Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
The Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge is a religious encyclopedia. It is based on an earlier German encyclopedia, the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche. Like the Realencyklopädie, it focuses on Christianity from a Protestant point of view; the final edition, titled The New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, was published 1908–14 in 13 volumes, based on the third edition of the Realencyklopädie. The Realencyklopädie's publishing history was: 1853—1868 — 1st ed. Ed. Johann Jakob Herzog. 22 vols. c. 1877 — new ed. Ed. Herzog and G. L. Plitt. 1896—1909 — 3rd ed. Ed. Albert Hauck. 22 vols. The Schaff-Herzog's publishing history was: 1882–84 – 1st ed. Ed. Philip Schaff. 1891 – 3rd ed. Ed. Albert Hauck. 1908–14 – The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. 13 vols. This was a substantial update, based throughout on the 3rd ed. Christian Classics Ethereal Library has made it available online. Logos Bible Software is undertaking a digitization project of it.
The idea of translating Herzog in a condensed form occurred to John Henry Augustus Bomberger, a minister of the German Reformed Church, president of Ursinus College, Pennsylvania, in 1856 he brought out in Philadelphia the first volume, whose title-page reads thus: The Protestant Theological and Ecclesiastical Encyclopedia: Being a Condensed Translation of Herzog’s Real Encyclopedia. With Additions from Other Sources. By Rev. J. H. A. Bomberger, D. D. Assisted by Distinguished Theologians of Various Denominations. Vol. I. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, x 1856. In this work he associated with himself twelve persons, all but one ministers. In 1860 he issued the second volume, but the American Civil War breaking out the next year put a stop to so costly an enterprise and it was never resumed. The first volume included the article "Concubinage", the second "Josiah", it had been issued in numbers. In 1877 Professor Philip Schaff was asked by Dr. Herzog himself to undertake an English reproduction of the second edition of his encyclopedia, this work was begun when, in the autumn of 1880, Clemens Petersen and Samuel Macauley Jackson were engaged to work daily on it in Dr. Schaff’s study in the Bible House, New York City.
The next year Dr. Schaff’s son, the Rev. David Schley Schaff professor of church history in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa. joined the staff. The original publishers were S. S. Scranton & Company, Conn. but a change was made before the issue of the first volume and the encyclopedia was issued by Funk & Wagnalls. The title-page read thus: A Religious Encyclopædia: or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical and Practical Theology. Based on the Real-Encyklopädie of Herzog and Hauck. Edited by Philip Schaff, D. D. LL. D. Professor in the Union Theological Seminary, New York. Associate editors: Rev. Samuel M. Jackson, M. A. and Rev. D. S. Schaff. Volume I. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Publishers, 10 and 18 Dey Street; the first volume was issued Wednesday, November 1, 1882, the second Thursday, March 1, 1883, the third Tuesday, March 4, 1884. Volume I. had pp. xix. 1-847. Pp. xvii. 848-1714. Pp. xix. 1715-2631. In November, 1886, a revised edition was issued and at the same time the Encyclopedia of Living Divines and Christian Workers of All Denominations in Europe and America, Being a Supplement to Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.
Edited by Rev. Philip Schaff, D. D. LL. D. and Rev. Samuel Macauley Jackson, M. A. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Publishers, 18 and 20 Astor Place, 1887. In 1891 the third edition of the encyclopedia was issued and with it was incorporated the Encyclopedia of Living Divines, with an appendix the work of Rev. George William Gilmore, bringing the biographical and literary notices down to December, 1890; the entire work was repaged sufficiently to make it one of four volumes of about equal size, it is this four-volume edition, known to the public as the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, the volumes being of pp. xlviii. 679 and four pages unnumbered. 2087-2629, viii. 296. As the German work at its base was overtaken by the time "S" had been reached, the Schaff-Herzog from that letter on was based on the first edition of Herzog. Therefore, much of its matter is now old, yet it has been a useful work, in 1903 its publishers determined on a new edition based on the third edition of Herzog, appearing since 1896. But inasmuch as there was a space of ten years between the beginnings of the two works, it has been necessary to bring the matter from the German down to date.
This end has been accomplished by two courses: first by securing from the German contributors to Herzog condensations of their contributions, in which way matter contributed to the German work has in many instances been brought down to date, second by calling on department editors for supplementary matter. The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopædia of Religious Knowledge followed the previous editions; the points of similarities were: that at its base lay the Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie and Kirche that it gave in condensed form the information in that work, took such matter directly from the German work in most instances, although while the topic was the same the treatment was independent of the German original.
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Berengar of Tours
Berengar of Tours was an 11th-century French Christian theologian and Archdeacon of Angers, a scholar whose leadership of the cathedral school at Chartres set an example of intellectual inquiry through the revived tools of dialectic, soon followed at cathedral schools of Laon and Paris. He came into conflict with Church authorities over the doctrine of transubstantiation of the Eucharist. Berengar of Tours was born at Tours in the early years of the 11th century, his education began in the school of Bishop Fulbert of Chartres, who represented the traditional theology of the early Middle Ages, but did not succeed in imparting it to his pupil. Berengar was less attracted by pure theology than by secular learning, brought away a knowledge of Latin literature, a general knowledge and freedom of thought surprising for his age, he paid more attention to the Bible and early Christian writers Gregory of Tours and Augustine of Hippo. After the death of Fulbert in 1028, Berengar returned to Tours, where he became a canon of the cathedral.
In about 1040 became head of its school, improving its efficiency and attracting students from far and near. He acquired his fame as much from his blameless and ascetic life as from the success of his teaching, his reputation was such. He remained in Tours to direct the school, he enjoyed the confidence of of the powerful Count Geoffrey of Anjou. Amid this chorus of praise, a discordant voice began to be heard; the first controversies on the nature of the Eucharistic Presence date from the earlier Middle Ages. In the ninth century Paschasius Radbertus claimed that Christ's Eucharistic body was identical with his body in heaven, but he won no support, his doctrine was attacked by Ratramnus and Rabanus Maurus, who opposed his emphatic realism, sometimes marred by unfortunate comparisons and illustrations, proposed a more spiritual conception of the Divine presence. As for Berengar, by one account, "Considerably greater stir was provoked... by the teaching of Berengar, who opposed the doctrine of the Real Presence."
But in reality, there are diverse opinions among theologians and historians on this point, it is not clear that Berengar denies the Real Presence, though he does deny transubstantiation. The first to take formal notice of this was his former fellow student Adelmann, who begged him to abandon his opposition to the Church's teaching. In the early part of 1050, Berengar addressed a letter to Lanfranc prior of Bec Abbey in Normandy, in which he expressed his regret that Lanfranc adhered to the Eucharistic teaching of Paschasius and considered the treatise of Ratramnus on the subject to be heretical, he declared his own agreement with Eriugena, believed himself to be supported by Saint Ambrose, Saint Jerome and other authorities. This letter was received by Lanfranc in Rome, where it was read before a council and Berengar's view was condemned. Berengar was summoned to appear at another council to be held at Vercelli in September. Berengar sought permission to go to the council from King Henry I of France, in his capacity as nominal abbot of St. Martin at Tours.
Instead, for unclear reasons, the king imprisoned him. The council at Vercelli examined Berengar's doctrine and again condemned it and he was excommunicated. On his release from prison effected by the influence of Geoffrey of Anjou, the king still pursued him, called a synod to meet in Paris in October 1051. Berengar, fearing its purpose, avoided appearing, the king's threats after its session had no effect, since Berengar was sheltered by Geoffrey and by his former student, now Bishop of Angers, he found numerous partisans among less prominent people. In 1054, a Council was held at Tours presided over by Cardinal Hildebrand as papal legate. Berengar wrote a profession of faith wherein he confessed that after consecration the bread and wine were the body and blood of Christ; the French bishops indicated that they wished a speedy settlement of the controversy and the synod declared itself satisfied by Berengar's written declaration. In 1059, Berengar went to Rome, fortified by a letter of commendation from Count Geoffrey to Hildebrand.
At a council held in the Lateran, he could get no hearing, a formula representing what seemed to him the most carnal view of the sacrament was offered for his acceptance. Overwhelmed by the forces against him, he took this document in his hand and threw himself on the ground in the silence of apparent submission. Berengar returned to France full of remorse for this desertion of his faith and of bitterness against the pope and his opponents. Eusebius Bruno was withdrawing from him. Rome, was disposed to give him a chance, he was still firm in his convictions, in about 1069 he published a treatise in which he gave vent to his resentment against Pope Nicholas II and his antagonists in the Roman council. Lanfranc answered it, Berengar rejoined. Bishop Hugo of Langres wrote a treatise, De corpore et sanguine Christi, against Berengar; the eponymous
Collegiate Church of St. Bartholomew
The Collegiate Church of St. Bartholomew is an historical building in Liège, Belgium. Founded outside the city walls, it was built in coal sandstone, starting in the late 11th century and lasting until the late 12th century, it underwent, like most ancient religious buildings, modifications through the centuries. The Meuse Romanesque—Ottonian architecture character of its architecture remained rooted; the 18th century saw the addition of two more aisles, the opening of a neoclassical portal in the walls of the westwork, the French Baroque redecoration of the interior. The interior of the western section has been restored back to the original style; the Collegiate Church of St. Bartholomew was one of the original seven collegiate churches of Liège, which included the Churches of St. Peter, St. Paul, St. John, St. Denis, St. Martin, the Holy Cross, until the Liège Revolution of 1789 collectively comprised the "secondary clergy" in the First Estate of the Prince-bishopric of Liège. In 2006, the church emerged from heavy restoration work lasting seven years and involving 10,000 replaced stones and the restoration of the polychromy of the walls).
The church contains numerous works of art, among which may be mentioned The Glorification of the Holy Cross, a tableau of the local painter Bertholet Flemalle. St. Bartholomew is the site of one of the most known examples of ecclesiastical Mosan art, a baptismal font attributed to the goldsmith Renier de Huy, it was commissioned at the beginning of the 12th century by the Abbot Hellin for the Church of Notre-Dame-aux-Fonts, now destroyed, where local baptisms traditionally were administered. The font was installed in St. Bartholomew Church in 1804, after having been spared from the occupying forces of the French Revolutionary Army; this work heralds a resurgence of Greek influences on Western art. The brass tank, resting on ten ox figures, presents five scenes: the Baptism of Jesus in the Jordan, the preaching of St. John the Baptist, the baptism of the catechumens, the baptism of the Centurion Cornelius, the baptism of the philosopher Craton
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012