Province of Saxony
The Province of Saxony known as Prussian Saxony was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1816 until 1945. Its capital was Magdeburg, it was formed by the merger of various territories ceded or returned to Prussia in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna: most of the former northern territories of the Kingdom of Saxony, the former French Principality of Erfurt, the Duchy of Magdeburg, the Altmark, the Principality of Halberstadt, some other districts. The province was bounded by the Electorate of Hesse, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick to the west, Hanover to the north, Brandenburg to the north and west, Silesia to the south-east, the rump kingdom of Saxony and the small Ernestine duchies to the south, its shape was irregular and it surrounded enclaves of Brunswick and some of the Ernestine duchies. It possessed several exclaves, was entirely bisected by the Duchy of Anhalt save for a small corridor of land around Aschersleben; the river Havel ran along the north-eastern border with Brandenburg north of Plaue but did not follow the border exactly.
The majority of the population was Protestant, with a Catholic minority considered part of the diocese of Paderborn. The province sent 20 members to the Reichstag and 38 delegates to the Prussian House of Representatives; the province was created in 1816 out of the following territories: the Prussian lands which lay to the west of the Havel river. Several small territories which were former Hannovarian enclaves within the Altmark, centred around Klötze, and, part of the Kingdom of Westphalia from 1807–1813 a small amount of territory on the left bank of the Havel that had belonged to Anhalt-Dessau The Province of Saxony was one of the richest regions of Prussia, with developed agriculture and industry. In 1932, the province was enlarged with the addition of the regions around Ilfeld and Elbingerode, part of the Province of Hanover. On 1 July 1944, the Province of Saxony was divided along the lines of its three administrative regions; the Erfurt Regierungsbezirk was merged with the Herrschaft Schmalkalden district of the Province of Hesse-Nassau and given to the state of Thuringia.
The Magdeburg Regierungsbezirk became the Province of Magdeburg, the Merseburg Regierungsbezirk became the Province of Halle-Merseburg. In 1945, the Soviet military administration combined Magdeburg and Halle-Merseburg with the State of Anhalt into the Province of Saxony-Anhalt, with Halle as its capital; the eastern part of the Blankenburg exclave of Brunswick and the Thuringian exclave of Allstedt were added to Saxony-Anhalt. In 1947, Saxony-Anhalt became a state; the East German states, including Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt, were abolished in 1952, but they were recreated as part of the reunification of Germany in 1990 as modern states of Germany. Prior to 1944, the province of Saxony was divided into three Regierungsbezirke. In 1945, only the provinces of Magdeburg and Halle-Merseburg were re-merged. Urban districts Aschersleben Burg bei Magdeburg Halberstadt Magdeburg Quedlinburg Stendal Rural districts Calbe a./S. Gardelegen Haldensleben Jerichow I Jerichow II Oschersleben Osterburg Quedlinburg Salzwedel Stendal Wanzleben Wernigerode Wolmirstedt Urban districts Eisleben Halle a. d.
Saale Merseburg Naumburg a. d. Saale Weißenfels Wittenberg Zeitz Rural districts Bitterfeld Delitzsch Eckartsberga Liebenwerda Mansfelder Gebirgskreis Mansfelder Seekreis Merseburg Querfurt Saalkreis Sangerhausen Schweinitz Torgau Weißenfels Wittenberg Zeitz Urban districts Erfurt Mühlhausen Nordhausen Rural districts Hohenstein county Heiligenstadt Langensalza Mühlhausen Schleu
Pierre de Fermat
Pierre de Fermat was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, a mathematician, given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, analogous to that of differential calculus unknown, his research into number theory, he made notable contributions to analytic geometry and optics. He is best known for his Fermat's principle for light propagation and his Fermat's Last Theorem in number theory, which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of Diophantus' Arithmetica. Fermat was born in the first decade of the 17th century in Beaumont-de-Lomagne, France—the late 15th-century mansion where Fermat was born is now a museum, he was from Gascony, where his father, Dominique Fermat, was a wealthy leather merchant, served three one-year terms as one of the four consuls of Beaumont-de-Lomagne. His mother was Claire de Long.
Pierre had one brother and two sisters and was certainly brought up in the town of his birth. There is little evidence concerning his school education, but it was at the Collège de Navarre in Montauban, he attended the University of Orléans from 1623 and received a bachelor in civil law in 1626, before moving to Bordeaux. In Bordeaux he began his first serious mathematical researches, in 1629 he gave a copy of his restoration of Apollonius's De Locis Planis to one of the mathematicians there. In Bordeaux he was in contact with Beaugrand and during this time he produced important work on maxima and minima which he gave to Étienne d'Espagnet who shared mathematical interests with Fermat. There he became much influenced by the work of François Viète. In 1630, he bought the office of a councillor at the Parlement de Toulouse, one of the High Courts of Judicature in France, was sworn in by the Grand Chambre in May 1631, he held this office for the rest of his life. Fermat thereby became entitled to change his name from Pierre Fermat to Pierre de Fermat.
Fluent in six languages, Fermat was praised for his written verse in several languages and his advice was eagerly sought regarding the emendation of Greek texts. He communicated most of his work in letters to friends with little or no proof of his theorems. In some of these letters to his friends he explored many of the fundamental ideas of calculus before Newton or Leibniz. Fermat was a trained lawyer making mathematics more of a hobby than a profession, he made important contributions to analytical geometry, number theory and calculus. Secrecy was common in European mathematical circles at the time; this led to priority disputes with contemporaries such as Descartes and Wallis. Anders Hald writes that, "The basis of Fermat's mathematics was the classical Greek treatises combined with Vieta's new algebraic methods." Fermat's pioneering work in analytic geometry was circulated in manuscript form in 1636, predating the publication of Descartes' famous La géométrie, which exploited the work. This manuscript was published posthumously in 1679 in Varia opera mathematica, as Ad Locos Planos et Solidos Isagoge.
In Methodus ad disquirendam maximam et minimam and in De tangentibus linearum curvarum, Fermat developed a method for determining maxima and tangents to various curves, equivalent to differential calculus. In these works, Fermat obtained a technique for finding the centers of gravity of various plane and solid figures, which led to his further work in quadrature. Fermat was the first person known to have evaluated the integral of general power functions. With his method, he was able to reduce this evaluation to the sum of geometric series; the resulting formula was helpful to Newton, Leibniz, when they independently developed the fundamental theorem of calculus. In number theory, Fermat studied Pell's equation, perfect numbers, amicable numbers and what would become Fermat numbers, it was while researching perfect numbers. He invented a factorization method—Fermat's factorization method—as well as the proof technique of infinite descent, which he used to prove Fermat's right triangle theorem which includes as a corollary Fermat's Last Theorem for the case n = 4.
Fermat developed the two-square theorem, the polygonal number theorem, which states that each number is a sum of three triangular numbers, four square numbers, five pentagonal numbers, so on. Although Fermat claimed to have proven all his arithmetic theorems, few records of his proofs have survived. Many mathematicians, including Gauss, doubted several of his claims given the difficulty of some of the problems and the limited mathematical methods available to Fermat, his famous Last Theorem was first discovered by his son in the margin in his father's copy of an edition of Diophantus, included the statement that the margin was too small to include the proof. It seems, it was first proven by Sir Andrew Wiles, using techniques unavailable to Fermat. Although he studied and drew inspiration from Diophantus, Fermat began a different tradition. Diophantus was content to find a single solution to his equations if it were an undesired fractional one. Fermat was interested only in integer solutions to his Diophantine equations, he looked for all po
A geographer is a scientist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society. The Greek prefix, "geo," means "earth" and the Greek suffix, "graphy," meaning "description," so a geographer is someone who studies the earth; the word "geography" is a Middle French word, believed to have been first used in 1540. Although geographers are known as people who make maps, map making is the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography. Geographers do not study only the details of the natural environment or human society, but they study the reciprocal relationship between these two. For example, they study how the natural environment contributes to human society and how human society affects the natural environment. In particular, physical geographers study the natural environment while human geographers study human society. Modern geographers are the primary practitioners of the GIS, who are employed by local and federal government agencies as well as in the private sector by environmental and engineering firms.
The paintings by Johannes Vermeer titled The Geographer and The Astronomer are both thought to represent the growing influence and rise in prominence of scientific enquiry in Europe at the time of their painting in 1668–69. There are three major fields of study, which are further subdivided: Physical geography: including geomorphology, glaciology, climatology, pedology, oceanography and environmental geography. Human geography: including Urban geography, cultural geography, economic geography, political geography, historical geography, marketing geography, health geography, social geography. Regional geography: including atmosphere and lithosphereThe National Geographic Society identifies five broad key themes for geographers: location place human-environment interaction movement regions Media related to Geographers at Wikimedia Commons Steven Seegel. Map Men: Transnational Lives and Deaths of Geographers in the Making of East Central Europe. University of Chicago Press, 2018. ISBN 978-0-226-43849-8
Luc-Normand Tellier is a Professor Emeritus in spatial economics of the University of Quebec at Montreal. After having taught for two years at the Collège Saint-André of Kigali, Rwanda, as a Canadian Peace Corps volunteer, Tellier studied both economics and city planning, he obtained a bachelor's degree in Economics and a master's degree in City planning from the University of Montreal, as well as a master's degree and a Ph. D. in Regional science from the "Ivy League" University of Pennsylvania. He taught urban economics at the "Institut d’urbanisme" of the University of Montreal before founding, in 1976, the Department of Urban Studies and Tourism of the University of Quebec at Montreal, he was chairman of that department for 13 years, as well as, from 1981 to 1983, the director of the "Urbanisation" research center of the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique. He was granted the title of "Professor Emeritus" of the University of Quebec at Montréal in 2012. In 1971, he found the first direct numerical solution of the Weber triangle problems.
Long before Von Thünen’s contributions, which go back to 1818, the Fermat triangle problem can be seen as the beginning of space economy. It was formulated by the famous French mathematician Pierre de Fermat before 1640. More than 330 years it still had no direct numerical solution; as for the Weber triangle problem, a generalization of the Fermat triangle problem, it was first formulated by Thomas Simpson in 1750, popularized by Alfred Weber in 1909. In 1971, that problem still had no direct numerical solution; the Fermat triangle problem consists in locating a point D with respect to three points A, B, C in such a way that the sum of the distances between D and each of the three other points is minimized. As for the Weber triangle problem, it consists in locating a point D with respect to three points A, B, C in such a way that the sum of the transportation costs between D and each of the three other points is minimized. In 1985, in a book entitled Économie spatiale: rationalité économique de l'espace habité, Tellier formulated an all-new problem called the "attraction-repulsion problem", which constitutes a generalization of both the Fermat and Weber problems.
In the same book, he solved that problem for the first time in the triangle case, he reinterpreted the space economy theory the theory of land rent, in the light of the concepts of attractive and repulsive forces stemming from the attraction-repulsion problem. That problem was further analyzed by mathematicians like Chen, Hansen and Tuy, Jalal and Krarup. Moreover, the attraction-repulsion problem is seen by Ottaviano and Thisse as a prelude to the New Economic Geography that developed in the 1990s, earned Paul Krugman a Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 2008. In its simplest version, the attraction-repulsion problem consists in locating a point D with respect to three points A1, A2 and R in such a way that the attractive forces exerted by points A1 and A2, the repulsive force exerted by point R cancel each other out. In 1989, Tellier resorted to the attraction-repulsion problem to elaborate a new type of demo-economic model, the topodynamic model, not econometric, and, developed before the corresponding models of the New Economic Geography.
The topodynamic model was conceived with respect to a continuous space, it allows generating long-run demo-economic projections in regions where other demo-economic models can hardly generate trustable projections due to the lack of reliable data. In 1995, Tellier wrote a paper with Claude Vertefeuille introducing the concept of topodynamic inertia, laying a mathematical basis for that concept; that paper launched a debate that led to refining the concept, consolidating its mathematical basis. This was done in cooperation with Martin Pinsonnault. In 1997, Tellier published another paper that introduced the concept of topodynamic corridors, the idea of a new section of economic sciences intended to complete microeconomics, meso-economics and macroeconomics; that new section, called "anoeconomics", would study the space-economic phenomena that are observed at a larger scale than the one of the States in a long-run perspective. "Anoeconomics" comes from ano in Ancient Greek, which means "going back through time, going up through space".
In 2005 and 2009, Tellier published a book that reinterpreted the urban world history in the light of the topodynamic theory he had developed. In 2017-2018, he elaborated and implemented an Urban Metric System based on the notions of attractive force, repulsive force, vector field analysis; that method allows to mathematically delimit the boundaries of urban areas on the unique basis of the spatial distribution of dwellers and workers. In his first book, whose title was "Le Québec, État nordique", Tellier proposed a rapprochement between Canada, Finland, Norway, an independent Quebec; that was 19 years before the Ottawa Declaration of 1996, the creation of the Arctic Council, which gathers together those countries, plus Russia and the United States. Parallel to his works in spatial economics, Tellier published in 1987 a book about the Le Tellier clan, one of the two main clans that struggled for obtaining the favors of the king of France at Versailles during the 17th and 18th centuries, it is in this clan that economic liberalism was born in reaction to "colbertism", the economic philosophy o
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but meaningful clothes, but the idea has been applied to social norms such as greetings. Traditions can persist and evolve for thousands of years—the word tradition itself derives from the Latin tradere meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping. While it is assumed that traditions have ancient history, many traditions have been invented on purpose, whether that be political or cultural, over short periods of time. Various academic disciplines use the word in a variety of ways; the phrase "according to tradition", or "by tradition" means that whatever information follows is known only by oral tradition, but is not supported by physical documentation, by a physical artifact, or other quality evidence. Tradition is used to indicate the quality of a piece of information being discussed. For example, "According to tradition, Homer was born on Chios, but many other locales have claimed him as theirs."
This tradition may never be disproven. In another example, "King Arthur, by tradition a true British king, has inspired many well loved stories." Whether they are documented fact or not does not decrease their value as cultural history and literature. Traditions are a subject of study in several academic fields in social sciences such as anthropology and biology; the concept of tradition, as the notion of holding on to a previous time, is found in political and philosophical discourse. For example, it is the basis of the political concept of traditionalism, strands of many world religions including traditional Catholicism. In artistic contexts, tradition is used to decide the correct display of an art form. For example, in the performance of traditional genres, adherence to guidelines dictating how an art form should be composed are given greater importance than the performer's own preferences. A number of factors can exacerbate the loss of tradition, including industrialization and the assimilation or marginalization of specific cultural groups.
In response to this, tradition-preservation attempts have now been started in many countries around the world, focusing on aspects such as traditional languages. Tradition is contrasted with the goal of modernity and should be differentiated from customs, laws, routines and similar concepts; the English word tradition comes from the noun from the verb tradere. According to Anthony Giddens and others, the modern meaning of tradition evolved during the Enlightenment period, in opposition to modernity and progress; as with many other generic terms, there are many definitions of tradition. The concept includes a number of interrelated ideas. Tradition can refer to beliefs or customs that are Prehistoric, with lost or arcane origins, existing from time immemorial. Traditions were passed orally, without the need for a writing system. Tools to aid this process include poetic devices such as alliteration; the stories thus preserved are referred to as tradition, or as part of an oral tradition. Such traditions, are presumed to have originated at some point.
Traditions are presumed to be ancient and important, though they may sometimes be much less "natural" than is presumed. It is presumed that at least two transmissions over three generations are required for a practice, belief or object to be seen as traditional; some traditions were deliberately invented for one reason or another to highlight or enhance the importance of a certain institution. Traditions may be adapted to suit the needs of the day, the changes can become accepted as a part of the ancient tradition. Tradition changes with changes from one generation to the next being seen as significant. Thus, those carrying out the traditions will not be consciously aware of the change, if a tradition undergoes major changes over many generations, it will be seen as unchanged. There are various fields of tradition. Beliefs or customs instituted and maintained by societies and governments, such as national anthems and national holidays, such as Federal holidays in the United States. Beliefs or customs maintained by religious denominations and church bodies that share history, culture, and, to some extent, body of teachings.
For example, one can speak of Christianity's tradition. Many objects and customs can be traditional. Rituals of social interaction can be traditional, with phrases and gestures such as saying "thank you", sending birth announcements, greeting cards, etc. Tradition can refer to larger concepts practiced by groups, organizations or societies, such as the practice of national and public holidays; some of the oldest traditions include citizenship. It can include material objects, such as buildings, works of art or tools. Tradition is used as an adjective
Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany. Erfurt lies within the wide valley of the Gera river, it is located 100 km south-west of Leipzig, 300 km south-west of Berlin, 400 km north of Munich and 250 km north-east of Frankfurt. Together with neighbouring cities Weimar and Jena it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with 500,000 inhabitants. Erfurt's old town is one of the best preserved medieval city centres in Germany. Tourist attractions include the Krämerbrücke, the Old Synagogue, the ensemble of Erfurt Cathedral and Severikirche and Petersberg Citadel, one of the largest and best preserved town fortresses in Europe; the city's economy is based on agriculture and microelectronics. Its central location has led to it becoming a logistics hub for central Europe. Erfurt hosts the second-largest trade fair in eastern Germany as well as the public television children’s channel KiKa; the city is situated on a medieval trade and pilgrims' road network.
Modern day Erfurt is a hub for ICE high speed trains and other German and European transport networks. Erfurt was first mentioned in 742. Although the town did not belong to any of the Thuringian states politically, it became the economic centre of the region and it was a member of the Hanseatic League, it was part of the Electorate of Mainz during the Holy Roman Empire, became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1802. From 1949 until 1990 Erfurt was part of the German Democratic Republic; the University of Erfurt was founded in 1379, making it the first university to be established within the geographic area which constitutes modern-day Germany. It closed in 1816 and was re-established in 1994, with the main modern campus on what was a teachers' training college. Martin Luther was its most famous student, studying there from 1501 before entering St Augustine's Monastery in 1505. Other noted Erfurters include the medieval philosopher and mystic Meister Eckhart, the Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel and the sociologist Max Weber.
Erfurt is an old Germanic settlement. The earliest evidence of human settlement dates from the prehistoric era; the Melchendorf dig in the southern city part showed a settlement from the neolithic period. The Thuringii inhabited the Erfurt area ca. 480 and gave their name to Thuringia ca. 500. The town is first mentioned in 742 under the name of "Erphesfurt": in that year, Saint Boniface wrote to Pope Zachary to inform him that he had established three dioceses in central Germany, one of them "in a place called Erphesfurt, which for a long time has been inhabited by pagan natives." All three dioceses were confirmed by Zachary the next year, though in 755 Erfurt was brought into the diocese of Mainz. That the place was populous is borne out by archeological evidence, which includes 23 graves and six horse burials from the sixth and seventh centuries. Throughout the Middle Ages, Erfurt was an important trading town because of its location, near a ford across the Gera river. Together with the other five Thuringian woad towns of Gotha, Tennstedt and Langensalza it was the centre of the German woad trade, which made those cities wealthy.
Erfurt was the junction of important trade routes: the Via Regia was one of the most used east–west roads between France and Russia and another route in the north–south direction was the connection between the Baltic Sea ports and the potent upper Italian city-states like Venice and Milan. During the 10th and 11th centuries both the Emperor and the Electorate of Mainz held some privileges in Erfurt; the German kings had an important monastery on Petersberg hill and the Archbishops of Mainz collected taxes from the people. Around 1100, some people became free citizens by paying the annual "Freizins", which marks a first step in becoming an independent city. During the 12th century, as a sign of more and more independence, the citizens built a city wall around Erfurt. After 1200, independence was fulfilled and a city council was founded in 1217. In the following decades, the council bought a city-owned territory around Erfurt which consisted at its height of nearly 100 villages and castles and another small town.
Erfurt became an important regional power between the Landgraviate of Thuringia around, the Electorate of Mainz to the west and the Electorate of Saxony to the east. Between 1306 and 1481, Erfurt was allied with the two other major Thuringian cities in the Thuringian City Alliance and the three cities joined the Hanseatic League together in 1430. A peak in economic development was reached in the 15th century, when the city had a population of 20,000 making it one of the largest in Germany. Between 1432 and 1446, a second and higher city wall was established. In 1483, a first city fortress was built on Cyriaksburg hill in the southwestern part of the town; the Jewish community of Erfurt was founded in the 11th century and became, together with Mainz and Speyer, one of the most influential in Germany. Their Old Synagogue is still extant and a museum today, as is the mikveh at Gera river near Krämerbrücke. In 1349, during the wave of Black Death Jewish persecutions across Europe, the Jews of Erfurt were
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics. The individual may study and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy. Within this field there are many sub-fields, ranging from the broad philosophical theories to the focused study of minutiae within specific markets, macroeconomic analysis, microeconomic analysis or financial statement analysis, involving analytical methods and tools such as econometrics, economics computational models, financial economics, mathematical finance and mathematical economics; the professionalization of economics, reflected in academia, has been described as "the main change in economics since around 1900." Economists debate the path. It is a debate between a scholastic orientation, focused on mathematical techniques, a public discourse orientation, more focused on communicating to lay people pertinent economic principles as they relate to public policy. Surveys among economists indicate a preference for a shift toward the latter.
Most major universities have an economics faculty, school or department, where academic degrees are awarded in economics. Getting a PhD in economics takes six years, on average, with a median of 5.3 years. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, established by Sveriges Riksbank in 1968, is a prize awarded to economists each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics; the prize winners are announced in October every year. They receive their awards on the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death. Economists work in many fields including academia, government and in the private sector, where they may "...study data and statistics in order to spot trends in economic activity, economic confidence levels, consumer attitudes. They assess this information using advanced methods in statistical analysis, computer programming they make recommendations about ways to improve the efficiency of a system or take advantage of trends as they begin."In contrast to regulated professions such as engineering, law or medicine, there is not a required educational requirement or license for economists.
In academia, to be called an economist requires a Ph. D. degree in Economics. In the US government, on the other hand, a person can be hired as an economist provided that they have a degree that included or was supplemented by 21 semester hours in economics and three hours in statistics, accounting, or calculus. A professional working inside of one of many fields of economics or having an academic degree in this subject is considered to be an economist. In addition to government and academia, economists are employed in banking, accountancy, marketing, business administration and non- or not-for profit organizations. Politicians consult economists before enacting economic policy. Many statesmen have academic degrees in economics. Economics graduates are employable in varying degrees depending on the regional economic scenario and labour market conditions at the time for a given country. Apart from the specific understanding of the subject, employers value the skills of numeracy and analysis, the ability to communicate and the capacity to grasp broad issues which the graduates acquire at the university or college.
Whilst only a few economics graduates may be expected to become professional economists, many find it a base for entry into a career in finance – including accounting, insurance and banking, or management. A number of economics graduates from around the world have been successful in obtaining employment in a variety of major national and international firms in the financial and commercial sectors, in manufacturing, retailing and IT, as well as in the public sector – for example, in the health and education sectors, or in government and politics. Small numbers go on to undertake postgraduate studies, either in economics, teacher training or further qualifications in specialist areas. In Brazil, unlike most countries in the world where the profession is not regulated, the profession of Economist is regulated by Law. 1411 of August 13, 1951. The professional designation of economist, according to the said law, is exclusive to the bachelors in economics graduates in Brazil. According to the United States Department of Labor, there were about 15,000 non-academic economists in the United States in 2008, with a median salary of $83,000 the top ten percent earning more than $147,040 annually.
Nearly 135 colleges and universities grant around 900 new Ph. D.s every year. Incomes are highest for those in the private sector, followed by the federal government, with academia paying the lowest incomes; as of January 2013, PayScale.com showed Ph. D. economists' salary ranges as follows: all Ph. D. economists, $61,000 to $160,000. D. corporate economists, $71,000 to $207,000. The largest single professional grouping of economists in the UK are the more than 1000 members of the Government Economic Service, who work in 30 government departments and agencies. Analysis of destination surveys for economics graduates from a number of selected top schools of economics in the United Kingdom, shows nearly 80 percent in employment six months after graduation – with a wide range of roles and employers, including regional and international organisations, across many sectors; this figure compares favourably with the national picture, with 64 percent of economics graduates in employment. Some current we