Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Sumatra is a large island in western Indonesia, part of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island, located in Indonesia and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2. Sumatra is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis; the Indian Ocean borders the west and southwest coasts of Sumatra with the island chain of Simeulue and Mentawai off the western coast. In the northeast the narrow Strait of Malacca separates the island from the Malay Peninsula, an extension of the Eurasian continent. In the southeast the narrow Sunda Strait separates Sumatra from Java; the northern tip of Sumatra borders the Andaman Islands, while off the southeastern coast lie the islands of Bangka and Belitung, Karimata Strait and the Java Sea. The Bukit Barisan mountains, which contain several active volcanoes, form the backbone of the island, while the northeastern area contains large plains and lowlands with swamps, mangrove forest and complex river systems; the equator crosses the island at its center in West Riau provinces.
The climate of the island is tropical and humid. Lush tropical rain forest once dominated the landscape. Sumatra has a wide range of plant and animal species but has lost 50% of its tropical rainforest in the last 35 years. Many species are now critically endangered, such as the Sumatran ground cuckoo, the Sumatran tiger, the Sumatran elephant, the Sumatran rhinoceros, the Sumatran orangutan. Deforestation on the island has resulted in serious seasonal smoke haze over neighbouring countries, such as the 2013 Southeast Asian haze causing considerable tensions between Indonesia and affected countries Malaysia and Singapore. Sumatra was known in ancient times by the Sanskrit names of Swarnadwīpa and Swarnabhūmi, because of the gold deposits in the island's highlands; the first mention of the name of Sumatra was in the name of Srivijayan Haji Sumatrabhumi, who sent an envoy to China in 1017. Arab geographers referred to the island as Lamri in the tenth through thirteenth centuries, in reference to a kingdom near modern-day Banda Aceh, the first landfall for traders.
The island is known by other names namely, Andalas or Percha Island. Late in the 14th century the name Sumatra became popular in reference to the kingdom of Samudra Pasai, a rising power until replaced by the Sultanate of Aceh. Sultan Alauddin Shah of Aceh, in letters addressed to Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1602, referred to himself as "king of Aceh and Samudra"; the word itself is from Sanskrit "Samudra", meaning "gathering together of waters, sea or ocean". Marco Polo named the kingdom Samara or Samarcha in the late 13th century, while the 14th century traveller Odoric of Pordenone used Sumoltra for Samudra. Subsequent European writers used similar forms of the name for the entire island. European writers in the 19th century found that the indigenous inhabitants did not have a name for the island; the Melayu Kingdom was absorbed by Srivijaya. Srivijayan influence waned in the 11th century after it was defeated by the Chola Empire of southern India. At the same time, Islam made its way to Sumatra through Arabs and Indian traders in the 6th and 7th centuries AD.
By the late 13th century, the monarch of the Samudra kingdom had converted to Islam. Marco Polo visited the island in 1292. Ibn Battuta visited with the sultan for 15 days, noting the city of Samudra was "a fine, big city with wooden walls and towers," and another 2 months on his return journey. Samudra was succeeded by the powerful Aceh Sultanate. With the coming of the Dutch, the many Sumatran princely states fell under their control. Aceh, in the north, was the major obstacle, as the Dutch were involved in the long and costly Aceh War; the Free Aceh Movement fought against Indonesian government forces in the Aceh Insurgency from 1976 to 2005. Security crackdowns in 2001 and 2002 resulted in several thousand civilian deaths; the longest axis of the island runs 1,790 km northwest–southeast, crossing the equator near the centre. At its widest point, the island spans 435 km; the interior of the island is dominated by two geographical regions: the Barisan Mountains in the west and swampy plains in the east.
Sumatra is the closest Indonesian island to mainland Asia. To the southeast is Java, separated by the Sunda Strait. To the north is the Malay Peninsula, separated by the Strait of Malacca. To the east is Borneo, across the Karimata Strait. West of the island is the Indian Ocean; the Great Sumatran fault, the Sunda megathrust, run the entire length of the island along its west coast. On 26 December 2004, the western coast and islands of Sumatra Aceh province, were struck by a tsunami following the Indian Ocean earthquake; this was the longest earthquake recorded, lasting between 600 seconds. More than 170,000 Indonesians were killed in Aceh. Other recent earthquakes to strike Sumatra include the 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake and the 2010 Mentawai earthquake and tsunami. To the east, big rivers carry silt from the mountains, forming the vast lowland interspersed by swamps. If unsuitable for farming, the area is of great economic importance for Indonesia, it produces oil from both above and below the soil -- petroleum.
Sumatra is the largest producer of Indonesian coffee. Small-holders grow Arabica coffee in the highlands, while Rob
Melanesians are the predominant inhabitants of Melanesia. Most speak either one of the many Austronesian languages in the Oceanic branch of Malayo-Polynesian, or one of the Papuan languages. Other languages spoken are the numerous creoles or pidgins in the region, such as Tok Pisin, Hiri Motu, Solomon Islands Pijin and Papuan Malay. Melanesians occupy islands in a wide area from Eastern Indonesia to as far east as the islands of Vanuatu and Fiji. A 2011 survey found; the original inhabitants of the group of islands now named Melanesia were the ancestors of the present-day Papuan-speaking people. Migrating from Southeast Asia, they appear to have occupied these islands as far east as the main islands in the Solomon Islands, including Makira and the smaller islands farther to the east. Along the north coast of New Guinea and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian people, who had migrated into the area more than 3,000 years ago, came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples.
In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics and culture among the peoples. Kayser, et al. proposed that, from this area, a small group of people departed to the east to become the forebears of the Polynesian people. This Polynesian theory is somewhat contradicted by the findings of a genetic study published by Temple University in 2008; the study was based on genome scans and evaluation of more than 800 genetic markers among a wide variety of Pacific peoples. It found that neither Micronesians have much genetic relation to Melanesians. Both groups are related genetically to East Asians Taiwanese aborigines, it appeared that, having developed their sailing outrigger canoes, the ancestors of the Polynesians migrated from East Asia, moved through the Melanesian area on their way, kept going to eastern areas, where they settled. They left little genetic evidence in Melanesia, "and only intermixed to a modest degree with the indigenous populations there".
The study still found a small Austronesian genetic signature in some of the Melanesian groups who speak Austronesian languages, and, absent in the Papuan-speaking groups. The study found a high rate of genetic differentiation and diversity among the groups living within the Melanesian islands, with the peoples not only distinguished between the islands, but by the languages and size of an island; such diversity developed over the tens of thousands of years since initial settlement, as well as after the more recent arrival of Polynesian ancestors at the islands. Papuan-speaking groups in particular were found to be the most differentiated, while Austronesian-speaking groups along the coastlines were more intermixed. Further DNA analysis has taken research into new directions, as more human species have been discovered since the late 20th century. Based on his genetic studies of the Denisova hominin, an ancient human species discovered in 2010, Svante Pääbo claims that ancient human ancestors of the Melanesians interbred in Asia with these humans.
He has found that people of New Guinea share 4%–6% of their genome with the Denisovans, indicating this exchange. The Denisovans are considered cousin to the Neanderthals. Both groups are now understood to have migrated out of Africa, with the Neanderthals going into Europe, the Denisovans heading east about 400,000 years ago; this is based on genetic evidence from a fossil found in Siberia. The evidence from Melanesia suggests their territory extended into south Asia, where ancestors of the Melanesians developed. Melanesians of some islands are one of the few non-European peoples, the only dark-skinned group of people outside Australia, known to have blond hair; the blonde trait developed via the TYRP1 gene, not the same gene that causes blondness in European blonds. Early European explorers noted the physical differences among groups of Pacific Islanders. In 1756 Charles de Brosses theorized that there was an'old black race' in the Pacific who were conquered or defeated by the peoples of what is now called Polynesia, whom he distinguished as having lighter skin.
By 1825 Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent developed a more elaborate, 15-race model of human diversity. He described the inhabitants of modern-day Melanesia as Mélaniens, a distinct racial group from the Australian and Neptunian races surrounding them. In 1832 Dumont D'Urville simplified much of this earlier work, he classified the peoples of Oceania into four racial groups: Malayans, Polynesians and Melanesians. D'Urville's model differed from that of Bory de Saint-Vincent in referring to'Melanesians' rather than'Mélaniens.' Bory de Saint-Vincent had distinguished Mélaniens from the indigenous Australians. Dumont D'Urville combined the two peoples into one group. Soares et al. have argued for an older pre-Holocene Sundaland origin in Island Southeast Asia based on mitochondrial DNA. The "out of Taiwan model" was challenged by a study from Leeds University and published in Molecular Biology and Evolution. Examination of mitochondrial DNA lineages shows that they have been evolving in ISEA for longer than believed.
Ancestors of the Polynesians arrived in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea at least 6,000 to 8,000 years ago. Paternal Y chromosome analysis by Kayser et al. showed that Polynesians have significant Melanesian genetic admixture. A follow-up study by Kayser et al. discovered that only 21% of the Polynesian autosomal gene pool is of Melanesian origin
State of East Indonesia
The State of East Indonesia was a post-World War II federal state formed in eastern Netherlands East Indies by the Netherlands. It was established in 1946, became part of the United States of Indonesia in 1949, was dissolved in 1950 with the end of the USI, it comprised all the islands of Java. The Dutch authorities, after various changes to the administration of the eastern islands of the East Indies, established the Great East region in 1938. Four years the Japanese invaded, this area was placed under the control of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Following the Japanese surrender and the Indonesian declaration of independence in August 1945, Indonesian republicans began fighting to secure Indonesian independence from Dutch colonial control. However, Dutch administrators backed by Australian troops arrived in the area controlled by the Japanese Navy, prevented republicans from establishing an administration. From 16–25 July 1946, the Dutch organised a conference in the town of Malino on Celebes as part of their attempt to arrange a federal solution for Indonesia.
The Malino Conference resulted in plans for a state in Borneo and another for East Indonesia, areas where the Dutch held both de facto and de jure control. That year, the unilaterally declared Republic of Indonesia agreed to the principle of a federal Indonesia with the Linggadjati Agreement of 15 November; the Denpasar Conference of 18–24 December was held to work out the specifics of a state to be called the State of the Great East.. That state, on 27 December, renamed the State of East Indonesia. With the realisation of the United States of Indonesia on 27 December 1949, East Indonesia became a constituent of the new federation. In much of Indonesia, the federal USI was seen as an illegitimate regime foisted on the islands by the Dutch, many of the federal states began to merge with the Republic of Indonesia; however many in East Indonesia, with its non-Javanese population and greater number of Christians, opposed moves toward a unitary state. East Indonesia had dealt with the "Twelfth Province" secessionist movement in Minahasa in 1948.
The formation of East Indonesia's last cabinet in May 1950 with the intention of dissolving the state into the Republic of Indonesia led to open rebellion in the Christian Moluccas and the proclamation of an independent Republic of the South Moluccas. The USI was dissolved on 17 August 1950 and the rebellion in the Moluccas was crushed in November of the same year; the Denpasar Conference of 18–24 December 1946 approved the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia which supplemented the 1927 Dutch colonial law and established the provisional governmental framework of the new state until a constitution was approved on 1 March 1949. The state was to have an executive president who would appoint a legislature. A number of powers were explicitly reserved for the future United States of Indonesia, of which East Indonesia would be a constituent member. Balinese nobleman Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati was elected president at the Denpasar Conference that established the state, held that position for the duration of the state's existence.
The Provisional Representative Body for the State of East Indonesia consisting of the 70 participants of the Denpasar Conference, opened its first session on 22 April 1947. The state had a parliamentary cabinet appointed by the president but much real power remained with the Dutch East Indies authorities. 13 Jan 1947 – 2 Jun 1947 — Nadjamoedin Daeng Malewa – First Cabinet 2 Jun 1947 – 11 Oct 1947 — Nadjamoedin Daeng Malewa – Second Cabinet 11 Oct 1947 – 15 Dec 1947 — Warouw Cabinet 15 Dec 1947 – 12 Jan 1949 — Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung – First Cabinet 12 Jan 1949 – 27 Dec 1949 — Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung – Second Cabinet 27 Dec 1949 – 14 Mar 1950 — J. E. Tatengkeng Cabinet 14 Mar 1950 – 10 May 1950 — D. P. Diapari Cabinet 10 May 1950 – 17 Aug 1950 — J. Poetoehena Cabinet The State of East Indonesia was divided into five residencies which were in turn divided into districts and subdistricts, an administrative structure inherited from the Dutch. Within the residencies were 13 autonomous regions.
These regions, listed in Article 14 of the Regulations for the Formation of the State of East Indonesia, were South Celebes, Minahasa and Talaoed, North Celebes, Central Celebes, Lombok, Flores, Soemba and surrounding islands, South Moluccas, North Moluccas. The residencies were to be eliminated after the construction of functioning administration in the 13 regions. Complicating this structure was the fact that More than 75% of the State of East Indonesia comprised autonomous regions, in total 115 autonomous regional governments under the rule of rajas; the position of these autonomous governmental heads was regulated by what were called korte verklaring and lange kontrakten.
A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country. A representative of his government, he has diplomatic functions which are seen as a form of indirect rule; this full style occurred as a diplomatic rank for the head of a mission ranking just below envoy reflecting the low status of the states of origin and/or residency, or else difficult relations. On occasion, the Resident Minister's role could become important, as when in 1806 the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV fled his Kingdom of Naples, Lord William Bentinck, the British Resident, authored a new and liberal constitution. Residents could be posted with shadowy governments. For instance, the British sent Residents to the Mameluk Beys who ruled Baghdad province as an autonomous state in the north of present-day Iraq, until the Ottoman sultans regained control over it and its Wali. After the Congress of Vienna restored the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1815, the British posted a "mere" Resident to Florence.
As international relations developed, it became customary to give the highest title of diplomatic rank - ambassador - to the head of all permanent missions in any country, except as a temporary expression of down-graded relations or where representation was an interim arrangement. Some official representatives of European colonial powers, while in theory diplomats, in practice exercised a degree of indirect rule; some such Residents were former military officers, rather than career diplomats, who resided in smaller self-governing protectorates and tributary states and acted as political advisors to the rulers. A trusted Resident could become the de facto prime minister to a native ruler. In other respects they acted as an ambassador of their own government, but at a lower level, since large and rich native states were seen as inferior to Western nations. Instead of being a representative to a single ruler, a Resident could be posted to more than one native state, or to a grouping of states which the European power decided for its convenience.
This could create an artificial geographical unit, as in Residency X in some parts of the British Indian Empire. Similar positions could carry alternative titles, such as Resident Commissioner. In some cases, the intertwining of the European power with the traditional native establishment went so far that members of the native princely houses became Residents, either in other states or within their own state, provided that they were unlikely to succeed as ruler of the state. A Resident's real role varied enormously, depending upon the underlying relationship between the two parties and upon the personalities of the Resident and the ruler; some residents were little more than observers and diplomats, others were seen as the "face of the oppressor" and were treated with hostility, while some won enough trust from the ruler that they were able to exercise great influence. In French protectorates, such as those of Morocco and Tunisia, the resident or resident general was the effective ruler of the territory.
In 1887, when both Boers and gold prospectors of all nationalities were overrunning his country, the Swazi Paramount chief Umbandine asked for a British resident, seeing this as a desirable and effective form of protection. His request was refused; the Residents of the governments of the United Kingdom and the dominions to a variety of protectorates include: In the Sultanate of Zanzibar, the second'homeland' of the Omani dynasty, since 1913. From 1913 to 1961 the Residents were the Sultan's vizier. There were Consuls and Consuls-general until 1963. In present-day Kenya, in the Sultanate of Witu, after the British took over the protectorate from the German Empire, which had itself posted a Resident. In British Cameroon, since 1916, in 1949 restyled Special Resident for Edward John Gibbons, who stayed on in October 1954 as first Commissioner when it became an autonomous part of Nigeria. In Southern Africa: when the military party sent from Cape Colony to occupy Port Natal on behalf of Great Britain was recalled in 1839, a British Resident was appointed among the Fingo and other tribes in Kaffraria until the definite establishment of British rule in Natal and its 1845 organization as an administrative entity, when the incumbent Shepstone was made Agent for the native tribes.
In kwaZulu, which since 1843 was under a British protectorate, after it became the Zulu "Native" Reserve or Zululand Province on 1 September 1879: two British Residents. Thereafter there were Resident Commissioners until Zululand was incorporated into the crown colony of Natal as British Zululand on 1 December 1897. in 1845 the resident'north of the Orange river' chose his residency at Bloemfontein, which became the capital of the Orange River Sovereignty in 1848. In 1854 the British abandoned the Sovereignty, the independent Boer republic of the Orange Free State was established in the Boer republic of Transvaal at Pretoria with the Matabele chief at Bulawayo in Ghana, with the rulers of the Asanteman Confederation, since it became in 1896 a British protectorate.
Halmahera known as Jilolo, Gilolo, or Jailolo, is the largest island in the Maluku Islands. It is part of the North Maluku province of Indonesia and Sofifi, the capital of the province, is located on the west coast of the island. Halmahera has a land area of 17,780 km2, it is the largest island of Indonesia outside the five main islands, it has population in 1995 of 162,728, it has increased to 449,938 for the island itself and 667,161 for the island group. Half of the island's inhabitants are Muslim and half are Christian. Sparsely-populated Halmahera's fortunes have long been tied to those of the smaller islands of Ternate and Tidore, both off its west coast; these islands were both the sites of major kingdoms in the era before Dutch East India Company colonized the entire archipelago. During World War II, Halmahera was the site of a Japanese naval base at Kao Bay. In 1999 and 2000 Halmahera was the site of violence that began as a purely ethnic dispute between residents of Kao and Malifut sub-districts and took on a religious nature as it spread through much of the North Moluccas, called the Maluku sectarian conflict.
Thousands of people on Halmahera were killed in the fighting between religious militias. In June 2000, about five hundred people were killed when a ferry carrying refugees from the fighting on Halmahera sank off the northeast tip of Sulawesi island. Conspiracy theories about this event abound. A memorial to this tragedy can be found in Duma village in North Halmahera district. Today, much transportation to the rest of Indonesia is through connections on the provincial capital, Ternate island although Tobelo, the largest town on Halmahera has direct ferry and cargo sea links to Surabaya and Manado. Since the inauguration of the first directly elected Bupati, Tobelo is undergoing rapid development and is aiming at rivaling Ternate's historical dominance; as it is surrounded by flat land, Tobelo has the potential for expansion. Ternate is limited by its size, being a small island which can be driven around in forty-five minutes. In 2010 the provincial government has moved the provincial capital from Ternate City to Sofifi, a small village on the Halmahera coast opposite Tidore island.
North Maluku Province consists of seven regencies and two municipalities, 6 of which include a part of Halmahera island. The regencies are: North Halmahera, West Halmahera, East Halmahera, Central Halmahera, South Hamahera, Ternate Municipality, Tidore City and Islands and Sula Islands. Only Ternate Municipality and Sula Islands do not include any part of Halmahera; the volcanic island lies on an island arc that includes the Raja Ampat Islands, all uplifted by the northward migration of the continent of Australia and subduction of the Pacific Plate. Dukono is an active volcano at the north end of the island. Mount Ibu is an active volcano on the island's northwest coast; the flightless invisible rail is endemic to the island. The naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace visited Halmahera, as described in his 1869 book The Malay Archipelago, he considered the standardwing bird of Semioptera wallacei, to be his greatest prize. It was here, in February between the bouts of fever, that a suffering Wallace came to the idea of the natural selection via the survival of the fittest.
Wallace wrote his ideas during the next couple of days, sent the historical letter to Darwin. Halmahera is the site of several mining projects. PT Weda Bay Nickel operates a nickel and cobalt mining project in North and Central Halmahera Regencies. Backed by the Eramet corporation, the project is in the planning and exploration stages. Desa Gamtala Media related to Halmahera at Wikimedia Commons Folk Orientation in Halmahera
Ethnology is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationships between them. Compared to ethnography, the study of single groups through direct contact with the culture, ethnology takes the research that ethnographers have compiled and compares and contrasts different cultures; the term ethnologia is credited to Adam Franz Kollár who used and defined it in his Historiae ivrisqve pvblici Regni Vngariae amoenitates published in Vienna in 1783. as: “the science of nations and peoples, or, that study of learned men in which they inquire into the origins, languages and institutions of various nations, into the fatherland and ancient seats, in order to be able better to judge the nations and peoples in their own times.” Kollár's interest in linguistic and cultural diversity was aroused by the situation in his native multi-ethnic and multilingual Kingdom of Hungary and his roots among its Slovaks, by the shifts that began to emerge after the gradual retreat of the Ottoman Empire in the more distant Balkans.
Among the goals of ethnology have been the reconstruction of human history, the formulation of cultural invariants, such as the incest taboo and culture change, the formulation of generalizations about "human nature", a concept, criticized since the 19th century by various philosophers. In some parts of the world, ethnology has developed along independent paths of investigation and pedagogical doctrine, with cultural anthropology becoming dominant in the United States, social anthropology in Great Britain; the distinction between the three terms is blurry. Ethnology has been considered an academic field since the late 18th century in Europe and is sometimes conceived of as any comparative study of human groups; the 15th-century exploration of America by European explorers had an important role in formulating new notions of the Occident, such as the notion of the "Other". This term was used in conjunction with "savages", either seen as a brutal barbarian, or alternatively, as the "noble savage".
Thus, civilization was opposed in a dualist manner to barbary, a classic opposition constitutive of the more shared ethnocentrism. The progress of ethnology, for example with Claude Lévi-Strauss's structural anthropology, led to the criticism of conceptions of a linear progress, or the pseudo-opposition between "societies with histories" and "societies without histories", judged too dependent on a limited view of history as constituted by accumulative growth. Lévi-Strauss referred to Montaigne's essay on cannibalism as an early example of ethnology. Lévi-Strauss aimed, through a structural method, at discovering universal invariants in human society, chief among which he believed to be the incest taboo. However, the claims of such cultural universalism have been criticized by various 19th- and 20th-century social thinkers, including Marx, Foucault, Derrida and Deleuze; the French school of ethnology was significant for the development of the discipline, since the early 1950s. Important figures in this movement have included Lévi-Strauss, Paul Rivet, Marcel Griaule, Germaine Dieterlen, Jean Rouch.
See: List of scholars of ethnology Forster, Johann Georg Adam. Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty’s Sloop, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772, 3, 4, 5, London. Lévi-Strauss, Claude; the Elementary Structures of Kinship, Structural Anthropology Mauss, Marcel. Published as Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l'échange dans les sociétés archaïques in 1925, this classic text on gift economy appears in the English edition as The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. Maybury-Lewis, David. Akwe-Shavante society, The Politics of Ethnicity: Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States. Clastres, Pierre. Society Against the State. Pop and Glauco Sanga. "Problemi generali dell La Ricerca Folklorica, No. 1, La cultura popolare. Questioni teoriche, pp. 89–96. What is European Ethnology? Webpage "History of German Anthropology/Ethnology 1945/49-1990 Languages describes the languages and ethnic groups found worldwide, grouped by host nation-state. Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History - Over 160,000 objects from Pacific, North American, Asian ethnographic collections with images and detailed description, linked to the original catalogue pages, field notebooks, photographs are available online.
National Museum of Ethnology - Osaka, Japan Texts on Wikisource: Rhyn, G. A. F. Van. "Ethnology". The American Cyclopædia. McGee, W. J.. "Ethnology". New International Encyclopedia. "Ethnology". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907. "Ethnology and ethnography". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Ethnology". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. Butler, Amos W.. "Ethnology". Encyclopedia Americana. "Ethnology". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921