A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
West Mercia Police
West Mercia Police known as West Mercia Constabulary, is the territorial police force responsible for policing the counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire in England. The force area covers 2,868 square miles making it the fourth largest police area in England and Wales; the resident population of the area is 1.19 million. Its name comes from the ancient kingdom of Mercia; the force is divided into five divisions and represent a wide spread of policing environments from densely populated urban conurbations on the edge of Birmingham as well as Telford and Worcester, to sparsely populated rural areas found in the rest of the force area. As of September 2017, the force has a workforce of 2,017 police officers, 223 police community support officers, 1541 police staff and 388 members of the special constabulary; the force has its headquarters in the historical manor house and grounds of Hindlip Hall on the outskirts of Worcester. Its badge combines the heraldry of Worcestershire and Shropshire.
West Mercia Police has two control rooms, one in the headquarters in Hindlip and a North control room in Battlefield, Shrewsbury. The force was formed on 1 October 1967, by the merger of the Worcestershire Constabulary, Herefordshire Constabulary, Shropshire Constabulary and Worcester City Police, it lost territory to West Midlands Police when, constituted on 1 April 1974. It changed its name from "West Mercia Constabulary" to "West Mercia Police" on 5 May 2009. West Mercia was a partner, in the Central Motorway Police Group. On 8 April 2018 West Mercia withdrew from the CPMG, with the 25 West Mercia police officers attached to the group returning to the in-force roads policing service. In 2013 an alliance was formed with Warwickshire Police. In October 2018, West Mercia Police announced. 1967–1975: Sir John Willison 1975–1981: Alex Rennie 1981–1985: Bob Cozens 1985–1991: Anthony Mullett 1991–1999: David Cecil Blakey 1999–2003: Peter Hampson 2003–2011: Paul West 2011–2016: David Shaw 2016–: Anthony BanghamPaul West, QPM, who retired as chief constable on 31 July 2011 was the longest serving chief constable in the force's history.
He was succeeded by his deputy chief constable, David Shaw, who took up the senior post on 1 August 2011. Anthony Bangham became Chief Constable in August 2016; the force is organised into five territorial policing units which are alphabetically coded geographically from south to north. Operating across three counties, West Mercia Police maintains many stations, with each TPU having an HQ Police station; the TPUs are further divided into Safer Neighbourhood Teams. Listed below are the TPUs and police stations maintained by the force: Covering Worcester, Droitwich and Evesham Worcester Pershore Malvern Evesham Broadway Droitwich Tenbury Wells Upton-on-SevernWest Mercia Police owns Defford RAF Defford Covering Kidderminster and Redditch Kidderminster Stourport Bewdley Hagley Wythall Rubery Bromsgrove Redditch Hereford South Hereford Leominster Bromyard Ledbury Peterchurch Ross-on-Wye Kington Highley Ludlow Some areas of Shropshire are covered by Telford and Hereford officers. Shrewsbury Shrewsbury Market Drayton Oswestry Pontesbury Wem Whitchurch Bridgnorth Telford Wellington, Shropshire Donnington Madeley A volunteer cadet scheme had existed in the Telford division since the early 1990s and in September 2013, the scheme was expanded force-wide, creating a new detachment of police cadets in each Territorial Policing Unit area.
Each detachment is headquartered in the respective TPU HQ, except the South Worcestershire detachment, based at Tudor Grange Academy. In 2010, the Telford Cadets Detachment was awarded The Queen's Award for Voluntary Service. According to West Mercia Police's website, "The scheme is aimed at young people who wish to engage in a program that offers them an opportunity to gain a practical understanding of policing, develop their spirit of adventure and good citizenship, while supporting their local policing priorities through volunteering, working with partner agencies and positive participation in their communities." A new intake of 15 new cadets per detachment occurs annually. New recruits must have finished secondary education. Young people can remain as cadets for up to two years. Cadets can consider joining the force at age 18, becoming a cadet leader in their detachment, or leaving the scheme altogether; each detachment is led by several cadet leaders who are police officers, PCSOs and police volunteers from the force.
In November 2005, the government announced major reforms of policing in England and Wales, which raised the prospect of West Mercia Constabulary being merged with other forces in the West Midlands region. Under final proposals made by the Home Secretary on 6 February 2006, it would merge with Staffordshire Police, Warwickshire Constabulary and West Midlands Police to form a single strategic force for the West Midlands region; this came under particular criticism from West Mercia Constabulary as it was rated the best force in the country. Instead, the constabulary wished to remain a separate force; the proposals were unpopular with many of the local authorities in the West Mercia area. When Labour's John Reid became Home Secretary in 2006, he put plans to merge the forces on hold; the subsequent coalition and Conservative governments have not made any indication of re-introducing such plans. In 2013 the West
Malvern is a spa town and civil parish in Worcestershire, England. It lies at the foot of a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the centre of Malvern, Great Malvern, is a historic conservation area, which grew in Victorian times due to the natural mineral water springs in the vicinity, including Malvern Water. At the 2011 census it had a population of 29,626, it includes Great Malvern on the steep eastern flank of the Malvern Hills, as well as the former independent urban district of Malvern Link. Many of the major suburbs and settlements that comprise the town are separated by large tracts of open common land and fields, together with smaller civil parishes adjoining the town's boundaries and the hills, the built up area is referred to collectively as The Malverns. Archaeological evidence suggests that Bronze Age people had settled in the area around 1000 BC, although it is not known whether these settlements were permanent or temporary; the town itself was founded in the 11th century when Benedictine monks established a priory at the foot of the highest peak of Malvern Hills.
During the 19th century Malvern developed from a village to a sprawling conurbation owing to its popularity as a hydrotherapy spa based on its spring waters. Following the decline of spa tourism towards the end of the 19th century, the town's focus shifted to education with the establishment of several private boarding schools in former hotels and large villas. A further major expansion was the result of the relocation of the Telecommunications Research Establishment to Malvern in 1942. QinetiQ, TRE's successor company, remains the town's largest local employer. Malvern is the largest place in the parliamentary constituency of West Worcestershire and the district of Malvern Hills, being the district's administrative seat, it lies adjacent to the Malvern Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The civil parish is governed by Malvern Town Council from its offices in Great Malvern; the name Malvern is derived from the ancient British or old Welsh moel-bryn, meaning "Bare or Bald Hill", the modern equivalent being the Welsh moelfryn.
It has been known as Malferna and Much Malvern. Flint axes and flakes found in the area are attributed to early Bronze Age settlers, the "Shire Ditch", a late Bronze Age boundary earthwork dating from around 1000 BC, was constructed along part of the crest of the hills near the site of settlements; the Wyche Cutting, a pass through the hills, was in use in prehistoric times as part of the salt route from Droitwich to South Wales. A 19th-century discovery of over two hundred metal money bars suggests that the area had been inhabited by the La Tène people around 250 BC. Ancient folklore has it that the British chieftain Caractacus made his last stand against the Romans at the British Camp, a site of extensive Iron Age earthworks on a summit of the Malvern Hills close to where Malvern was to be established; the story remains disputed, however, as Roman historian Tacitus implies a site closer to the river Severn. There is therefore no evidence. However, excavations at nearby Midsummer Hill fort, Bredon Hill, Croft Ambrey all show evidence of violent destruction around the year 48 AD.
This may suggest that the British Camp was destroyed around the same time. A study made by Royal Commission in 2005 that includes aerial photographs of the Hills "amply demonstrates the archaeological potential of this neglected landscape, provides food for thought for a number of research projects". A pottery industry based on the Malverns left remains dating from the Late Bronze Age to the Norman Conquest, shown by methods of archaeological petrology. Via the River Severn, products were traded as far as South Wales; the Longdon and other marshes at the foot of Malvern Chase were grazed by cattle. "Woodland management was considerable". Little is known about Malvern over the next thousand years until it is described as "an hermitage, or some kind of religious house, for seculars, before the conquest, endowed by the gift of Edward the Confessor"; the additions to William Dugdale's Monasticon include an extract from the Pleas taken before the King at York in 1387, stating that there was a congregation of hermits at Malvern "some time before the conquest".
Although a Malvern priory existed before the Norman Conquest, it is the settlement of nearby Little Malvern, the site of another, smaller priory, mentioned in the Domesday Book. A motte-and-bailey castle built on the top tier of the earthworks of the British Camp just before the Norman Conquest was founded by the Saxon Earl Harold Godwinson of Hereford, it was destroyed by King Henry II in 1155. The town developed around its 11th-century priory, a Benedictine monastery, of which only the large parish church and the abbey gateway remain. Several different histories explain the actual founding of the religious community. Legend tells that the settlement began following the murder of St. Werstan, a monk of Deerhurst, who fled from the Danes and took refuge in the woods of Malvern, where the hermitage had been established. St Werstan's oratory is thought to have been on the site of St Michael's Chapel, believed to have stood on the site of Bello Sguardo, a Victorian Villa, built on the site of Hermitage Cottage.
The cottage was demolished in 1825 and ecclesiastical carvings were found in it, along with a mediaeval undercroft, human bones, parts of a coffin. Although the legend may be monastic mythology, historians have however concluded that St. Werstan was the original martyr; the first prior, Aldwy
A general merchant store is a rural or small town store that carries a general line of merchandise. It carries a broad selection of merchandise, sometimes in a small space, where people from the town and surrounding rural areas come to purchase all their general goods; the store obtains special orders from warehouses. It differs from a convenience store or corner shop in that it will be the main shop for the community rather than a convenient supplement. General stores sell staple food items such as milk and bread, various household goods such as hardware and electrical supplies; the concept of the general store is old, although some still exist, there are far fewer than there once were, due to urbanization, urban sprawl, the recent phenomenon of big-box stores. The term "general merchandise store" is used to describe a hybrid of a department store, with a wide selection of goods, a discount store, with low prices. Examples include Sears. General dealers were established in the 18th and 19th century in many remote populated places where mobility was limited and a single shop was sufficient to service the entire community.
Due to its close connection and confinement to its customers, general dealers adjusted their sales offerings to the specific preferences of their community. General dealers existed, apart from mainland England and North America, in all colonies and in areas where settlers encroached communities that did not trade with money. In the colonies trade in local produce had existed; the growing need for imported goods, both from European settlers and the indigenous population, led to the establishment of a network of merchants, subsequently to the creation of a money economy. While a large number of general stores still exist in Australia, as in other parts of the world their numbers were reduced by the advent of supermarkets; the oldest continually run general store in Canada is Trousdale's, located in Sydenham, operated by the Trousdale family since 1836. Socialbility has always been a feature. Gray Creek Store in Gray Creek, Kootenay Bay, Canada is the largest and oldest general dealer in the Kootenay Lake region Enniskillen General Store in Clarington, Ontario has been in operation since 1840 and still continues today.
Robinson's General Store in Dorset, voted "Canada's Best Country Store", has been owned and operated by the same family since 1921. In the Dominican Republic, a colmado is the country's equivalent to a general store. Colmado literal translation is'full to the brim' implying its great density of goods in a small space; the colmado is much more than just a general store, for it offers a social gathering point for the residents of the town or neighborhood. The colmado is an important institution in the Dominican Republic serving as an economic and political center for every small community, it is common for colmados to have loud Dominican music such as bachata, or salsa playing. A common pastime for Dominican men is to play dominoes and drink a beer at their local colmado on Sundays. Another particularity of the colmado is that they provide delivery services of their products straight to your house door. Products go from beers, toilet paper to a flash light or canned food; the Greek merchants in Egypt were called bakal.
In India, a tapri is a regional version of a general store. It stores all home, personal and hygienic daily used products. Many Kirana shops sell products other from food, such as clothing or household items, toys and medicines. Small Kirna stores, which are located on the corner of streets and known as katta or tapri, sell cigarettes and tea. Due to its sparse population there are still a number of general dealers in Namibia, for instance the Solitaire General Dealer in Solitaire, an important stopover for tourists through Namibia's Namib-Naukluft Park. In Puerto Rico, a U. S. territory, several general stores have proliferated since the 1970s. Supermercados Selectos Supermercados Econo There are still many general dealers in South Africa. Oepverkoop is the oldest general dealer in Western Cape. Goodwood Museum in Cape Town displays the operation of a general dealer shop. Bodeguita comes from the Spanish language as a diminutive of bodega which means "small store" or "small warehouse". Traditionally, Bodeguita existed selling general merchandise they were replaced by the chain store, the same way large US chains have eliminated the "mom and pop" store.
Village shops are becoming less common in the densely populated parts of the country, although they remain common in remote rural areas. Their rarity in England is due to several factors, such as the rise in car ownership, competition from large chain supermarkets, the rising cost of village properties, the increasing trend of the wealthy to own holiday homes in picturesque villages these houses which used to be occupied full-time by potential customers are vacant for long periods. Of those villages in England who still have shops, these days they are a combination of services under one roof to increase the likelihood of profit and survival. Extra services may include a post office, private business services such as tearooms and bed and breakfast accommodation.
Worcester is a city in Worcestershire, England, 31 miles southwest of Birmingham, 101 miles west-northwest of London, 27 miles north of Gloucester and 23 miles northeast of Hereford. The population is 100,000; the River Severn flanks the western side of the city centre, overlooked by Worcester Cathedral. The Battle of Worcester in 1651 was the final battle of the English Civil War, where Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army defeated King Charles II's Royalists. Worcester is known as the home of Royal Worcester Porcelain, composer Edward Elgar, Lea & Perrins, makers of traditional Worcestershire sauce, University of Worcester, Berrow's Worcester Journal, claimed to be the world's oldest newspaper; the trade route which ran past Worcester forming part of the Roman Ryknild Street, dates to Neolithic times. The position commanded a ford over the River Severn and was fortified by the Britons around 400 BC, it would have been on the northern border of the Dobunni and subject to the larger communities of the Malvern hillforts.
The Roman settlement at the site passes unmentioned by Ptolemy's Geography, the Antonine Itinerary and the Register of Dignitaries, but would have grown up on the road opened between Glevum and Viroconium in the 40s and 50s AD. The river crossing of the Severn at Worcester was the destination of the unfinished east-west Roman-dated road that ran from Magnis, until it disappeared from the historical record east of Stretton Grandison. Worcester may have been the "Vertis" mentioned in the 7th century Ravenna Cosmography. Using charcoal from the Forest of Dean, the Romans operated pottery kilns and ironworks at the site and may have built a small fort. There is no sign of municipal buildings. In the 3rd century, Roman Worcester occupied a larger area than the subsequent medieval city, but silting of the Diglis Basin caused the abandonment of Sidbury. Industrial production ceased and the settlement contracted to a defended position along the lines of the old British fort at the river terrace's southern end.
This settlement is identified with the Cair Guiragon listed among the 28 cities of Britain in the History of the Britons attributed to Nennius. This is not a British name but an adaption of its Old English name Weorgoran ceaster, "fort of the Weorgoran"; the form of the place-name varied as language and history developed over the centuries, with Early English and subsequent Norman French additions. At its settlement in 7th century by the Angles of Mercia it was known as Weogorna. After centuries of warfare against the Vikings and Danelaw it a centre for the Anglo-Saxon army or here known as Weogorna ceastre. At the time of Tenth Century Reformation to twelfth century, when scholasticism flourished it became approximated to its known linguistic origins as Wirccester; the county developed from the shire's name Wigornia from the Anglo-Norman period into the foundations of the Market Fairs during the Henrician and Edwardian parliaments. It was still known as County Wigorn in 1750; the Weorgoran were precursors of Hwicce and the West Saxons who entered the area some time after the 577 Battle of Dyrham.
In 680, their fort at Worcester was chosen—in preference to both the much larger Gloucester and the royal court at Winchcombe—to be the seat of a new bishopric, suggesting there was a well-established and powerful Christian community when the site fell into English hands. The oldest known church was St Helen's, British. Worcester appears in the historic records prior to the Viking era with reference to the church and monastic communities, showing evidence of extensive ecclesiastical ownership of lands. During King Alfred's reign, the earls of Mercia fortified Worcester "for the protection of all the people" at the request of Bishop Werfrith, it appears. A unique document detailing this and privileges granted to the church outlines the existence of Worcester's market and borough court, differentiation between church and market quarters within the city, as well as the role of the King in relation to the roads. Worcester's fortifications would most have established the line of the wall, extant until the 1600s excepting the south east area near the former castle.
It is referred to as a wall by contemporaries. Worcester was a centre of monastic church power. Oswald of Worcester was an important reformer, appointed Bishop in 961, jointly with York; the last Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Worcester, Wulfstan, or St Wulstan, was an important reformer, stayed in post until his death in 1095. Worcester became the focus of tax resistance against the Danish Harthacanute. Two huscarls were killed in May 1041 while attempting to collect taxes for the expanded navy, after being driven into the Priory, where they were murdered. A military force was sent to deal with the non-payment, while the townspeople attempted to defend themselves by moving to and occupying the island of Bevere, two miles up river, where they were besieged. After Harthacnut's men had sacked the city and set it alight, agreement was reached. Worcester was the site of a mint during the late Anglo-Saxon period, with seven moneyers in the reign of Edward the Confessor; this implies a middling role in trade for the city.
Worcester was, for tax purposes, counted within ru