José de la Riva-Agüero y Looz-Corswarem
José Carlos Fulgencio Pedro Regalado de la Riva-Agüero y Looz Corswarem was a Peruvian politician and diplomat. He was the son of José de la Riva Agüero, Marquess of Montealegre de Aulestia, first President of Peru, the belgiam princess Caroline-Arnoldine de Looz-Corswarem. Member of the Civilista Party, was Finance Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and President of the Senate of the Republic of Peru
José Balta y Montero was a Peruvian soldier and politician who served as the 30th President of Peru from 1868 to 1872. He was the son of Agustina Montero Casafranca. In 1865 he aided Mariano Ignacio Prado in the seizure of the presidency and served in his administration. In 1867, he in turn overthrew Prado; as president, he re-established constitutional rule and undertook vast projects for national improvement. He granted a monopoly of guano export to a French company and obtained large loans in Europe, yet the lavish expenditures of his administration plunged Peru deep in debt. Balta was deposed and shot by a disgruntled member of his own cabinet, Defense Minister Tomás Gutiérrez during his subsequent coup d'état attempt. José Balta y Montero embraced a military career from an early age. At only 16 years of age he entered the Military College in 1830, from which he graduated three years with the rank of sergeant. By the age of 38, he had the rank of colonel. In 1855, he joined the cause of Luis José de Orbegoso, that of Felipe Santiago Salaverry and the Restoration.
In 1865, he joined the rebellion of Pedro Diez Canseco and Mariano Ignacio Prado against President Juan Antonio Pezet. He participated in the Battle of May 2, but the following year he distinguished himself among the opponents of president Prado, who exiled him to Chile. José Balta returned to Peru in 1867 and led a movement against the Prado in Chiclayo, echoed in Arequipa, where he rose with General Pedro Diez Canseco. Both refused to swear under the new Constitution of 1860, proclaimed in force. Mariano Ignacio Prado traveled south to quell the rebellion, but under pressure from both Balta and Diez-Canseco, exercised by the Congress from Lima, he was forced to resign; the interim presidency fell for the third time and in the general veteran Pedro Diez Canseco became president. Before the first month of his term, on February 6, Diez Canseco called for presidential elections, in which Balta campaigned. In that contest, he got 3168 votes, against 384 for Manuel Costas and 153 for his main rival, Manuel Toribio Ureta, who represented the Liberals.
Balta wore the presidential sash on 2 August 1868. Under his administration, Balta began opening the country to foreign capital. Nicolás de Pierola, the appointed finance minister, tried to resolve the financial crisis that choked Peru by surrendering what would become the exploitation of Guano to the French-Jewish company Dreyfus; this put him at odds with the local oligarchy. The money from the agreement was used for the construction of other projects; this was one of the main legacies of the Balta government. By the year 1861, Peru only had a 90-mile railroad system, but by 1874, it became a 947 miles system. At the same time, besides the railroads, several major projects were realized: new piers on the coasts, major avenues in Lima and new bridges in the coast. However, not having enough money to pay contractors for railway construction, the government began to ask Dreyfus for advances in guano revenues, which led to a large increase in the huge debt. President Jose Balta, facing the economic crisis, appointed Nicolás de Piérola, a political conservative and a democrat, as finance minister in 1868.
Piérola requested authorization to Congress to negotiate directly the sale of guano abroad in a volume that bordered the two million metric tons. The French Jewish house "Dreyfus Hnos" accepted the proposal; the contract between the Peruvian government and the house Dreyfus was signed on 17 August 1869 and was approved by Congress on 11 November 1870. The contract went ahead despite protests from the Peruvian consignees. By 1879, the rail system had 1,963 miles of track. In 1871, with close elections, rumors circulated that Juan Francisco Balta, brother of head of state, prime minister at the time, would run for president. However, on the advice of Nicolas de Pierola, this did not happen. Balta, decided to support the candidacy of former President Jose Rufino Echenique, but he too declined nomination; the third candidate, Antonio Arenas was the one who received the full support of Balta. The contenders were Manuel Toribio Ureta Arenas, a repeat candidate, Manuel Pardo y Lavalle Supreme Prosecutor.
The latter's campaign was overwhelming, in 1872 was established as the first civilian president in the history of the Republic of Peru. Although Jose Balta had been tempted to remain in power by the Gutierrez brothers, one of whom was Minister of War, he declined to do so, a situation rare in the history of Peru; that year, 1872, July 22, Tomas Gutierrez, the minister, was proclaimed Supreme Head of the Republic. That same day, President Balta was taken prisoner when he went to meet with Miguel Grau Seminario and Aurelio Garcia y Garcia, the two highest ranking naval officers at the time. Through the mediation of these two great military men, the Navy did not provide support for the rebellion of Tomas Gutierrez, did not recognize his government. Lima's population disagreed, one of the conspirator brothers, Silvestre Gutierrez, died on 22 July 1872 in one of the many skirmishes in the capital. In retaliation for his brother's death, president Tomás Gutierrez gave order to kill José Balta y Montero.
This led some days to the overthrow and lynching of Gutierrez. In the 1990 presidential election, his great-grandson Nicolás de Piérola Balta was a candidate. In 1869 he founded the School of Agriculture. Founded Ancón and constitutional province of Tarapacá. Construction of pier dock in Callao. Construction of the Lima-C
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Aurelio Sousa Matute
Aurelio Sousa y Matute was a Peruvian lawyer and politician. He was born in the Cajamarca Region of Peru, he graduated from the National University of San Marcos. He was its president, he served in the Senate of Peru. He served as minister of justice and economy and finance in the Government of Peru, he was twice Prime Minister of Peru. He died in France. Basadre Grohmann, Jorge: Historia de la República del Perú, Tomos 12 y 13. Editada por la Empresa Editora El Comercio S. A. Lima, 2005. ISBN 9972-205-74-6 – ISBN 9972-205-75-4 Tauro del Pino, Alberto: Enciclopedia Ilustrada del Perú. Tercera Edición. Tomo 15, SAL/SZY. Lima, PEISA, 2001. ISBN 9972-40-164-2
Mariano Ignacio Prado
Mariano Ignacio Prado Ochoa was a Peruvian army general who served as the 27th, 29th and 32nd President of Peru. Born in Huánuco on December 18, 1825, he studied in Huanuco and in Lima, he served in the provinces of Southern Peru. In 1865 Prado led a coup to overthrew President Juan Antonio Pezet who under the threat of a large Spanish fleet surrendered sovereignty over the Chincha islands and agreed to pay a large indemnity to Spain. Vice President Pedro Diez Canseco became Provisional President until new elections were held that year and which Prado won. In 1866 the Spanish fleet attacked and was defeated under General Prado's command at the Battle of Dos de Mayo in Callao 1866, his 12 year old son and hero Leoncio Prado participated in the battle. Prado had put together an alliance with Chile and Ecuador all of whom supplied troops that defeated Spain. At the time only Peru had a few naval vessels which earlier had forced the Spanish fleet to retire at the Battle of Abtao, Chile in 1866. In gratitude Chile conferred Prado with the honorary title of General of the Army of Chile.
After Manuel Pardo's presidential term ended in 1876, Prado was elected president again on August 2 of that year. His second term was marked by the War of the Pacific. Prado took active command of the defenses of Tacna and Tarapacá, with the intention of taking command of the armies assembling there. Former President Pardo had failed to modernize. President Prado returned to Lima to organize the defense of the country. In 1879 the Congress of Peru authorized President Prado to leave the country in search of arms in New York and naval vessels in Brest, France. On December 18 he left for New York to meet with William R. Grace founder of W. R. Grace and friend of President Prado. Upon his arrival in New York he was informed that Nicolas de Pierola had taken control of the capital Lima on December 23rd. Nicolas de Pierola had been plotting to take over for many years and had returned to Lima from Santiago just before the war with Chile broke out. Pierola used; these and subsequent accusations were proven false.
Pierola mismanaged the war effort and deserted the capital when Chile troops landed in Barranco, south of Lima. Despite the occupation of Lima, the war with Chile continued led by General Caceres. During this phase of the war General Prado's son Leoncio was executed by Chile. General Prado lost three sons in the war with Chile. An armistice was signed on October 20, 1883 and a final peace treaty was signed in 1929 with the return of Tacna to Peru. Prado was returned to Peru. General Prado was a successful business man who accumulated his fortune prior to entering politics, his wife Magdalena Urgateche came from a wealthy business family. He had holdings in various enterprises including mining in Chile. For health reasons he went to Paris in 1901, his son Manuel Ignacio Prado Ugarteche was two times President of Peru. List of Presidents of Peru Peruvian civil war of 1867 Politics of Peru War of the Pacific 1. ↑ Mazzei de Grazia, Leonardo. «Gestiones empresariales de un norteamericano en Concepción en el siglo XIX: Guillermo Gibson Délano».
Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Concepción.. Consultado el 31 Ene 2007. García Belaunde, Víctor Andrés. El expediente Prado. Lima, Perú: Asociación Civil Mercurio Peruano. ISBN 978-612-45288-6-6.3. El Viaje de Prado by Guillermo Thorndike 4. Aclarando una Infamia by Antonio Gárate Calle ancestry.com
Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco
Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco Iturralde was a Peruvian politician and military leader who served as the Self-proclaimed President of Peru from 1843 to 1844. He was born in Peru, he led part of the Peruvian forces in the campaign against the reunification of Peru-Bolivian Confederacy. During the second administration of Agustín Gamarra, he was appointed prefect of Arequipa. In 1843, he was defeated and fled to Bolivia, he returned to Peru and subsequently became president in 1843 under the title "Supreme Director of the Republic". In the name of president Juan Antonio Pezet he signed the Vivanco–Pareja Treaty on 27 January 1865, one cause of the Chincha Islands War. From April to September 1865, he served as Prime Minister of Peru. Basadre, Jorge. Historia de la República del Perú. Vol. 3 Quiroz, Alfonso W. "Manuel Ignacio Vivanco" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 5, p. 429. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996. Wu, Celia. Generals and Diplomats: Great Britain and Peru, 1820-40.
Politics of Peru List of Presidents of Peru
Alberto Elmore Fernández de Córdoba
Alberto Elmore Fernández de Córdoba was a Peruvian lawyer and politician. He was born in Peru, he was a member of the faculty of the National University of San Marcos. He was 3 times minister of foreign affairs in the Government of Peru, he is 52nd Prime Minister of Peru. Legislación sobre privilegios industriales Tratado de Derecho Comercial Ensayo sobre la doctrina de la intervención internacional, inicialmente leído en 1881. Reformas del Código de Justicia Militar Proyecto de codificación del Derecho Internacional Privado Basadre Grohmann, Jorge: Historia de la República del Perú. 1822 - 1933, Octava Edición, corregida y aumentada. Tomos 9 y 10. Editada por el Diario "La República" de Lima y la Universidad "Ricardo Palma". Impreso en Santiago de Chile, 1998. Tauro del Pino, Alberto: Enciclopedia Ilustrada del Perú. Tercera Edición. Tomo 6, D’AC/FER. Lima, PEISA, 2001. ISBN 9972-40-155-3