Brisbane Ranges National Park
The Brisbane Ranges National Park is a national park in the Barwon South West region of Victoria, The 7,718-hectare national park is situated 80 kilometres west of Melbourne near the town of Meredith and is managed by Parks Victoria. The park covers part of an area of hills of moderate elevation; the park features a number of walking tracks, of which the walk through Anakie Gorge is the most popular. Other attractions include the Ted Errey Nature Wadawurrung walk. Flat and suitable for those of moderate fitness, the walk features views of the Gorge itself and the presence of koalas and wallabies in their wild state; some of the resident wallabies are unafraid of tourists and may study the passing visitors. In January 2006, lightning sparked a bushfire in the Steiglitz historical area which soon spread throughout the Brisbane Ranges. Despite lengthy efforts to control the fire from Department of Sustainability and Environment, Parks Victoria and the Country Fire Authority fire fighters, the blaze incinerated 6,700 hectares of parkland and destroyed two houses without loss of human life.
A subsequent bushfire one year also threatened much of the national park. Protected areas of Victoria Parks Victoria official Brisbane Ranges site Friends of Brisbane Ranges
Syzygium smithii is a summer-flowering, winter-fruiting evergreen tree, belonging to the myrtle family Myrtaceae. It shares the common name "lilly pilly" with several other plants. In New Zealand, it is known as'monkey apple', it is planted as shrubs or hedgerows, features: rough, woody bark. Unpruned, it will grow about 3–5 m tall in the garden. Syzygium smithii's name dates from its 1789 description as Eugenia smithii by French botanist Jean Louis Marie Poiret, its specific name honouring James Edward Smith, who had described it two years earlier as E. elliptica. The name was unusable due to that combination having been used for another species, it gained its current binomial name in 1893 when reclassified in the genus Syzygium by German botanist Franz Josef Niedenzu, since 2009 the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria Australian Plant Census has confirmed the recognition of this current name. The species has been known for many years as Acmena smithii, still used in NSW as of 2009, in Qld as of July 2013, it still occurs today on many older web pages.
Common names include lilly pilly, coast satinash, Eungella gum, in the timber trade, lilipilli satinash. Syzygium smithii grows as a tree to 20 m high by 5–15 m wide, with a trunk attaining a diameter of 70 cm; the largest tree was recorded at Dingo Creek Flora Reserve, south of Tenterfield, being 30 m tall and a trunk 60 cm wide. The trunk is sometimes buttressed; the bark flakes off easily. Its dark green shiny leaves are arranged oppositely on the stems, are lanceolate or ovate and measure 2–10 by 1–3 cm; the cream-white flowers appear from October to March, occurring in panicles at the end of small branches. Berries follow on, appearing from May to August, are oval or globular with a shallow depression at the top, they measure 0.8 to 2 cm in diameter, range from white to maroon in colour. A distinctive narrow leaved form with thin leaves 3–6 cm long is found along rainforest riverbanks from Sydney northwards through Queensland, a small leaved form with leaves measuring 1.6–6 cm found in dryer rainforests from Colo Heights near Sydney north to the Bunya Mountains.
Syzygium smithii is found in rainforest from the Windsor Tableland in north-east Queensland south through New South Wales and Victoria to Wilsons Promontory. Associated trees species include bangalow palm, black wattle, blueberry ash, sweet pittosporum and kanuka. Stunted coastal plants are associated with coast banksia. In New Zealand, where it is known as "monkey apple", the species has become naturalised in forest and scrub and has been classified as an "unwanted organism". In the Waikato region, at least, it can outgrow native canopy tree species such as puriri and taraire, become the permanent canopy; the Australian king parrot, crimson rosella, rose-crowned fruit-dove, superb fruit-dove, topknot pigeon, white-headed pigeon, wonga pigeon, satin bowerbird, pied currawong have all been recorded eating the berries as well as brushtail possums and flying foxes. In New Zealand, wood pigeons disperse the seeds; the leaf-mining larvae of the moth species Pectinivalva acmenae feed on the leaves.
Other moth larvae that feed on the leaves include the species Agriophara horrida, Cryptophasa pultenae and Macarostola formosa. The species was introduced into cultivation as Eugenia elliptica at the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew by Sir Joseph Banks in 1790. Syzygium smithii is grown in cultivation as a specimen tree. Noted American landscape architect Thomas Church used the species in gardens that he created in the San Francisco Bay Area in the 1950s; these were clipped to shape. The species has been used as a subject for bonsai. Of the several species grown in cultivation, S. smithii is one of the more resistant to attacks by psyllids. The species can tolerate full shade. Established plants withstand moderate frost. Syzygium smithii is listed as a fire retardant species by such authorities as Gosford Council NSW, NSW Fire Service and the Country Fire Authority. A number of forms have been selected for cultivation, including the following:'Allyn Magic', a compact form of var. minor with greyed-orange new foliage bred by Noel Jupp of East Gresford, New South Wales.'Elizabeth Isaacs', a smaller cultivar that has new growth flushes with a combination of pink, green and cream-margined leaves.'Firescreen', a select, fast growing, broad leaf form.
Glossy, copper–red new foliage growth is encouraged by a regular prune and feed, maturing to mid green. Selected for hedging from 1.2 m high, Firescreen has a semi-pendulous, dense habit, a short leaf internode and holds its foliage all the way to the ground. Unpruned height over 6 metres. Can be used as a pot specimen for topiary or as a standard. Firescreen tolerates full sun to shade, windy conditions, heat waves and cold to -2 °C and it is psyllid and borer resistant. Bred by Tracey and Stuart Knowland of Bangalow Wholesale Nursery NSW, with plant breeders' rights granted in 2010.'Hedgemaster' is a compact shrubby form reaching a metre tall and 0.5 m wide. It has a bushy dense habit and small leaves, can be used in topiary or formal hedging, it was
Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park
The Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park is a national park, located in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. The 21,650-hectare national park is situated 275 kilometres northeast of Melbourne, extends west from Beechworth across the Hume Freeway and the Albury-Melbourne railway line to the west of Chiltern; the park was established under the National Parks Act, 2002 to protect a diverse range of threatened species and ecosystems. The distinctive features of the park include the Woolshed Falls, picturesque Mt Pilot summit, culturally significant Aboriginal rock art at Yeddonba and historical relics of the goldmining era scattered throughout; the park is used for a number of recreational activities including bushwalking, trail riding, rock climbing, camping, bird watching and prospecting. At the time of European settlement, box-ironbark forests covered 3,000,000 hectares or 13% of Victoria; as a result of settlement, nearly 80% of these forests were cleared and the remaining areas were badly degraded by grazing.
The forests of the Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park are living testament to these claims with some of its natural systems deteriorated as a result of grazing, clearing and mining. When gold was discovered in the area during the mid 1800s, extensive alluvial and reef mining, quartz mining and gravel quarrying began. Fossicking and gem hunting are still permitted within the park today. Evidence of these activities including disturbed ground, mullock heaps and old mineshafts may be found scattered throughout the park. Pastoralists driving cattle through Chiltern, known at the time as Black Dog Creek, discovered the forests of box and ironbark during the 1930s; the species were renowned for their strong durable timber and soon felled for fencing and firewood. In fact, firewood collection continued until 2002. A landscape, dominated by large, mature trees and grassy forest floors deteriorated into packed stands of multi-stemmed coppice regrowth; the clearing of land for agriculture and grazing impacted negatively on this landscape.
Grazing continued through the Chiltern section of the park until the 1980s and the Mt Pilot section until the 1990s. Common problems associated with these activities including the introduction of pest species, soil compaction and erosion, increased salinity and habitat fragmentation were all reported as a result; the Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park is an amalgamation of two separate parks, each with distinct geological and ecological profiles. The Chiltern Regional Park, first known as the Chiltern State Park, was a 4,250-hectare Box-ironbark forest, reserved in 1980 following the 1977 Land Conservation Council recommendations; the Mt Pilot Multipurpose Park was established under the 1977 LCC recommendations. The Environment Conservation Council replaced the LCC in 1997 and gave rise to the Chiltern Box-ironbark National Park of 4,320 hectares; when the Victorian State parliament gave assent to the National Parks Act, 2002 it initiated the creation of a protected system of parks and reserves.
The Chiltern Box-ironbark National Park and the Mt Pilot Multipurpose Park, in addition to Woolshed falls and surrounding land, were brought together to form Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park as it is known today. The Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park falls within the Victorian Riverina and Northern Inland Slopes sub-bioregions; the Chiltern section of the park comprises low-lying hills formed from Ordovician sedimentary rock which are distinctly contrast to the rugged Devonian granite of the Mt Pilot section. The park protects a total 18 ecological vegetation classes of which four are threatened: Box-Ironbark, Spring-soak Woodland, Gilgai Plain Woodland/Wetland Mosaic and the Valley Grassy Forest; the park supports over 600 native species of flora and has the most intact assemblage of fauna with more birds and reptiles recorded than any other Box-ironbark forest. Most notably, the Chiltern-Mt Pilot National Park provides a critical habitat for the recovery of the barking owl and brush-tailed phascogale.
It is part of the Warby–Chiltern Box–Ironbark region Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for the conservation of Box–Ironbark forest ecosystems and several species of threatened woodland birds dependent on them. The park supports a diverse range of native fauna with 276 different species of mammals and reptiles being reported; as well as common species including the grey kangaroo and laughing kookaburra, the park is home to 43 fauna species listed as threatened. Some significant species are described in more detail below; the squirrel glider is a small to medium-sized arboreal marsupial that occupies a vast range of habitats throughout Eastern Australia. It is listed as a threatened species under the FFG Act 1988; the gliders have specific feeding and nesting requirements and use trees to move through the landscape. They are susceptible to changes in forest conditions. Squirrel gliders have a reported home range size of 3.9 hectares in northeast Victoria.
This size can vary and is influenced by the availability of food and the quality of the forest habitat. The glider’s diet consists of arthropods and insect exudates with foraging ac
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are colourful and fragrant known as the orchid family. Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants; the Orchidaceae have about 28,000 accepted species, distributed in about 763 genera. The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, because verified data on the members of such enormous families are continually in flux. Regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of bony fishes and is more than twice the number of bird species, about four times the number of mammal species; the family encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants. The largest genera are Bulbophyllum, Epidendrum and Pleurothallis, it includes Vanilla–the genus of the vanilla plant, the type genus Orchis, many cultivated plants such as Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species into cultivation in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.
Orchids are distinguished from other plants, as they share some evident, shared derived characteristics, or synapomorphies. Among these are: bilateral symmetry of the flower, many resupinate flowers, a nearly always modified petal, fused stamens and carpels, small seeds. All orchids are perennial herbs, they can grow according to two patterns: Monopodial: The stem grows from a single bud, leaves are added from the apex each year and the stem grows longer accordingly. The stem of orchids with a monopodial growth can reach several metres in length, as in Vanda and Vanilla. Sympodial: Sympodial orchids have a front and a back; the plant produces a series of adjacent shoots, which grow to a certain size and stop growing and are replaced. Sympodial orchids grow laterally following the surface of their support; the growth continues by development of new leads, with their own leaves and roots, sprouting from or next to those of the previous year, as in Cattleya. While a new lead is developing, the rhizome may start its growth again from a so-called'eye', an undeveloped bud, thereby branching.
Sympodial orchids may have visible pseudobulbs joined by a rhizome, which creeps along the top or just beneath the soil. Terrestrial orchids may form corms or tubers; the root caps of terrestrial orchids are white. Some sympodial terrestrial orchids, such as Orchis and Ophrys, have two subterranean tuberous roots. One is used as a food reserve for wintry periods, provides for the development of the other one, from which visible growth develops. In warm and humid climates, many terrestrial orchids do not need pseudobulbs. Epiphytic orchids, those that grow upon a support, have modified aerial roots that can sometimes be a few meters long. In the older parts of the roots, a modified spongy epidermis, called velamen, has the function of absorbing humidity, it can have a silvery-grey, white or brown appearance. In some orchids, the velamen includes spongy and fibrous bodies near the passage cells, called tilosomes; the cells of the root epidermis grow at a right angle to the axis of the root to allow them to get a firm grasp on their support.
Nutrients for epiphytic orchids come from mineral dust, organic detritus, animal droppings and other substances collecting among on their supporting surfaces. The base of the stem of sympodial epiphytes, or in some species the entire stem, may be thickened to form a pseudobulb that contains nutrients and water for drier periods; the pseudobulb has a smooth surface with lengthwise grooves, can have different shapes conical or oblong. Its size is variable; some Dendrobium species have long, canelike pseudobulbs with short, rounded leaves over the whole length. With ageing, the pseudobulb becomes dormant. At this stage, it is called a backbulb. Backbulbs still hold nutrition for the plant, but a pseudobulb takes over, exploiting the last reserves accumulated in the backbulb, which dies off, too. A pseudobulb lives for about five years. Orchids without noticeable pseudobulbs are said to have growths, an individual component of a sympodial plant. Like most monocots, orchids have simple leaves with parallel veins, although some Vanilloideae have reticulate venation.
Leaves may be ovate, lanceolate, or orbiculate, variable in size on the individual plant. Their characteristics are diagnostic, they are alternate on the stem folded lengthwise along the centre, have no stipules. Orchid leaves have siliceous bodies called stegmata in the vascular bundle sheaths and are fibrous; the structure of the leaves corresponds to the specific habitat of the plant. Species that bask in sunlight, or grow on sites which can be very dry, have thick, leathery leaves and the laminae are covered by a waxy cuticle to retain their necessary water supply. Shade-loving species, on the other hand, have thin leaves; the leaves of most orchids are perennial, that is, they live for several years, while others those with plicate leaves as in Catasetum, shed them annually and de
Cann River, Victoria
Cann River is a town in the East Gippsland region of Victoria in Australia. The town is located on the Cann River at the junction of the Princes Highway and the Monaro Highway, in the Shire of East Gippsland. At the 2016 census, Cann River had a population of 194 people; the town is close to the Lind, Coopracambra and Alfred national parks, is a popular stopping point for travellers between Melbourne and Sydney using the Princes Highway route. Public transport services are provided to the town by V/Line, a coach bus service between Canberra and Bairnsdale, that operates three times per week; the post office opened on 1 July 1890. In the 2016 Census, there were 194 people in Cann River. 85.3% of people were born in Australia and 86.3% of people spoke only English at home. Cann River East Branch Australian Places - Cann River "Cann River website". Archived from the original on 2014-01-11. Retrieved 2014-01-11
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Sarcochilus falcatus known as the orange blossom orchid, is a small epiphytic or lithophytic orchid, endemic to eastern Australia. It has up to eight, leathery leaves with fine teeth on the edges and up to twelve white to cream-coloured flowers with a white labellum that has orange and purple markings. Sarcochilus falcatus is a small epiphytic or lithophytic herb with a stem 40–80 mm long with between three and eight leathery curved leaves 60–160 mm long and 15–20 mm wide with fine teeth on the edges. Between three and twelve white to cream-coloured, fragrant flowers 20–30 mm long and wide are arranged on an arching flowering stem 70–180 mm long; the sepals and petals are egg-shaped, spread apart from each other and are 10–16 mm long and 5–7 mm wide. The labellum is white with 4 -- 6 mm long with three lobes; the side lobes are erect, about 7 mm long and 5 mm wide and the middle lobe is short and fleshy. Flowering occurs between October. Sarcochilus falcatus was first formally described in 1810 by Robert Brown who published the description in Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen.
It was the first species of Sarcochilus to be is therefore the type species. The specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "sickle-shaped" or "curved", referring to the shape of the leaves; the orange blossom orchid grows on trees but sometimes on rocks in places exposed to air movement and drizzly weather. It grows in the Cedar Bay National Park in Queensland and south to the coast and nearby tablelands of New South Wales, it occurs in the far north-eastern corner of Victoria. This orchid is classed as "endangered" under the Victorian Government Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988