The French Open, often referred to as Roland Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland Garros in Paris, France. Roland Garros is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen. Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros, in 1891 the Championnat de France, which is commonly referred to in English as the French Championships, was begun. It was only open to players who were members of French clubs. The first winner was a Briton—H, the first womens singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the doubles in 1907. This French club members only tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period, Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, the Racing Club de France, played on clay.
For one year,1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors. Winners of this tournament included world no, 1s such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games, in 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF. It was held at the Stade Français in Saint-Cloud in 1925 and 1927, in 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French club members only Championship, on clay. In 1928, the Roland Garros stadium was opened and the event has held there ever since. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros.
The new Stade de Roland Garros, and its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge, during World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. From 1946 through 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, in 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented, the Prix Orange, the Prix Citron, in another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place
He won three Olympic medals at the 1900 Summer Olympics and the 1920 Summer Olympics, his only gold medal coming in the mixed doubles partnering French legend Suzanne Lenglen. The origin of the family name Décugis, spelled with accented é in an 1842 source, is from Cuges-les-Pins, in 1905 he married Marie Flameng, the daughter of painter François Flameng, in Paris. After the death of Marie in 1969, Max married Suzanne Louise Duval in October, Max Decugis won the French Championships in 1903,1904,1907,1908,1909,1912,1913, and 1914. The interruption of World War I denied Décugis the opportunity to defend his 1914 title, Décugis was a four-time runner-up, having lost the final in 1902,1906,1920, and 1923. He won the International German Championship in 1901 and 1902 and he won the mixed doubles title at the WHCC on four occasions and at the WCCC on two. He was ranked World No.6 for 1910 by Karoly Mazak, list of French Mens Singles champions and finalists Max Decugis at the Davis Cup Max Decugis at the International Tennis Federation
Tennis at the Summer Olympics
After two appearances as a demonstration sport in 1968 and 1984, it returned as a full medal sport at the 1988 Summer Olympics and has been played at every edition of the Games since then. In 1896,1900,1904,1988, and 1992, in all other years, a playoff match for the bronze medal was staged. A player who wins an Olympic gold medal and all four Grand Slam events is said to have won a Golden Slam, the playing surface of the court varies between Olympic Games. It has been on court for every game since 1984 except for the 1992 Olympics. The changing playing surface gives certain players different advantages and disadvantages not seen in most other Olympic sports, = demonstration event List of Olympic venues in tennis Tennis at the Mediterranean Games Tennis at the Pan American Games List of Olympic medalists in tennis Olympic Tennis Event website
Lieutenant colonel (United Kingdom)
See Lieutenant colonel for other countries which use this rank Lieutenant colonel, is a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines which is used in many Commonwealth countries. The rank is superior to major, and subordinate to colonel, the comparable Royal Navy rank is commander, and the comparable rank in the Royal Air Force and many Commonwealth air forces is Wing Commander. The rank insignia in the British Army and Royal Marines, as well as many Commonwealth countries, is a crown above a 4 pointed Bath star, the crown has varied in the past with different monarchs, the current one being the Crown of St Edward. Most other Commonwealth countries use the insignia, or with the state emblem replacing the crown. In the modern British Armed forces, the commander of a regiment or battalion is a lieutenant colonel. From 1 April 1918 to 31 July 1919, the Royal Air Force maintained the rank of lieutenant colonel and it was superseded by the rank of wing commander on the following day
The Australian Open is a major tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January in Melbourne, Australia. First held in 1905, the tournament is chronologically the first of the four Grand Slam tennis events of the year – the other three being the French Open and the US Open. It features mens and womens singles, mens and mixed doubles and juniors championships, as well as wheelchair, the Australian Open typically has high attendances and occasionally exceeding the US Open. The tournament holds the record for the highest attendance at a Grand Slam event, the Australian Open is managed by Tennis Australia, formerly the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia, and was first played at the Warehousemans Cricket Ground in Melbourne in November 1905. This facility is now known as the Albert Reserve Tennis Centre, the tournament was first known as the Australasian Championships and became the Australian Championships in 1927 and the Australian Open in 1969. Since 1905, the Australian Open has been staged in five Australian and two New Zealand cities, Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Hastings.
Though started in 1905, the tournament was not designated as being a championship until 1924. The tournament committee changed the structure of the tournament to include seeding at that time, in 1972, it was decided to stage the tournament in Melbourne each year because it attracted the biggest patronage of any Australian city. The tournament was played at the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club from 1972 until the move to the new Melbourne Park complex in 1988, the new facilities at Melbourne Park were envisaged to meet the demands of a tournament that had outgrown Kooyongs capacity. The move to Melbourne Park was an success, with a 90 percent increase in attendance in 1988 on the previous year at Kooyong. Because of Australias geographic remoteness, very few foreign players entered this tournament in the early 20th century, in the 1920s, the trip by ship from Europe to Australia took about 45 days. The first tennis players who came by boats were the US Davis Cup players in November 1946, even inside the country, many players could not travel easily.
When the tournament was held in Perth, no one from Victoria or New South Wales crossed by train, in Christchurch in 1906, of a small field of 10 players, only two Australians attended and the tournament was won by a New Zealander. The first tournaments of the Australasian Championships suffered from the competition of the other Australasian tournaments, before 1905, all Australian states and New Zealand had their own championships, the first organised in 1880 in Melbourne and called the Championship of the Colony of Victoria. In those years, the best two players – Australian Norman Brookes and New Zealander Anthony Wilding – almost did not play this tournament, Brookes came once and won in 1911, and Wilding entered and won the competition twice. Their meetings in the Victorian Championships helped to determine the best Australasian players, even when the Australasian Championships were held in Hastings, New Zealand, in 1912, though three times Wimbledon champion, did not come back to his home country.
It was a problem for all players of the era. Brookes went to Europe only three times, where he reached the Wimbledon Challenge Round once and won Wimbledon twice
It was an ancient stannary town, an important trading centre in the past for locally mined tin, and a former seaport. Plympton still has its own centre, and is itself an amalgamation of several villages, including St Marys, St Maurice, Woodford, Langage. Although the name of the town appears to be derived from its location on the River Plym, as J. Brooking Rowe pointed out in 1906, the town is not and never was sited on the river. So Plympton would have the meaning Plum-tree farm, Cornish derivations give ploumenn meaning plum and plom meaning lead - possibly related to Latin plombum album or tin. The local civic association, suggests a derivation from the Celtic Pen-lyn-dun. By the early 13th century, the River Plym was named from a back-formation from this name and nearby Plymstock. This led to the naming of the port created at the rivers mouth when the river estuary silted up too much for the monks to sail up river to Plympton any longer. Near Plympton is the Iron Age hill fort of Boringdon Camp, Plympton is listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as follows, ”The King holds Plympton. TRE it paid geld for two and a half hides, there is land for 20 ploughs.
In demesne are two ploughs and six slaves and 5 villans and 12 bordars with 12 ploughs, there are 6 acres of meadow and 20 acres of pasture, woodland one league long and a half broad. It renders £13 10s by weight, beside this land the canons of the same manor hold 2 hides. There is land for 6 ploughs, there 12 v have 4 ploughs. Note, Domesday book measurements are informed best guess only and this is due to the outdated measurements not being truly translatable to those in modern use. They are, as stated in the source, a rather than original. Plympton was the site of an important priory founded by William Warelwast in the early 12th century, the members were Augustinian canons and the priory soon became the second richest monastic house in Devon. The gatehouse of the priory is still in existence, in 1872 it was recorded that the gatehouse and refectory were still in good condition. Richard de Redvers was granted the barony of Plympton, with caput at Plympton Castle, by King Henry I. His family became Earls of Devon and their lands, including Plympton, and titles were inherited by the Courtenay family, feudal barons of Okehampton
Queen's Club Championships
The Queens Club Championships is an annual tournament for male tennis players, held on grass courts at the Queens Club in West Kensington, London. The event is part of the ATP World Tour 500 series on the Association of Tennis Professionals Tour and it is currently promoted as the Aegon Championships for sponsorship reasons. For many years previously it was known as the Stella Artois Championships, Queens is one of the most prestigious grass court tournaments, as well as one of the oldest Tennis tournaments in the world, and serves as a warm-up for Wimbledon. Andy Roddick and Lleyton Hewitt dominated the tournament in the early 21st century, Andy Murray won a record five titles between 2009 and 2016. Andy Roddick has called the courts at the Queens Club arguably the best in the world, originally known as the London Grass Court Championships, the tournament traces back to 1884 when a tennis tournament was held at the London Athletic Club at Stamford Bridge, Fulham. One year the tournament was given the title of the London Championships, in 1890, the tournament moved to its current location, the Queens Club and consisted of a mens and womens singles event.
In 1903 a mens event was added followed in 1905 by the mixed doubles competition. In 1915 the addition of a doubles event completed the programme. The two World Wars interrupted the tournament from 1915–1918 and 1940–1946, between 1970 and 1989 the Championships were part of the Grand Prix tennis circuit. The womens tournament was discontinued after the 1973 edition and from 1974 until 1976 no mens tournament was held, the event is currently an ATP World Tour 500 series tournament on the Association of Tennis Professionals Tour and was upgraded from a ATP World Tour 250 series in 2015. Andy Murray won the title for a record fifth time. Seven men have won four titles, Major Ritchie, Anthony Wilding, Roy Emerson, John McEnroe, Boris Becker, Lleyton Hewitt. The Queens Club Championships are held every year in June and they start one week after the clay-court French Open and conclude one week before the start of the grass court Wimbledon Championships, which are held just 4 miles away. The equivalent warm-up event for women is the Eastbourne International, although this is one week later.
Up to 2014, the break between the French Open and Wimbledon was just two weeks, and the Queens Club Championships started the day after the French Opens mens final and this changed when Wimbledon moved back a week to expand the length of the grass court season. Grass courts are the least common playing surface for top-level events on the ATP World Tour, the 2009 schedule included only four grass court tournaments in the run-up to Wimbledon. They were the Queens Club Championships, Gerry Weber Open, Eastbourne International, an additional tournament is played on grass in Newport, Rhode Island, USA, in the week immediately after Wimbledon. Queens enjoys full coverage on the BBC in the UK, via BBC television, BBC Radio 5 Live and it was shown in High Definition for the first time in 2009
James Cecil Parke
James Cecil Parke was an Irish rugby player, tennis player and Olympic medallist. Parke was born in Clones, County Monaghan, Ireland and he played rugby with both Monkstown and Dublin University and between 1901 and 1908 played ten times for Leinster. Between 1903 and 1909, he won twenty Ireland caps, as a tennis player he won the Wimbledon Mixed Doubles title in 1912 and 1914. He won the Australian Mens singles and doubles titles in 1912. He was Singles Champion of Europe in 1907 and played for Britain in the Davis Cup, in 1908 he won an Olympic Silver medal in Mens Doubles. He won eight Irish Lawn Tennis Singles titles, four doubles, Parke was ranked World No.3 for 1912 by Karoly Mazak, and in both 1913 and 1920 he was ranked World No.4 by A. Wallis Myers of The Daily Telegraph. He won the depleted Australasian Championships in 1912 and he played golf for Ireland in 1906 and was a top-class track and field sprinter and a cricketer. He played chess for the Clones team when he was nine years old, frank Stoker James Cecil Parke at the Association of Tennis Professionals James Cecil Parke at the International Tennis Federation James Cecil Parke at the Davis Cup
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
R. Norris Williams
Richard Dick Norris Williams II, generally known as R. Norris Williams, was an American tennis player and RMS Titanic survivor. Williams was born in Geneva, the son of Philadelphia parents Charles Duane Williams, a descendant from Benjamin Franklin. He was tutored privately at a Swiss boarding school and spoke fluent French and he started playing tennis at age 12, mainly under the guidance of his father. In 1911 Williams won the Swiss Championship, a year he entered Harvard and became the intercollegiate tennis champion in singles and doubles. He is best known for his two singles titles at the U. S. He was on the victorious American Davis Cup team twice and he had a reputation in singles of always hitting as hard as possible and always trying to hit winners near the lines. This made him an extremely erratic player, but when his game was sporadically on, Williams was ranked World No.2 for 1916 by Karoly Mazak, and World No.4 in 1923 by A. Wallis Myers of The Daily Telegraph. During the 1924 Olympics, at the age of 33, Richard Norris Williams became a Gold Medalist in the mixed doubles and he went on to captain several winning Davis Cup teams from 1921 through 1926 as well as the 1934 team.
At age 44 he retired from Championship Tennis and he was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1957. Williams gained fame as being a survivor of the RMS Titanic disaster in April 1912 and he and his father, Charles Duane Williams, were traveling first class on the liner when it struck an iceberg and sank. Shortly after the collision, Williams freed a trapped passenger from a cabin by breaking down a door and he was reprimanded by a steward, who threatened to fine him for damaging White Star Line property, an event that inspired a scene in James Camerons film Titanic. Williams remained on the doomed liner almost until the very end, at one point Williams father tried to get a steward to fill his flask. The flask was given to Williams and remains in the Williams family, when Williams entered the water he was wearing a fur coat which he quickly discarded along with his shoes. Those in Collapsible A who survived were transferred to Lifeboat 14 by Fifth Officer Lowe, although abandoned by the Carpathia, Collapsible A was recovered a month later.
Amazingly, on board the lifeboat was the fur coat which was returned to Williams by White Star. Even after entering the lifeboat he spent several hours knee-deep in freezing water, RMS Carpathia arrived on the scene to rescue survivors. The ordeal left his legs so severely frostbitten that the Carpathias doctor wanted to amputate them. Williams, who did not want his tennis career to be cut short, opted instead to work through the injury by simply getting up, the choice worked out well for him, that year, he won his first U. S