Hip-hop theater is a form of theater that presents contemporary stories through the use of one or more of the four elements of hip-hop culture—b-boying, graffiti writing, MCing, and DJing. Other cultural markers of such as spoken word, beatboxing. What is most important is the language of the theatrical piece, hip-hop theater productions appear in a wide range of platforms including single performances, week-long festivals, and traveling repertory companies. Marc Bamuthi Joseph is a spoken word poet and dancer who has been commissioned several times to create. British choreographer Jonzi D is the director of the London-based Breakin Convention. Rennie Harris, Mourad Merzouki, and Victor Quijada are artistic directors who run hip-hop theater companies in the U. S. France, the Rock Steady Crew, Magnificent Force, and the Rhythm Technicians pioneered this theatrical genre which started in the United States. Though hip-hop culture has managed to establish itself on film, on television, in fashion, in music, stage productions are few in number but growing.
The first hip-hop stage shows were 1990s off Broadway musical So, what Happens Now. and 1995s Jam on the Groove which were co-authored, co-directed, and co-choreographed by Jorge Popmaster Fabel Pabon and Steffan Mr. Wiggles Clemente. Rock Steady Crew, Magnificent Force, and the Rhythm Technicians performed in both shows, aside from the pioneers in New York City was Lorenzo Rennie Harris Puremovement hip-hop theater company which Harris founded in 1992 in Philadelphia. The company has toured all over the world showcasing its original works such as March of the Antmen, P-Funk, Endangered Species, Facing Mekka, Other hip-hop theater companies were founded in the 1990s. Compagnie Käfig is a French hip-hop theater company of mostly Algerian descent founded in 1995 by Mourad Merzouki and their performances mix standard b-boying and popping with capoeira and gymnastics. They use the fusion in music by mixing rap music with classical music. While on tour in the U. S. they performed at Jacobs Pillow in Massachusetts, Bintou Dembélé, whom is recognized as one of the pioneer in French hip hop, performed at the Joyce Theater in New York with Mourad Merzoukis danse compagnie Käfig in 2002.
In 2002, she created her own dance compagnie, which she describes as being inspired by Pina Bauschs notion of danced theater. In 2014, she created a show untitled Z. H which, by raising and exploring the issue of human zoos questions French racism. More broadly, Bintou Dembélés dance aims to unsettle her audience and interrogate its relation to the Other, to the different, to the other, to relativity and time. The Groovaloos are a hip-hop theater company based in Los Angeles that was founded by Bradley Shooz Rapier and they started out in 1999 as a dance crew and eventually developed a stage show called Groovaloo that is a series of stories based on the true life experiences of the dancers. Company members include Edmundo Poe One Loayza, Rynan Kid Rainen Paguio from JabbaWockeeZ, rUBBERBANDance Group was founded in 2002 in Montreal by Los Angeles native Victor Quijada
Nerdcore is a genre of hip hop music characterized by themes and subject matter considered to be of general interest to nerds. Self-described nerdcore musician MC Frontalot has the earliest known recorded use of the term in the 2000 song Nerdcore Hiphop, like most nerdcore artists, self-publishes his work and has released much of it for free online. As a niche genre, nerdcore generally holds to the DIY ethic, Music with similar themes, but different musical styles can be found in the filk genres. There are hip hop artists who have recorded compositions which focus on similar topics, one does not need to concentrate on those topics to be nerdcore, most of the songs by Frontalot do not focus narrowly on stereotypically nerdy topics. The difference is one of self-identification, the group Blackalicious does not identify as nerds. Being more defined by lyrics, nerdcore has no unifying musical sound, one common theme, especially in the early days of the genre, is uncleared sampling. MC Frontalot addressed this directly in his 1999 song Good Old Clyde, sources for samples in nerdcore range from Vanilla Ice to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
YTCrackers Nerdrap Entertainment System is an album made up primarily of samples from 8-bit Nintendo games. Another notable artist, created a dedicated to the Mega Man video games in 2007 titled MegaRan. Several DJs have provided beats and done remixes for multiple artists, most notably Baddd Spellah. Spellah won a competition in 2004. The earliest known recorded use of the term hip hop was in 2000 by MC Frontalot. Nerdcore had clear influences from geek culture as well, including geek rockers like They Might Be Giants, parodists like Weird Al Yankovic, and others. Despite these influences, nerdcore has separated itself from other types of nerdy music thanks to an unofficial list of criteria that has evolved among fans, aside from making hip hop about geeky things, nerdcore is considered to be an opt-in genre. Only artists who consider themselves to be nerdcore should have the attached to their music. In the summer of 2004 the fledgling genre took a step forward when the popular web comic Penny Arcade held its first convention, The Penny Arcade Expo, in Bellevue.
Though the expo was primarily devoted to video and table top gaming, geek-friendly musicians performed including Penny Arcades official rapper MC Frontalot, the next year, two full concerts took place at the 2005 Penny Arcade Expo and included nerdy hip hop acts MC Frontalot and Optimus Rhyme. After the 2005 expo, all three acts would have the nerdcore label permanently affixed to them, thanks to the popularity of these acts, the nerdcore fan base began to form and in some cases those fans would go on to become nerdcore artists themselves
Hip hop fashion
Each city contributed various elements to its overall style seen worldwide today. Hip hop fashion complements the expressions and attitudes of hip hop culture in general, Hip hop fashion has changed significantly during its history, and today, it is a prominent part of popular fashion as a whole across the world and for all ethnicities. In the late 1970s, established sportswear and fashion brands, such as Le Coq Sportif, Kangol and Pro-Keds attached themselves to the emerging hip hop scene. During the 1980s, hip-hop icons wore clothing items such as brightly colored name-brand tracksuits and leather jackets, Clarks shoes. Popular haircuts ranged from the early-1980s Jheri curl to the early-1990s hi-top fade popularized by Will Smith and Christopher Kid Reid of Kid n Play, popular accessories included large eyeglasses, Kangol bucket hats, name belts, and multiple rings. Heavy gold jewelry was popular in the 1980s, heavy jewelry in general would become an enduring element of hip hop fashion. In general, mens jewelry focused on gold chains and womens jewelry on large gold earrings.
The heavy jewelry was suggestive of prestige and wealth, and some have connected the style to Africanism, the famous rapper, Jay Z echoed the same words O’Neal talks about. It is not necessarily because of consumption that the hip-hop lifestyle brought in these high end fashion products. In addition, the Preppy looks caught onto 80s youth in the first wave of hip-hop influence, the immense popularity of the brand, Tommy Hilfiger among the hip-hop subculture community led to the global expansion of the brand. Hip-hop has adopted and transformed traditional or “old world” luxury symbols and made them modern-day, rapper LL Cool J wore a Kangol hat back in the 1980s, when few Americans knew anything about the European hat maker—but its association with hip-hop would invigorate the brand. In 2003, London-based Kangol even acknowledged the popularity given its sixty-year-old brand by a young LL Cool J in 1983, black nationalism was increasingly influential in rap during the late 1980s, and fashions and hairstyles reflected traditional African influences.
Blousy pants were popular among dance-oriented rappers like M. C, in the early 1990s, pop rappers such as The Fresh Prince, Kid n Play, and Left Eye of TLC popularized baseball caps and bright, often neon-colored, clothing. TLC and late R&B singer Aaliyah created a trend among women. Wearing over-sized pants and big flannel shirts, they would couple the over-sized clothing with a shirt usually a sports bra underneath their big shirts. This was to show their own version of femininity, everything does not have to be form fitting, kris Kross established the fad of wearing clothes backwards. Kwamé sparked the trend of polka-dot clothing as well, while others continued wearing their mid-1980s attire. Gangsta rap pioneers N. W. A popularized a form of street Gangsta style in the late 1980s from the African American Gangs
Hip hop music
It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements, MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, and graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, while often used to refer solely to rapping, hip hop more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. Hip hops early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. The Sugarhill Gangs 1979 song Rappers Delight is widely regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles, prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was largely confined within the United States.
However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to scenes in dozens of countries. New school hip hop was the wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. The Golden age hip hop period was a period between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, and A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that often focuses on the violent lifestyles, in the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s. I. G. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap, at the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being Neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a pop music genre in the mid-1990s. The popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop, the United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely wane, during the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. Creation of the hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, and DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was known as disco rap. Cowboy worked the hip hop cadence into a part of his stage performance, the first use of the term in print was in The Village Voice, by Steven Hager, author of a 1984 history of hip hop
B-boying or breaking, called breakdancing, is a style of street dance that originated primarily among Puerto Rican and African American youths during the mid-1970s in the Bronx. The dance spread worldwide due to popularity in the media, especially in such as Canada, Germany, Russia, South Korea. While diverse in the amount of variation available in the dance, b-boying consists of four kinds of movement, downrock, power moves, and freezes. B-boying is typically danced to hip-hop, funk music, and especially breakbeats, although modern trends allow for much wider varieties of music along certain ranges of tempo, a practitioner of this dance is called a b-boy, b-girl, or breaker. Although the term breakdance is frequently used to refer to the dance in culture and in the mainstream entertainment industry. These terms are preferred by the majority of the pioneers and most notable practitioners, instead of the term b-boying, the mainstream media promoted the artform as breakdancing, causing many to only know it as such.
Enthusiasts consider breakdancing an ignorant and derogatory term due to the exploitation of the artform. The media displayed a simplified version of the dance, making it seem like the so-called “tricks” were everything, ultimately trading the culture for money and promotion. The dance itself is properly called breaking according to such as KRS-One, Talib Kweli, Mos Def. The terms b-boy, b-girl, and breaker are the terms used to describe the dancers who performed to DJ Kool Hercs breakbeats. DJ Kool Herc is a Jamaican-American DJ who is responsible for developing the foundational aspects of hip-hop music, the obvious connection of the term breaking is to the word breakbeat. DJ Kool Herc has commented that the term breaking was 1970s slang for getting excited, most breaking pioneers and practitioners prefer the terms b-boy, b-girl, and/or breaker when referring to these dancers. For those immersed in culture, the term breakdancer may be used to disparage those who learn the dance for personal gain rather than for commitment to the culture.
B-boy London of the New York City Breakers and filmmaker Michael Holman refer to these dancers as breakers, frosty Freeze of the Rock Steady Crew says, we were known as b-boys, and hip-hop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa says, b-boys, what you call break boys. Or b-girls, what you call break girls, many elements of b-boying can be seen in other antecedent cultures prior to the 1970s. B-boy pioneers Richard Crazy Legs Colon and Kenneth Ken Swift Gabbert, many of b-boyings acrobatic moves, such as the flare, show clear connections to gymnastics. The engraving shows a man apparently B-boying. The dance was called the Giesse Harad Polska or salmon district dance, a young street dancer performing acrobatic headspins was recorded by Thomas Edison in 1898
Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.3 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earths total surface area and 20.4 % of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the human population. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos and it contains 54 fully recognized sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Africas population is the youngest amongst all the continents, the age in 2012 was 19.7. Algeria is Africas largest country by area, and Nigeria by population, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago. Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas, it is the continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa, Africa varies greatly with regard to environments, historical ties and government systems.
However, most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization in the 20th century, afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of Africa, which in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean. This name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe. The name is connected with Hebrew or Phoenician ʿafar dust. The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa Proconsularis, which included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land, the Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya, modern-day Tunisia, preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while Asia was used to refer to Anatolia, as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge. 25,4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya, isidore of Seville in Etymologiae XIV.5.2.
Suggests Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning sunny, massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning to turn toward the opening of the Ka. The Ka is the double of every person and the opening of the Ka refers to a womb or birthplace
The mixer is plugged into a PA system for live events and/or broadcasting equipment (if the DJ is performing on radio, TV or Internet radio, so that a wider audience can hear the turntablists music. Turntablists typically use two or more turntables and headphones to cue up desired start points on different records, the word turntablist was originated by Luis DJ Disk Quintanilla. The new term coincided with the resurgence of hip-hop DJing in the 1990s, some turntablists use turntable techniques like beat mixing/matching and beat juggling. Some turntablists seek to have recognized as traditional musicians capable of interacting and improvising with other performers. The use of the turntable as an instrument has its roots dating back to the 1930s, 1940s. Experimental composers used them to sample and create music that was produced by the turntable. Cages Imaginary Landscape No.1 is composed for two variable speed turntables, frequency recordings, muted piano and cymbal, edgard Varèse experimented with turntables even earlier in 1930, though he never formally produced any works using them.
Examples of turntable effects can be found on popular records produced in the 1960s and 1970s, creedence Clearwater Revivals 1968 self-titled debut album features a backspin effect in the song Walk on the Water. However, turntablism as it is known today did not surface until the development of hip hop in the late 1970s, Turntablism as a modern art form and musical practice has its roots within African-American inner city hip hop and hip hop culture of the late 1970s. Kool DJ Herc, Afrika Bambaataa and Grandmaster Flash are widely credited for having cemented the now established role of DJ as hip hops foremost instrumentalist. Kool Hercs invention of break-beat DJing is generally regarded as the development in hip hop history. His influence on the concept of DJ as turntablist is equally profound, to understand the significance of this achievement, it is important to first define the break. Briefly, the break of a song is a musical fragment only seconds in length, Kool Herc introduced the break-beat technique as a way of extending the break indefinitely.
This is done by buying two of the record, finding the break on each record, and switching from one to the other using the DJ mixer. Using that idea, Grandmaster Flash elaborated on Kool Hercs invention of break-beat DJing and came up with the quick-mix theory and he described it as being. like cutting, the backspin, and the double-back. Kool Hercs revolutionary techniques set the course for the development of turntablism as an art form in significant ways, most important, however, he developed a new form of DJing that did not consist of just playing and mixing records one after the other. The type of DJ that specializes in mixing a set is well respected for his/her own set of unique skills, the DJ would be examined critically by the crowd on both a technical and entertainment level. Grand Wizzard Theodore, an apprentice of Flash, who isolated the most recognizable technique of turntablism, [ Eshun
Pop-rap is a genre of music fusing the rhythm-based lyricism of hip hop music with pop musics preference for melodious vocals and catchy tunes, which gained mainstream popularity during the 1990s. The lyrics are often lighthearted, with similar to those heard in pop music. The influences and roots of pop rap trace back to late 1980s hip hop artists, such as Run DMC, LL Cool J, many pop singers will often feature hip-hop artists now. In the 1980s, rap artists including Run DMC, Beastie Boys and LL Cool J set up the blueprints, LL Cool J has been described as the very first pop-rapper in history, when he rose to prominence on his 1985 debut album Radio. When he joined Russell Simmons Def Jam label and decided to try merging rap with pop and R&B influences, MTV has described LL Cool Js 1987 single I Need Love, as one of the first pop-rap crossover hits. Later, rap artists such as Tone Loc, Young MC, during the 1990s, pop rap began to expand even more as hip hop music began to connect strongly with dance music and R&B.
On 9 July 1990, Céline Dion released Unison as the single for her first English-language album of the same name. The track was produced by Andy Goldmark, for the single release, Unison was remixed by Kevin Unger. and make it funky. In the early 1990s, MC Hammer and Vanilla Ice broke into the mainstream with songs like U Cant Touch This, during the 1990s, smash-hit rappers such as MC Hammer caused pop-rap to be derided for its willingness to borrow from well-known hit singles. By the end of the 1990s as rappers fused gangsta rap themes with 1980s pop and soul elements, mariah Carey did a collaboration in 1995 with ODB with the remix version of Fantasy. During the early 2000s, pop-rap returned with a different style. It went back into the mainstream with the success of The Black Eyed Peas who had smash singles such as Where Is the Love, which came off their Elephunk album.2 million in the United States alone. During the late 2000s, pop-rap had many such as Drake, Will. i. am, Nicki Minaj. For instance, Drakes Take Care album went at the top of the Top 40.
Also, his So Far Gone EP peaked at six on the Billboard 200 chart with 73,000 units sold. It dropped in the second week down to nine, with sales of 36,000. Despite being an EP, it became the fifth-best-selling rap record of 2009, as of February 2012, the EP has sold 639,000 copies in the US. The EP was certified gold by the RIAA on July 4,2010 for sales exceeding 500,000, Drakes single Im Goin In charted and peaked at number 40 the week after the EP was sold
Midwest hip hop
Midwest hip-hop is hip-hop music performed by artists from the Midwestern United States. In contrast with its East Coast, West Coast and Southern counterparts and its first dose of national popularity came in the mid-90s with the extremely fast-paced rappers known as Choppers, such as Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, Tech N9ne, and Eminem. Other notable midwest rappers and producers include, Brother Ali, Lupe Fiasco, Royce Da 59, J Dilla, Mac Lethal, Obie Trice, and up and comers Freddie Gibbs and Manny Phesto. It is because these lack of constants between acts from different cities that it can be difficult to define a typical Midwest sound. One characteristic of Midwest hip hop is that beat tempos can range from 90 to about 180, while East Coasts beat tempo is 90–120, West Coast is 100–120, slum Village emerged from the hip hop scene in Detroit in the mid-1990s. Their first album, Vol.1 came out in 1996, the producer was J Dilla, who produced for notable hip-hop acts from around the country, including The Pharcyde, and A Tribe Called Quest.
He would become one of the most sought-after producers in hip-hop, Blade Icewood gained respect as one of Detroits premier rappers, but was gunned down and murdered in 2005, after his first shooting which left him paralyzed from his chest down. He had a beef for some time with the Eastside Chedda Boyz, there was a dispute over the name Chedda Boyz because Blade Icewood claimed that name originated on the west side of the city. A popular place for rap battles in Detroit is the Hip Hop Shop, in the mid-1990s, Eminem gained notoriety in Detroit as a battle rapper, and released an album during the early stages of his underground career. Infinite was sold out of the trunk of his car and it struggled to sell or create a buzz despite his success in the battling scene. Angry but determined, Eminem developed his style and recorded The Slim Shady EP, released in 1997. When Em traveled to Los Angeles to compete in the 1997 Rap Olympics, he placed in 2nd, and his EP got into the hands of Dr. Dre, who immediately wanted to sign him.
He signed to Dr. Dres Aftermath Entertainment, and in 1999 he released his debut album The Slim Shady LP. His second album, The Marshall Mathers LP, became the fastest selling hip hop album in history, MC Breed, from Flint, is most known for his songs Aint No Future in Yo Frontin and Gotta Get Mine featuring Tupac Shakur. He was on support for two days in September 2008 after he collapsed during a game of pick-up basketball due to kidney failure. It is unclear if prior health complications were the cause of his death that year, another rapper from Flint, Jon Connor, is quickly climbing the rap ladder, has been featured in The Source, and has collaborated with many big names in the rap industry. Rapper Proof was part of the Detroit-founded rap group D12, despite his success with D12, he released two solo albums, Searching for Jerry Garcia and I Miss The Hip Hop Shop. On April 11,2006, he was shot to death in a gunfight at a Detroit nightclub
Beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion primarily involving the art of mimicking drum machines using ones mouth, lips and voice. It may involve vocal imitation of turntablism, and other musical instruments, beatboxing today is connected with hip-hop culture, often referred to as the fifth element of hip-hop, although it is not limited to hip-hop music. The term beatboxing is sometimes used to refer to vocal percussion in general, examples include the Appalachian technique of eefing and the blues song Bye bye bird by Sonny Boy Williamson II. Many well-known performers used vocal percussion occasionally, even though this was not directly connected to the tradition that came to be known as beatboxing. Paul McCartneys That Would Be Something includes vocal percussion, pink Floyds Pow R. Toc H. includes vocal percussion performed by the groups lead vocalist Syd Barrett. Jazz singers Bobby Mcferrin and Al Jarreau were very known for their vocal styles and techniques which have had great impact on techniques beatboxers use today.
The term beatboxing is derived from the mimicry of the first generation of drum machines, Human beatboxing in hip-hop originated in the 1980s. Its early pioneers include Doug E. Wise inspired a new fan base of human beatboxers with his human turntable technique. The Internet has played a part in the popularity of modern beatboxing. Alex Tew started the first online community of beatboxers in 2000 under the banner of HUMANBEATBOX. COM, in 2001, Gavin Tyte, a member of this community created the worlds first tutorials and video tutorials on beatboxing. In 2003, the community held the worlds first Human Beatbox Convention in London featuring beatbox artists from all over the world, beatboxings current popularity is due in part to releases from artists such as Rahzel, RoxorLoops, Reeps One, and Alem. Sometimes, modern beatboxers will use their hand or another part of their body to extend the spectrum of sound effects and rhythm. Some have developed a technique that involves blowing and sucking air around their fingers to produce a realistic record scratching noise.
Another hand technique includes the throat tap which involves the beatboxer tapping their fingers against their throat as they sing or hum. Today there is an increase in the variety in which we see beatboxing throughout musical culture, people have gone as far as adding beatboxing in with different instruments to create a completely different sound unlike any other. Artist Greg Patillo goes as far as adding in beatboxing while playing the flute to very iconic songs, Beatbox has become modernized and has even been seen in popular movies such as Pitch Perfect and Pitch Perfect 2. Beatbox Battle Network was founded in summer 2002 in Berlin, Germany as a non profit organization with the focus to support the global beatboxing community. It is specialized on culture marketing, live broadcasting and artist management, bBB3TV known as Beatbox Battle Television produces the Beatbox Beatbox World Championship