could not defend Petersburg and Richmond from the growing Union forces indefinitely with the expected arrival of Union reinforcements from recent recruits in training, Major General Philip Sheridan's cavalry divisions from the Shenandoah Valley and even Major General William T. Sherman's armies operating in North Carolina when the roads dried out after spring rains abated.
After the Battle of Hatcher's Run on February 5–7, 1865 extended the lines another 4 miles, Lee had few reserves after manning the new defenses. He knew that part or all of his army must leave the Richmond and Petersburg lines, obtain food and supplies at Danville, Virginia or Lynchburg and join General Joseph E. Johnston's force opposing Sherman's army. If the Confederates could defeat Sherman, they might turn back to oppose Grant before he could combine his forces with the remainder of Sherman's. Lee began preparations for the movement and informed Confederate President Jefferson Davis and Confederate States Secretary of War John C. Breckinridge of his conclusions and plan. Lee accepted Major General John B. Gordon's proposal to attempt to break the Union lines and threaten their supply base at City Point, Virginia by attacking along a narrow front near Fort Stedman, east of Petersburg and south of the Appomattox River, in order to compel Grant to shorten his lines, at least temporarily. If successful, this could gi
Colonel (United States)
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank above the rank of lieutenant colonel and below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services; the pay grade for colonel is O-6. The insignia of the rank of colonel, as seen on the right, is worn on the officer's left side. By law, a colonel must have 22 years of service and a minimum of three years of service as a lieutenant colonel before being promoted; the insignia for a colonel is a silver eagle, a stylized representation of the eagle dominating the Great Seal of the United States. As on the Great Seal, the eagle has a U. S. shield superimposed on its chest and is holding an olive branch and bundle of arrows in its talons. However, in simplification of the Great Seal image, the insignia lacks the scroll in the eagle's mouth and the rosette above its head. On the Great Seal, the olive branch is always clutched in the eagle's right-side talons, while the bundle of arrows is always clutched in the left-side talons.
The head of the eagle faces towards the olive branch, rather than the arrows, advocating peace rather than war. As a result, the head of the eagle always faces towards the viewer's left. However, when worn as a single insignia with no matching pair, such as on the patrol cap, garrison cap/flight cap, or the front of the Army ACU, there is a split between the services on which mirror image of the eagle should be worn. In the United States Army and United States Air Force, the eagle is always worn with "the head of the eagle to the wearer's right," with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's right hand talons. In the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard and NOAA, the eagle is worn with "the head facing forward" on the wearer's right side of the garrison cover. Since respective service's officer insignia is worn on the left side and the rank insignia is worn on the right hand side of the Marine, Coast Guard and NOAA garrison caps, the eagle is facing to the eagle's left with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's left hand talons, a mirror opposite to the wear of the single eagle for Army and Air Force officers.
The United States rank of colonel is a direct successor to the same rank in the British Army. The first colonels in the U. S. were appointed from Colonial militias maintained as reserves to the British Army in the North American colonies. Upon the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, colonial legislatures would grant commissions to men to raise a regiment and serve as its colonel. Thus, the first U. S. colonels were respected men with ties in local communities and active in politics. With the post-war reduction of the U. S. Army, the rank of colonel disappeared, was not re-introduced until 1802; the first insignia for the rank of colonel consisted of gold epaulettes worn on the blue uniform of the Continental Army. The first recorded use of the eagle insignia was in 1805 as this insignia was made official in uniform regulations by 1810; the rank of colonel was rare in the early 19th century because the U. S. Army was small, the rank was obtained only after long years of service. During the War of 1812 the Army grew and many colonels were appointed, but most of these colonels were discharged when their regiments were disbanded at the war's conclusion.
A number of other colonels were appointed by brevet - an honorary promotion for distinguished service in combat. The American Civil War saw a large influx of colonels as the rank was held in both the Confederate army and Union Army by those who commanded a regiment. Since most regiments were state formations and were raised, the colonels in command of the regiments were known by the title "Colonel of Volunteers," in contrast to Regular Army colonels who held permanent commissions. During the Civil War, the Confederate Army maintained a unique insignia for colonel, three stars worn on the collar of a uniform. Robert E. Lee wore this insignia due to his former rank in the United States Army and refused to wear the insignia of a Confederate general, stating that he would only accept permanent promotion when the South had achieved independence. After the Civil War, the rank of colonel again became rare as the forces of the United States Army became small. However, many colonels were appointed in the volunteers during the Spanish–American War, prominent among them Theodore Roosevelt and David Grant Colson.
World War I and World War II saw the largest numbers of colonels appointed in the U. S. military. This was due to the temporary ranks of the National Army and the Army of the United States, where those who would hold the rank of Captain in the peacetime Regular Army were thrust into the rank of colonel during these two wars; the Military Promotion System was revised and standardized for all the services in 1980 as a result of passage of the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act. Modern U. S. colonels command Army infantry, armor, aviation or other types of brigades, USMC regiments, Marine Expeditionary Units or Marine Aircraft Groups, USAF groups or wings. An Army colonel commands brigade-sized units, with another colonel or a lieutenant colonel as deputy commander, a major
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
Sewickley is a borough in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 12 miles west northwest of Pittsburgh along the Ohio River. It is a residential suburb of Pittsburgh; the population was 3,827 at the 2010 census. The Sewickley Bridge crosses the Ohio River at Sewickley. Sewickley is thought by some to be a Native American word meaning "sweet water." Historians dispute if Native Americans were referring to the Ohio River as the "sweet water" or instead to the syrup derived from a local abundance of maple trees. Alternatively, historian Charles A. Hanna suggested "Sewickley" came from Creek words for "raccoon" and "town". According to Hanna, the Asswikale branch of the Shawnee borrowed their name from the neighboring Sawokli Muscogee before the former's migration from present-day South Carolina to Pennsylvania. Contemporary accounts from noted anthropologist Frederick Webb Hodge and the Sewickley Presbyterian Church, as well as the current Sewickley Valley Historical Society concur to varying degrees with Mr. Hanna's etymology.
Sewickley is located at 40°32.2′N 80°10.5′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.1 square miles, of which, 1.0 square mile of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Sewickley has four land borders with Edgeworth to the northwest, Glen Osborne to the southwest, Sewickley Heights to the northeast, Aleppo Township to the east. Across the Ohio River, Sewickley runs adjacent with Moon Township and Coraopolis with the Sewickley Bridge as the direct link to the former. Along with the four land borders, plus Bell Acres, Haysville, Leet Township, Sewickley Hills, Sewickley is located in the Quaker Valley School District. Together, these boroughs and townships constitute a loosely defined region in northwestern Allegheny County. Most of these municipalities – not including Leetsdale and parts of Leet Township – share the Sewickley post office and its 15143 zip code; the population of Sewickley peaked with over 6,000 residents. As of the 2010 census, there were 3,827 people with 1,765 households and 950 families residing in the borough's 1,965 housing units.
The racial makeup of the borough was 88.8% White, 7.3% African American, with the remainder of other races or multi-racial. No other single race represented more than 2% of the population. Hispanics represented less than 2% of the population. According to the 2011–15 American Community Survey, the median household income in the borough was about $91,735 and the median family income was $118,507; the per capita income for the borough was about $54,149. Sewickley is divided into wards and is governed by a mayor and a nine-member borough council composed of three members from each ward. Members are elected to four-year terms; the current mayor of Sewickley is Brian F. Jeffe. There are several private schools in the area, including Sewickley Academy, St. James Catholic School, Eden Christian Academy, Montessori Children's Community; the public school system, Quaker Valley School District, is renowned for an innovative laptop-technology grant received in 2000 from former Pennsylvania governor Tom Ridge.
Quaker Valley School District is regarded as one of the best and academically top-ranked school districts in the nation. In the spring of 2006, U. S. News & World Report ranked Quaker Valley High School among the top 2% of high schools nationwide; the Sewickley Public Library of the Quaker Valley School District is a Library Journal Star Library for the third year in a row and is continuously one of the top 25 largest libraries in the Pittsburgh Business Times Book of Lists. Sewickley is home to Sewickley Valley Hospital, part of the Heritage Valley Health System. Mario Lemieux, former Pittsburgh Penguins player, lives here Sidney Crosby, current Penguins stars, lives here Evgeni Malkin, current Penguins stars, lives here Sergei Gonchar, Penguins assistant coach and former player, lives here Mike Tomczak, former Steelers Quarterback Franco Harris, retired Pittsburgh Steeler legend, lives in Sewickley, Dan Cortese and former MTV VJ Michael Cerveris and musician Chuck Noll, longtime NFL head coach legend, lived here, Tom Barrasso, former Penguins goalie William Fitzsimmons, Musician hails from the borough.
Keith Rothfus, former U. S. Representative for Pennsylvania's 12th district, lives in Sewickley. Chuck Knox, Former NFL head coach was raised in Sewickley. Caitlin Clarke and film star, lived in Sewickley since the age of 10. Charles I. Murray, Brigadier General, USMC. A recipient of Navy Cross and Army Distinguished Service Cross. Kathleen Tessaro, lives here Parts of the movies Houseguest and The Mothman Prophecies were filmed in the Sewickley area. Houseguest in particular was filmed in many locations on Sewickley's main streets, Broad Street and Beaver Street; the Bruegger's Bagels on Beaver Street was transformed into a McDonald's during shooting. Scenes from Jack Reacher, starring Tom Cruise, The Lifeguard, starring Kristen Bell, were filmed in the town near the Sewickley Heights Manor. Foxcatcher, starring Steve Carell, Mark Ruffalo, Channing Tatum, began filming in the Sewickley area in October 2012; the fictional 1/24 scale town of Elgin Park, by artist and photographer Michael Paul Smith, is based on the town of Sewickley.
List of cities and towns along the Ohio River Sewickley travel guide from Wikivoyage Borough of Sewickley website / marketing campaign for Sewickley including a store directory and event calendar Post-Gazette article on Sewickley Garden Tour
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
In the United States, a district attorney is the chief prosecutor for a local government area a county. The exact name of the office varies by state. Except in the smallest counties, a district attorney leads a staff of prosecutors, who are most known as deputy district attorneys; the Deputy who serves as the supervisor of the office is called the Assistant District Attorney. The majority of prosecutions will be delegated to DDAs, with the district attorney prosecuting the most important cases and having overall responsibility for their agency and its work. Depending upon the system in place, DAs may be appointed by the chief executive of the jurisdiction or elected by local voters; the district attorney, assistant district attorneys under the district attorney’s authority, are the attorneys representing a government body as prosecutors who are responsible for presenting cases against individuals and groups who are suspected of breaking the law and directing further criminal investigations and recommending the sentencing of offenders, are the only attorneys allowed to participate in grand jury proceedings.
The United States Judiciary Act of 1789, Section 35, provided for the appointment of a person in each judicial district to prosecute federal crimes and to represent the United States in all civil actions to which it was a party. There were 13 districts to cover the 11 States that had by that time ratified the constitution; each State was a district, except for Virginia which formed two. Districts were added; the statute did not confer a title upon these local agents of federal authority, but subsequent statutes and court decisions referred to them most as "district attorneys". In 1948, the Judicial Code adopted the term "United States attorneys"; this term for a prosecutor originates with the traditional use of the term "district" for multi-county prosecutorial jurisdictions in several U. S. states. For example, New York appointed prosecutors to multi-county districts prior to 1813. After those states broke up such districts and started appointing or electing prosecutors for individual counties, they continued to use the title "district attorney" for the most senior prosecutor in a county rather than switch to "county attorney".
District attorney and assistant district attorney are the most common titles for state prosecutors, are used by several major jurisdictions within the United States, such as California, Georgia, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. In St. Louis, the title is circuit attorney, while in St. Louis County, the title is prosecuting attorney. Alternative titles for the office include commonwealth's attorney, state's attorney, county attorney, circuit solicitor, or county prosecutor. In the United Kingdom, the equivalent position to a district attorney is a chief crown prosecutor, the equivalent to an assistant district attorney is a crown prosecutor; these prosecutors work under the Crown Prosecution Service in England and Wales, the Procurator Fiscal in Scotland, the Director of Public Prosecutions in Northern Ireland. In many other countries, the title of the chief prosecuting officer is Director of Public Prosecutions. In Canada, the equivalent position to a district attorney is a crown attorney, crown counsel or Crown Prosecutor depending on the province, the equivalent to an assistant district attorney is the assistant crown attorney, assistant crown counsel or assistant crown prosecutor respectively.
The assistant district attorney, or state prosecutor, is a law enforcement official who represents the state government on behalf of the district attorney in investigating and prosecuting individuals alleged to have committed a crime. In carrying out their duties to enforce state and local laws, ADAs have the authority to investigate persons, issue subpoenas, file formal criminal charges, plea bargain with defendants, grant immunity to witnesses and accused criminals. Administrative assistant district attorney, executive assistant district attorney, chief assistant district attorney, or first assistant district attorney are some of the titles given to the senior ADA leadership working under the DA; the chief ADA or first ADA, depending on the office, is considered the second-in-command, reports directly to the DA. The exact roles and job assignments for each title vary with each individual office, but include management of the daily activities and supervision of specialized divisions within the office.
A senior ADA may oversee or prosecute some of the larger crimes within the jurisdiction. In some offices, the Exec ADA has the responsibility of hiring lawyers and support staff, as well as supervising press-releases and overseeing the work of the office; some District Attorneys maintain their own law enforcement arm whose members are sworn peace officers. Depending on the jurisdiction, they are referred to as District Attorney Investigators or county detectives. List of district attorneys by county Allegheny County District Attorney Baltimore County State's Attorney Bronx County District Attorney Commonwealth's attorney Cook County State's Attorney Dallas County District Attorney Denver District Attorney's Office District Attorney of Philadelphia Essex County Prosecutor's Office King County Prosecuting Attorney Kings County District Attorney Law and order Los Angeles County District Attorney Milwaukee County District Attorney New York County District Attorney Prosecuting Attorney of Honolulu Queens County District Attorney Richmond County District Attorney San Diego County District Attor